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NEBRASKA CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD SPREADING SLOWLY 2011 REPORT GAME FARM RANCH UPDATE

Posted Apr 24 2012 10:51am
NEBRASKA CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD SPREADING SLOWLY 2011 REPORT



PLEASE NOTE THE SAMPLES TAKEN (or lack of) from 2011 to 2010, and then compare CWD positives.


IN 2010, there were 3,660 deer tested for chronic wasting disease, with 52 testing positive.


NOW in 2011, there were 1,565 lymph node samples collected from deer taken during the November rifle deer season, with 26 samples testing positive for CWD.


seems lack of funding for CWD and other TSE prion disease are helping fuel the spread of this deadly agent. ...


Chronic Wasting Disease Spreading Slowly


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer appeared for the first time in Buffalo, Custer and Holt counties. There were 1,565 lymph node samples collected from deer taken during the November rifle deer season, with 26 samples testing positive for CWD. Samples also were taken from 37 culled deer that showed clinical symptoms for CWD, with one male mule deer from Garden County testing positive. The sampling focused on central Nebraska, the leading edge of the disease as it spreads from west to east.









Deer Disease Surveillance Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) – There was 3,660 deer tested for chronic wasting disease, with 52 testing positive. The counties with the most positives were Sioux (12), Sheridan (seven) and Dawes and Garden (six each).








CWD Found in Buffalo, Custer, Holt Counties


January 3, 2012


LINCOLN, Neb. – Chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer has appeared for the first time in Buffalo, Custer and Holt counties, according to the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission.


There were 1,565 lymph node samples collected from deer taken during the 2011 November firearm deer season, with 26 samples testing positive for CWD. In addition, samples were taken from 37 culled deer that showed clinical symptoms for CWD, with one male mule deer from Garden County testing positive. Those symptoms include a rough, emaciated appearance and a lack of fear of humans.


There were a record 51 positives from 3,645 samples in Nebraska in 2010. However, the surveillance effort was reduced in 2011 due to a lack of funds. The 2011 effort focused on central Nebraska, the leading edge of the disease as it spreads from west to east.


Game and Parks confirmed CWD in the state’s deer population in 2000. CWD is a disease that can affect deer and elk and always is fatal to the affected animal. Humans have never been known to contract CWD.








see full text ;



Wednesday, January 04, 2012



CWD NEBRASKA NGPC 26 DEER CARCASSES TESTED POSITIVE BUFFALO, CUSTER AND HOLT COUNTIES DURING NOVEMBER HUNT








Chronic wasting disease found in deer killed in central Nebraska, game officials say


LINCOLN, Neb. — The Nebraska Game and Parks Commission says chronic wasting disease has been found in three central Nebraska counties for the first time.


The commission says a total of 26 deer carcasses tested positive for the disease in Buffalo, Custer and Holt counties during the November firearm hunting season. Nearly 1,600 lymph node samples were taken. One mule deer carcass in Garden County tested positive.


In 2010, 51 positives were found in the more than 3,600 test samples.


The 2011 testing was curtailed by budget issues, so it was concentrated on central Nebraska, which the commission says is the leading edge of the disease as it spreads from west to east.


The disease affects deer and elk and is always fatal. No human cases have ever been recorded.








CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE Nebraska, like other western states, is seeing an increase in the number and distribution of deer testing positive for chronic wasting disease (CWD). In 2010, 3,645 lymph node samples were collected during the November firearm season, then tested. Fifty-one new positives were confirmed, a record high for the state. Counties with positive deer were: Sioux, 11, Sheridan, seven; Dawes and Garden, six each; Box Butte and Scotts Bluff, four each; Morrill, three; Banner and Hitchcock, two each; and Cherry, Hall, Hooker, Keith, Lincoln, and Loup, one each. CWD was found for the first time in Hitchcock, Hooker, Lincoln, and Loup counties. Also, 18 deer were tested through culling or targeted surveillance. An adult male whitetail showing clinical symptoms was collected north of Harrison in Sioux County. It tested positive for CWD. One elk from Sioux County tested positive. CWD appears to be a prion disease that attacks the central nervous system and causes fatal damage to the brain of white-tailed deer, mule deer and Rocky Mountain elk.











CWD IN NEBRASKA IS INCREASING WITH 51 POSITIVE CASES IN 2010



Posted Mar 02 2011 9:31pm Fifty-One Deer Test Positive for CWD


March 1, 2011 News


LINCOLN, Neb. – Nebraska is experiencing an increase in the number of deer testing positive for chronic wasting disease (CWD), as well as a wider distribution, according to the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. There were a record 51 positives in 2010.



CWD is a disease that can affect deer and elk and is always fatal to the affected animal. Humans have never been known to contract CWD.


There were 3,645 lymph node samples collected from deer harvested during the November firearm season. The 51 positives were the most in Nebraska in one year.


The counties with the highest number of positives were: Sioux, 11; Sheridan, 7; Dawes, 6; Garden, 6; Box Butte, 4; Scotts Bluff, 4; and Morrill, 3. There were two positives each in Banner and Hitchcock counties and one each in Hooker, Keith, Lincoln, Loup, Cherry, and Hall counties. The counties in which CWD was found for the first time are: Hitchcock, Hooker, Lincoln, and Loup.


No elk tested positive for CWD in 2010.









Wednesday, March 02, 2011



CWD IN NEBRASKA IS INCREASING WITH 51 POSITIVE CASES IN 2010








Wednesday, February 04, 2009



Nebraska reports 22 cases of CWD in deer








Tuesday, December 18, 2007



NEBRASKA CWD tested 3,400 deer, with 17 testing positive 2007














Wednesday, January 25, 2012



Nebraska Fish and Game Association Censors Singeltary from speaking about Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) again


snip...




2012


NOW, let me be perfectly clear. this time, it was the Nebraska Fish and Game Association that allowed me back on board, to post about CWD, after I had asked them to do so. what happened was, I got to speaking the truth about game farms, and CWD spreading there from, and a certain few complained, and kept complaining, they did not want anymore information (valid scientific peer review journals) that might hurt their industry. SO, I thank NFGC again for giving me a chance to try and educate hunters on CWD and the TSE prion disease. I think I supplied enough information to help educate, the ones that wanted to be educated, however, it’s the other folks I am concerned about. the ones that don’t want to be educated on this CWD, the ones that don’t want to speak about it, or learn about, and they don’t want others to either. these few folks are the ones that will help continue the spread of CWD. these folks caused the surpressing of CWD TSE prion information. to be good stewards of the woods and hunt, you cannot stick your head in the sand. these few folks did, and in doing so, they want everyone else’s head in the sand. and that’s been the problem all along. ...good luck!


so much for freedom of speech. can’t say I did not try. ... TSS


snip...











Monday, April 16, 2012



Highly Efficient Amplification of Chronic Wasting Disease Agent by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification with Beads (PMCAb)








Saturday, April 07, 2012



DETECTION OF PrPCWD IN FECES FROM NATURALLY EXPOSED ROCKY MOUNTAIN ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSONI) USING PROTEIN MISFOLDING CYCLIC AMPLIFICATION









Nebraska Chronic Wasting Disease





















CWD GAME FARMS AND RANCHES IN NEBRASKA and RISK FACTOR THERE FROM




Although the Game and Parks Commission's wildlife management areas and U.S. Forest Service pastures in the Bordeaux and Hat Creek units provide some opportunities for elk hunters, most elk taken in Nebraska are killed on private land. Obtaining private land access to hunt elk is difficult, but not impossible, and a growing number of Nebraska landowners charge fees for hunting privileges.














*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD CDC REPORT MARCH 2012 ***




Saturday, February 18, 2012


Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease


CDC Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012




SNIP...



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CWD has been identified in free-ranging cervids in 15 US states and 2 Canadian provinces and in ≈ 100 captive herds in 15 states and provinces and in South Korea (Figure 1, panel B).


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Long-term effects of CWD on cervid populations and ecosystems remain unclear as the disease continues to spread and prevalence increases. In captive herds, CWD might persist at high levels and lead to complete herd destruction in the absence of human culling. Epidemiologic modeling suggests the disease could have severe effects on free-ranging deer populations, depending on hunting policies and environmental persistence (8,9). CWD has been associated with large decreases in free-ranging mule deer populations in an area of high CWD prevalence (Boulder, Colorado, USA) (5).


SNIP...




Indirect Environmental Transmission


Environmental transmission of the CWD agent was reported in studies demonstrating that an infected deer carcass left in a pasture for 2 years could transmit the agent to immunologically naive deer (17). Exposure of naive deer to pasture previously inhabited by an infected deer also led to CWD transmission, as did cohabitation of naive and infected deer (17). Naive deer exposed to water, feed buckets, and bedding used by CWD-infected deer contracted the disease (18).


Epidemiologic modeling suggests that indirect environmental routes of CWD transmission also play a major role in transmission (8). Environmental transmission of scrapie is well documented, and scrapie prions may remain infectious after years in the environment (19,20; S.E. Saunders, unpub. data). Nevertheless, environmental transmission of scrapie may be less efficient than transmission by direct contact (19). Conversely, the relative efficiency of CWD transmission by direct contact versus indirect, environmental routes remains unclear, but evidence suggests environmental transmission may be a major mechanism (8). The proportion of transmission by direct versus indirect routes may vary not only between captive and free-ranging cervid populations, but also among cervid species and free-ranging habitats and ecosystems. Transmission dynamics may also vary over time as CWD prevalence and ecosystem residence times continue to increase (8).


If the environment serves as a reservoir of CWD infectivity, hot spots of concentrated prion infectivity could be formed at areas of communal activity where shedding occurs (Figure 3) (12). Animal mortality sites, where highly infectious CNS matter would enter the environment, could also be hot spots (21). In a study of deer carcass decomposition in Wisconsin, carcasses persisted for 18–101 days depending on the season, and were visited by deer (22). In addition, cervid carcasses are visited by numerous scavenger species, such as raccoons, opossums, coyotes, vultures, and crows, which could consume and transport CWD-infected tissue and increase CWD spread (21,22). Thus, there is the potential for CWD to spread from sites of animal deaths. Predators may also contribute to spread of the CWD agent and transmission (5), as could transport by surface water (23) or insect vectors. Natural migration and dispersion of cervids is also a likely mechanism of geographic spread of CWD (24).


Given that cervids habitually ingest considerable amounts of soil, soil has been hypothesized to play a key role in CWD transmission (Figure 3) (11,20; S.E. Saunders et al., unpub. data). Inhalation of dust-bound CWD prions may also represent a route of transmission. It is known that CWD prions can bind to a range of soils and soil minerals (25,26) and retain the ability to replicate (27). In addition, rodent prions retain or gain infectivity when bound to soil and soil minerals (20,27; S.E. Saunders et al., unpub. data). Prion fate and transmission in soil has been recently reviewed (20). Although the potential for CWD transmission by soil and soil reservoirs is considerable, this transmission remains to be directly evaluated with cervids.


CWD Zoonotic Potential, Species Barriers, and Strains


Current Understanding of the CWD Species Barrier


Strong evidence of zoonotic transmission of BSE to humans has led to concerns about zoonotic transmission of CWD (2,3). As noted above, CWD prions are present nearly ubiquitously throughout diseased hosts, including in muscle, fat, various glands and organs, antler velvet, and peripheral and CNS tissue (2,14,15). Thus, the potential for human exposure to CWD by handling and consumption of infectious cervid material is substantial and increases with increased disease prevalence.


Interspecies transmission of prion diseases often yields a species-barrier effect, in which transmission is less efficient compared with intraspecies transmission, as shown by lower attack rates and extended incubation periods (3,28). The species barrier effect is associated with minor differences in PrPc sequence and structure between the host and target species (3). Prion strain (discussed below) and route of inoculation also affect the species barrier (3,28). For instance, interspecies transmission by intracerebral inoculation is often possible but oral challenge is completely ineffective (29).


Most epidemiologic studies and experimental work have suggested that the potential for CWD transmission to humans is low, and such transmission has not been documented through ongoing surveillance (2,3). In vitro prion replication assays report a relatively low efficiency of CWD PrPSc-directed conversion of human PrPc to PrPSc (30), and transgenic mice overexpressing human PrPc are resistant to CWD infection (31); these findings indicate low zoonotic potential. However, squirrel monkeys are susceptible to CWD by intracerebral and oral inoculation (32). Cynomolgus macaques, which are evolutionarily closer to humans than squirrel monkeys, are resistant to CWD infection (32). Regardless, the finding that a primate is orally susceptible to CWD is of concern.


Interspecies transmission of CWD to noncervids has not been observed under natural conditions. CWD infection of carcass scavengers such as raccoons, opossums, and coyotes was not observed in a recent study in Wisconsin (22). In addition, natural transmission of CWD to cattle has not been observed in experimentally controlled natural exposure studies or targeted surveillance (2). However, CWD has been experimentally transmitted to cattle, sheep, goats, mink, ferrets, voles, and mice by intracerebral inoculation (2,29,33).


CWD is likely transmitted among mule, white-tailed deer, and elk without a major species barrier (1), and other members of the cervid family, including reindeer, caribou, and other species of deer worldwide, may be vulnerable to CWD infection. Black-tailed deer (a subspecies of mule deer) and European red deer (Cervus elaphus) are susceptible to CWD by natural routes of infection (1,34). Fallow deer (Dama dama) are susceptible to CWD by intracerebral inoculation (35). Continued study of CWD susceptibility in other cervids is of considerable interest.


Reasons for Caution


There are several reasons for caution with respect to zoonotic and interspecies CWD transmission. First, there is strong evidence that distinct CWD strains exist (36). Prion strains are distinguished by varied incubation periods, clinical symptoms, PrPSc conformations, and CNS PrPSc depositions (3,32). Strains have been identified in other natural prion diseases, including scrapie, BSE, and CJD (3). Intraspecies and interspecies transmission of prions from CWD-positive deer and elk isolates resulted in identification of >2 strains of CWD in rodent models (36), indicating that CWD strains likely exist in cervids. However, nothing is currently known about natural distribution and prevalence of CWD strains. Currently, host range and pathogenicity vary with prion strain (28,37). Therefore, zoonotic potential of CWD may also vary with CWD strain. In addition, diversity in host (cervid) and target (e.g., human) genotypes further complicates definitive findings of zoonotic and interspecies transmission potentials of CWD.


Intraspecies and interspecies passage of the CWD agent may also increase the risk for zoonotic CWD transmission. The CWD prion agent is undergoing serial passage naturally as the disease continues to emerge. In vitro and in vivo intraspecies transmission of the CWD agent yields PrPSc with an increased capacity to convert human PrPc to PrPSc (30). Interspecies prion transmission can alter CWD host range (38) and yield multiple novel prion strains (3,28). The potential for interspecies CWD transmission (by cohabitating mammals) will only increase as the disease spreads and CWD prions continue to be shed into the environment. This environmental passage itself may alter CWD prions or exert selective pressures on CWD strain mixtures by interactions with soil, which are known to vary with prion strain (25), or exposure to environmental or gut degradation.


Given that prion disease in humans can be difficult to diagnose and the asymptomatic incubation period can last decades, continued research, epidemiologic surveillance, and caution in handling risky material remain prudent as CWD continues to spread and the opportunity for interspecies transmission increases. Otherwise, similar to what occurred in the United Kingdom after detection of variant CJD and its subsequent link to BSE, years of prevention could be lost if zoonotic transmission of CWD is subsequently identified,


snip...see full text and more here ;




Saturday, February 18, 2012


Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease


CDC Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012















see map ;













SEE MORE HERE ;









ATTENTION, CONFUCIUS IS CONFUSED AGAIN ?? WHICH CAME FIRST DOCUMENTED CWD IN CAPTIVE OR FREE RANGING IN NEBRASKA ??





see map on CWD and compare game farm infection dates to wild infection dates, close proximity to each other, and compare from state to state. with Nebraska, which came first, the cow or the cart ??



Nebraska C = 2001



Nebraska F = 1999



see map ;










full text ;












see much more here ;












1998 Nebraska - Game farm in Cherry County, Nebraska has CWD. First in the state.














Fall 2000 Nebraska's first wild mule deer with CWD is killed by a hunter in Kimball County.










Nebraska



Dept of Agriculture and Game and Parks



On April 9, 1998, chronic wasting disease (CWD) was diagnosed in a captive elk in Nebraska.� This discovery follows the confirmation of CWD in two captive elk herds in South Dakota earlier this year.� The Nebraska elk was a 4 1/2-year old male that was among a privately owned herd of approximately 150 elk.� The health of the animal had deteriorated for about 2 months before it died.� Confirmation of CWD was made by the USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratories in Ames, Iowa.



The case history revealed that the affected elk was born on a farm on the Western Slope of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, but it was on two additional Colorado farms before it arrived in Nebraska at 2 to 2 1/2 years of age.� One of the Colorado premises was in the known CWD-endemic region along the Eastern Slope of the Rocky Mountains in northcentral Colorado.



The Nebraska State Veterinarian's Office has quarantined the affected herd, and a hold order was placed on two additional herds in Nebraska that received animals from the affected herd.� It also has been determined that elk farmers in four states (IA, IL, TX, WI) have received elk from the infected herd, and these states were notified by the Nebraska Bureau of Animal Industry.� Additional tracing may be forthcoming because elk from the affected herd were sold through two auctions in Colorado and Missouri.� A CWD Working Group is being formed to develop Voluntary CWD Management Guidelines.� The first goals of the Nebraska Bureau of Animal Industry are:� (1) to implement a policy requiring disease reporting of animals over 16 months of age; (2) to require identification of individual animals and reporting change of ownership; and (3) to establish a data base to monitor change of ownership.



South Dakota has taken legislative action to create a CWD control program for captive cervids.� Their program calls for a 5-year quarantine with monitoring of all affected, adjacent, or exposed captive cervid herds.� Monitored herds that maintain clean status are given certificates at annual milestones for years 1 through 4 and are designated "Certified CWD Cervid Herd" after 5 years of negative surveillance.� The Cervid CWD Surveillance Identification Program includes required examination of brain tissue from all dead cervids 18 months or older, including deaths by slaughter, hunting, illness, and injury.� The South Dakota State Veterinarian has forwarded the description of his State's program to the United States Animal Health Association along with the suggestion that it should be considered as a "starting place" for developing a Model CWD Control Program.� Persons interested in this document can obtain a copy from Dr. Sam Holland, South Dakota State Veterinarian, SD Animal Industry Board, 411 South Fort Street, Pierre, South Dakota 57501-4503.�









In addition to cases in captive research and free-ranging deer and elk, CWD has been diagnosed at various times in privately-owned, captive elk in Colorado, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Kansas, Alberta (Canada) and Saskatchewan (Canada) since 1996. CWD infection has been particularly severe in a group of interconnected facilities near Rapid City, South Dakota, that appear to be the original source of infection for other South Dakota game farms as well as the Saskatchewan epidemic. In contrast, infected elk in two of three Nebraska farms originated in Colorado, and infected elk in Oklahoma apparently originated in Montana; CWD has been confirmed in the Montana and Colorado source herds. Epidemiology of the Canadian cases has been under study, and South Dakota appears to be the likely source of CWD in Saskatchewan; it also appears that CWD was imported into Canada prior to 1990, and has spread among at least 18 farms via live animal sales over the last decade. The overall distribution and occurrence of CWD among farmed elk operations should become clearer as industry-wide surveillance programs are developed. There are no apparent epidemiological connections between the Colorado-Nebraska, South Dakota-Saskatchewan, and Montana-Oklahoma foci; moreover. The source of infection for free-ranging white-tailed deer in Wisconsin is unknown. CWD at a farmed elk operation in Minnesota was confirmed on 30 August 2002.















Nebraska, where two captive herds are under quarantine for chronic wasting disease, has similar regulations and is considering additional monitoring requirements as the industry expands in that state. Two new elk slaughter plants have recently opened there.









Disease Threats to Elk Photos and text by Eric Fowler Published October 2010




Disease Threats to Elk Other than man and a handful of mountain lions, there are no predators to really stem the growth of elk herds in Nebraska. Disease, however, could be another story. Disease concerns played a major role in changes being made at Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge, specifically when three deer harvested within 20 miles of the refuge in 2006 tested positive for chronic wasting disease, a contagious neurological disease that damages the brain and central nervous system of deer, elk and moose and is always fatal.



Since first appearing in Nebraska’s free ranging deer in 1998, CWD has been found in four captive elk herds in the state. Three of those herds were destroyed, a standard practice meant to reduce the chances of developing a hot spot that could spread the disease to free-ranging deer and elk. The fourth, located in Cherry County, was quarantined but cleared after extensive testing of the remaining animals. Since it was established nearly 100 years ago, the Fort Niobrara refuge’s defined purpose has been the preservation of native birds, bison and elk.



“Knowing that we have responsibility to manage for elk, we just felt we’d be derelict in our duties to stick our head in the sand and wait for CWD to show up and have to kill all of these [captive] elk,” said Todd Frerichs, deputy project leader at the refuge.



Since 1997, the Commission has tested more than 42,000 deer and 50 wild elk for CWD, most of them harvested by hunters. Of those, 202 deer and two elk have tested positive. Both elk positives came from cow elk in Sioux County: one harvested during the 2009 hunting season, and another sick animal that was put down in January 2010. Bruce Trindle, big game research and wildlife disease specialist in the Commission’s Norfolk office, said the disease spreads slowly through or between deer and elk populations at first, a fact that may have delayed its inevitable appearance in Nebraska’s elk.



As prevalence rates rise, however, it spreads more rapidly. In Wyoming, the prevalence rate in some elk herds is 40 percent or higher, resulting in a measurable population decline. Animals can be infected for months or years before becoming sick. “There isn’t any immunity, and if a deer or elk gets it, they die,” Trindle said.



Another threat to Nebraska’s elk herd unexpectedly appeared in 2009 when an elk in a captive herd in Knox County and a beef cow in Rock County tested positive for bovine tuberculosis, a highly infectious bacterial disease that can infect and be passed between any warm-blooded vertebrate. When found in cattle, tuberculosis can have dire consequences for both the ranch and state in which it is found due to restrictions that are placed on livestock movement. Testing found no other cases in Nebraska livestock or in 42 deer culled and tested around the captive elk herd. Had it been passed through the fence to free-ranging wildlife, Hams said, the result would have been “catastrophic.”



An area of Michigan continues to deal with tuberculosis in deer and livestock 30 years after it was discovered, an effort that has included reduction of the local deer herd. Hams said the case provides further justification for ending the practice of raising elk and other wildlife behind fences for meat, antlers or recreational shooting. Testing programs for captive herds are “rudimentary and almost ineffective,” Hams said.



Often diseases aren’t discovered until animals are sick and dying or, in the case of tuburculosis, until an animal is slaughtered. By then, Hams said, other elk from the same herd, which may have been infected, have been shipped to other elk farms around the country, spreading the infection. Captive elk can and sometimes do escape from pens, putting free-ranging wildlife at risk. But diseases can also spread when captive and free-ranging wildlife meet at fencelines, which is why the Commission continues to shoot wild elk found in close proximity to a captive herd.










Elk were extirpated from Nebraska around the turn of the century. A few elk, probably from Wyoming, were reported in Northwestern Nebraska in the 1950s and 60s, and the statewide population now is about 2,300, most in the Pine Ridge.










I don’t think Nebraska has any clue as to how many game farm or game ranches of either deer or elk or both they have in their state ??





if they do, I could not find the information on the Nebraska Gov. websites. it may be there somewhere??





here are a few from state to state. by no means is this all of them. ...
































United States Deer and Elk Farms Directory















Chronic Wasting Disease was discovered in white-tailed deer in Nebraska in 2002, but the long-term effects of this prion disease are unknown.



It will be a challenge for biologists in the future to develop season formats that will provide the necessary white-tailed deer management to meet the above goal for big game. Managers must determine the desired population level for each management unit, and then calculate an antlerless harvest that will achieve the population goal. A more conservative approach of doe harvest may be used in western Nebraska white-tailed deer habitats due to less productive and slower growing populations.




ISSUE 1 Cervid disease issues have come to the forefront with Chronic Wasting Disease, brain worm, bovine tuberculosis and foreign deer lice being diagnosed in the Nebraska. Disease problems will continue be very important to the mule deer management program during this planning phase.




Tactic 5. Create an accurate statewide stable isotope map using lymph nodes collected for Chronic Wasting Disease testing and use in analysis of mountain lion claws and other tissues to determine origination of dispersers.











SEE what the one CWD infected farm in Wisconsin (with the most highest infection rate to date with CWD at 80% infection rate) cost that state ;






Tuesday, December 20, 2011



CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011




The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.



Despite the five year premise plan and site decontamination, The WI DNR has concerns over the bioavailability of infectious prions at this site to wild white-tail deer should these fences be removed. Current research indicates that prions can persist in soil for a minimum of 3 years.



However, Georgsson et al. (2006) concluded that prions that produced scrapie disease in sheep remained bioavailable and infectious for at least 16 years in natural Icelandic environments, most likely in contaminated soil.



Additionally, the authors reported that from 1978-2004, scrapie recurred on 33 sheep farms, of which 9 recurrences occurred 14-21 years after initial culling and subsequent restocking efforts; these findings further emphasize the effect of environmental contamination on sustaining TSE infectivity and that long-term persistence of prions in soils may be substantially greater than previously thought.



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SUMMARY: The Department has obtained on agreement to purchase 80 acres of land from Patricia Casey for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat program, In Portage County, The item is being submitted because the price exceeds the appraised value of $371,000 and because the Department will prohibit Nature-Based Outdoor Activities on the land.



The properly is located in south central Portage County about 12 miles southeast of Plover in the Town of Almond. The property, which includes a single family residence, a metal building, and a storage shed, was operated us a deer farm until 2006 at which time it was closed down because of an outbreak of chronic wasting disease (CWD). All the deer in the operation were destroyed and the operation has stood vacant for the last 5 years per U .S. Dcpnrtmeut of Agriculture requirements. During this time and until May 24, 2011, the fences around this facility must be maintained and the premise cannot be used as a deer farm, though other animals such ns cattle and horses would be permitted. After May 24, all such restrictions will expire. This site, known as the Hall Farm, had the highest prevalence of CWO positive deer recorded at any deer farm in North America.



Based on available science, the Department believes that there is an unacceptable potential risk of exposure to CWD causing prions to wild cervids in this area should the premise fencing be removed. To minimize this risk, the Department believes that the fences should remain intact and in place until science can demonstrate that there is no longer any potential risk. After extensive consideration of several options, the Department maintains that the purchase and subsequent management of the properly and fences is the only realistic option.



The Department proposes to prohibit all public use of the property in order to ensure confinement and control of contaminated soils and limit any potential spread of Chronic Wasting Disease from the property to surrounding lands and wild deer populations and to allow for research of prions and prion related diseases such as Chronic Wasting Disease. The property is currently surrounded by a deer fence and removal of that fence to allow public use, or public use of any form inside the fenced area would be incompatible with the primary purpose of acquiring the properly. The Department has determined that it is necessary to prohibit all public access on the site to accommodate the Department's primary purpose for the acquisition and its Intended use of the property for research and wildlife management.



Acquisition of this properly will minimize any potential risk to local cervids from the CWD causing prions that may exist within the fenced area. The Department will consider sale of the house at a later date if local zoning can be modified for a lot size that would not contain contaminated soil. State ownership will allow the Department to maintain the deer proof fence, thereby protecting wild deer from CWD infection from the contaminated soil on this former deer farm.



RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.





snip...see full text and much more here ;










SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;








Thursday, February 09, 2012


50 GAME FARMS IN USA INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE






Friday, February 03, 2012


Wisconsin Farm-Raised Deer Farms and CWD there from 2012 report Singeltary et al






Saturday, February 04, 2012


Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised






Monday, November 14, 2011


WYOMING Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, CWD, TSE, PRION REPORTING 2011






Wednesday, November 16, 2011


Wisconsin Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, CWD, TSE, PRION REPORTING 2011






Sunday, November 13, 2011


COLORADO CWD CJD TSE PRION REPORTING 2011









*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.






Monday, April 16, 2012


Continuing Enhanced National Surveillance for Prion Diseases in the United States



snip...


Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) emerged in the 1980s as a disease of cows produced by an aberrant protein (prions). This disease is a food-borne human pathogen producing new variant Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease in people. This event has changed how cattle are fed and the standards of global agricultural trade. The investigation of this disease, and its ultimate solution required an integrated approach by scientists and health policymakers across multiple disciplines. A similar disease, chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk, deer and moose is spreading in North America. The mechanism of transmission is not understood. There is a risk of spread to cattle and other food animals and ultimately to humans, since the prion protein of CWD can be efficiently converted to a form that apparently overcomes the structural barriers between more distant species. A One Health approach to CWD envisions the convergence of human, veterinary, wildlife disease and research scientists to establish improved surveillance and diagnostic methods, define the transmission chain, risk of cross-species spread, and control strategies.


snip...








Thursday, April 05, 2012


Prevalence and Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease in Elk from Rocky Mountain National Park






Thursday, March 29, 2012


TEXAS DEER CZAR SAYS WISCONSIN DNR NOT DOING ENOUGH ABOUT CWD LIKE POT CALLING KETTLE BLACK






Monday, March 26, 2012


Texas Prepares for Chronic Wasting Disease CWD Possibility in Far West Texas






Monday, March 26, 2012


3 CASES OF CWD FOUND NEW MEXICO MULE DEER SEVERAL MILS FROM TEXAS BORDER






Sunday, March 25, 2012


Three more cases of CWD found in free-ranging deer in Macon County






Wednesday, March 21, 2012


MICHIGAN SENATE BILL 27 TURNS OVER GAME FARMS and CWD RISK FACTORS THERE FROM, TO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE $






Friday, March 16, 2012


OHIO TURNS OVER CERVID GAME FARMS (and CWD risk) TO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, GOD HELP THEM H. B. No. 389


As Passed by the Senate


129th General Assembly Regular Session 2011-2012 Am. H. B. No. 389





Thursday, March 08, 2012


Dept. of Ag Notified of Two Positive Tests for CWD at Macon County Facility






Tuesday, February 28, 2012


newly developed injectable CWD vaccine, live rectal mucosa testing and Deer Game Farms Update






Wednesday, February 15, 2012


West Virginia Deer Farming Bill backed by deer farmers advances, why ? BE WARNED CWD






Wednesday, February 15, 2012


New Supplement from Deer Antler Velvet, CWD, and CJD there from ?


New Deer Antler Velvet Extract Changes the World of Supplements






Tuesday, February 14, 2012


Oppose Indiana House Bill 1265 game farming cervids






Monday, February 13, 2012


Stop White-tailed Deer Farming from Destroying Tennessee's Priceless Wild Deer Herd oppose HB3164







Thursday, January 26, 2012


The Risk of Prion Zoonoses


Science 27 January 2012: Vol. 335 no. 6067 pp. 411-413 DOI: 10.1126/science.1218167







Thursday, January 26, 2012


Facilitated Cross-Species Transmission of Prions in Extraneural Tissue


Science 27 January 2012: Vol. 335 no. 6067 pp. 472-475 DOI: 10.1126/science.1215659







Sunday, January 22, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD cervids interspecies transmission

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2012/01/chronic-wasting-disease-cwd-cervids.html



Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) emerged in the 1980s as a disease of cows produced by an aberrant protein (prions). This disease is a food-borne human pathogen producing new variant Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease in people. This event has changed how cattle are fed and the standards of global agricultural trade. The investigation of this disease, and its ultimate solution required an integrated approach by scientists and health policymakers across multiple disciplines. A similar disease, chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk, deer and moose is spreading in North America. The mechanism of transmission is not understood. There is a risk of spread to cattle and other food animals and ultimately to humans, since the prion protein of CWD can be efficiently converted to a form that apparently overcomes the structural barriers between more distant species. A One Health approach to CWD envisions the convergence of human, veterinary, wildlife disease and research scientists to establish improved surveillance and diagnostic methods, define the transmission chain, risk of cross-species spread, and control strategies.






snip...





Budget




A budget of $2,978,682 is requested to fund the Initiative for a period of 3 years.




The majority of the budget is for salaries and benefits (45%), contracts (30%) and travel (22%).

















Monday, April 16, 2012



Continuing Enhanced National Surveillance for Prion Diseases in the United States





TSS
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