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Meat and bone meal back into feed 12 Jan 2010

Posted Jan 13 2010 1:44pm
Meat and bone meal back into feed 12 Jan 2010

Author: Dick Ziggers

It has been ten years now since the European Commission has banned the use of meat and bone meal (mbm) in animal feeds. There are enough reasons for lifting this ban, but decision making in Brussels is slow. Too long the feed industry has been withheld from a cheap and valuable feed ingredient.

Europe, and mainly the United Kingdom, in the nineties of the last century were facing a crisis when mad cow disease paralysed the animal industry. Cattle were fed ruminant remains that contained a protein (prion) that caused Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease. The big problem is that people can get the BSE related and lethal Creutzfeld-Jacob disease, if they eat infected beef. So, with the knowledge of the nineties it was logic to ban all animal remains from all animal feed. Since then a lot of research has taken place and we now know that only ruminants are affected by the prions. Pigs and poultry could never be related to the disease. Still, these sectors have to suffer from the ban on mbm in feed the EU imposed ten years ago.

Valuable product Meat and bone meal is a valuable raw material providing energy, protein, vitamins and minerals, which vary in levels, but that are very well digested by the animals. There is considerable variation in nutrient specifications from company to company. In a recent survey the National Renderers' Association questioned several US feed manufacturers. Twenty-seven feed companies responded and the range in nutrient values for meat and bone meal was as follows:

Moisture 3.0 - 11.2% Crude protein 49.0 - 52.8% Crude fat 8.5 - 14.8% Calcium 6.0 - 12.0% Total phosphorus 3.5 - 5.0% Lysine 2.2 - 3.0% Metabolizable energy for poultry 1,770 – 2,420 MCal/kg

Saving the rainforest When mbm had to be taken out of the feed it was merely replaced by soybean products, which needed to be imported from Brazil. Because of the vast demand from Europe large areas were cultivated to satisfy the European demand. In his PhD thesis Emiel Elferink at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands calculated that because of the ban in Europe annually 16 million tonnes of mbm is replaced by 23 million tonnes of soybeans. Since the ban on mbm was installed the area planted with soybeans has increased from 10 million hectares in the eighties to more than 20 million hectares at the beginning of this century. So, apart from the nutritional benefits putting mbm back into the feed this would also have an enormous environmental benefit as it would put less pressure on the rainforest in South America.

Omnivores Another very strong argument is that pigs and poultry are omnivores, meaning they eat everything and if they have a choice, they do not restrict themselves to a vegetarian diet. Poultry in the wild, for example, peck for grubs and beetles to supplement their protein needs. And with limited and ending sources of phosphorous mbm can contribute to the phosphorous supply in the feed reducing the need for rock phosphate. Until today there are no signs that poultry and pigs are susceptible to BSE-like diseases. Scientists therefore assume that meat and bone meal from poultry and pigs can be used in feeds without any risks. Advocacy groups for agriculture lobby in Brussels to have mbm back in animal feed, but this is a slow and arduous route. Installing a law seems far more easy than to get rid of one.

Emotions The poorly informed general public, however, is worried about the return of mbm in feeds. Cannibalism is the hot word. From a theoretical standpoint I can understand the resistance of feeding animal remains to cattle, since these are herbivorous. Strangely enough these questions are not asked when fish meal is fed to fish.

But there is no ground to refrain pigs and poultry from eating meat and bone meal. To satisfy the general public politicians first want to ensure that only pig-mbm is fed to poultry and poultry-mbm to pigs. DNA test kits are already available to distinguish the differences. So this cannot be a reason for upholding the release of mbm again.

Cost benefit These DNA-limitations could dampen down the euphoria on the return of mbm in animal feeds. It would require a strict logistic organisation with separate channels for feeds with pig-mbm and feeds with poultry-mbm.

At present every feed for every livestock specie can be manufactured in one mill. With mbm returning separate production lines would be needed to make pig and poultry feed with mbm and ruminant feeds. Meat and bone meal is a cheap raw material, but when it may return in feeds under the above mentioned restrictions it can be questioned if these benefits result in cheaper feed.

I am curious to hear what opinion you have on this issue….

Emmy Koeleman also wrote about this subject in 2007. Since then nothing has happened


http://www.allaboutfeed.net/weblog/from-feed-to-food-/meat-and-bone-meal-back-into-feed-4005.html




> Since then a lot of research has taken place and we now know that only ruminants are affected by the prions. Pigs and poultry could


> never be related to the disease. Still, these sectors have to suffer from the ban on mbm in feed the EU imposed ten years ago.


THIS is simply not true.


NEVER FORGET, they do not care, it's simply about money $$$


STRICTLY PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL 25, AUGUST 1995

snip...

To minimise the risk of farmers' claims for compensation from feed compounders.

To minimise the potential damage to compound feed markets through adverse publicity.

To maximise freedom of action for feed compounders, notably by maintaining the availability of meat and bone meal as a raw material in animal feeds, and ensuring time is available to make any changes which may be required.

snip...

THE FUTURE

4..........

MAFF remains under pressure in Brussels and is not skilled at handling potentially explosive issues.

5. Tests _may_ show that ruminant feeds have been sold which contain illegal traces of ruminant protein. More likely, a few positive test results will turn up but proof that a particular feed mill knowingly supplied it to a particular farm will be difficult if not impossible.

6. The threat remains real and it will be some years before feed compounders are free of it. The longer we can avoid any direct linkage between feed milling _practices_ and actual BSE cases, the more likely it is that serious damage can be avoided. ...

SEE full text ;


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1995/08/24002001.pdf



http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20081105232223/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1995/08/24002001.pdf



Estimation of the basic reproduction number of BSE: the intensity of transmission in British cattle Issue Volume 266, Number 1414/January 7, 1999 Pages 23-32 DOI 10.1098/rspb.1999.0599 Add to marked items Add to saved items Recommend this article

PDF (222.8 KB) Authors N. M. Ferguson, C. A. Donnelly, M. E. J. Woolhouse, R. M. Anderson

Abstract The basic reproduction number, R0, of an infectious agent is a key factor determining the rate of spread and the proportion of the host population affected. We formulate a general mathematical framework to describe the transmission dynamics of long incubation period diseases with complex pathogenesis. This is used to derive expressions for R0 of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in British cattle, and backcalculation methods are used to estimate R0 throughout the time-course of the BSE epidemic. We show that the 1988 meat and bonemeal ban was effective in rapidly reducing R0 below 1, and demonstrate that this indicates that BSE will be unable to become endemic in the UK cattle population even when case clustering is taken into account. The analysis provides some insight into absolute infectiousness for bovine-to-bovine transmission, indicating maximally infectious animals may have infected up to 400 animals each. The relationship between R0 and the early stages of the BSE epidemic and the requirements for additional research are also discussed.


http://journals.royalsociety.org/content/ld82xpl8q9pkbne9/



Distinct Molecular Signature of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prion in Pigs

To the Editor: In a recent article in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Espinosa et al. (1) investigated the porcine transmission barrier to infection with bovine and ovine transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in transgenic mice expressing the porcine prion protein. Bovine spongiform encepatholopathy of the classical type (BSE) derived from cattle and sheep, as well as atypical scrapie, transmitted to these mice, although with different effi - ciencies. Whereas sheep BSE showed a 100% attack rate, cattle BSE and atypical scrapie showed a higher transmission barrier in the fi rst passage. Unexpectedly, the electrophoretic profi le of the proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrPres) in Western immunoblot (WB) analysis of all 3 TSEs shifted toward a common signature upon transmission. This was a 3-band pattern with a predominant monoglycosylated PrPres moiety and, therefore, clearly differed from those of the BSE and atypical scrapie inocula. The authors speculated that the porcine cellular prion protein (PrPc) might allow only for few options as it changes its conformation to the disease-associated prion protein. However, whether this effect is attributable to the porcine PrPc transgene or to the genetic background of the mouse model remains unknown.

To our knowledge, BSE has been successfully transmitted to pigs in 1 study, but WB data were not reported (2). We had access to central nervous system tissues of 1 of these animals (kindly provided by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency TSE Archive, Weybridge, UK) and aimed at assessing whether a similar effect occurs when cattle BSE affects pigs. Our results show a PrPres signature in BSEinfected pigs similar to that described for the porcine PrPc transgenic mice and clearly different from that in cattle (Figure). These fi ndings support the fi nding by Espinosa et al. that the molecular shift most likely was due to intrinsic properties of the porcine PrPc. Therefore, in this respect the mouse model appears to refl ect the situation in the pig.

BSE prions are considered to transmit to other species, such as exotic ruminants, cats, macaques, humans, sheep, and goats, without any obvious alterations of the molecular phenotype (3,4). Our study provides evidence that the molecular phenotype of classical BSE also may shift upon genuine interspecies transmission. Attempts to discriminate BSE from other prion diseases in humans and animals often rely at fi rst on the analysis of the PrPres signature in WB. Consequently, the situation described in our study complicates the interpretation of such disease surveillance data to assess public health risks for animal TSEs. Whether this applies to other TSEs and species remains to be addressed.

Figure. Molecular signature of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in pigs. A) Comparative Western immunoblot analysis of the proteinase K-resistant core fragment (PrPres) of the pathologic prion protein in BSE in cattle and in an experimentally BSE-infected pig using the monoclonal antibody 6H4 (Prionics, Schlieren, Switzerland). B) Average relative intensities of the diglycosylated (black bars), monoglycosylated (gray bars), and unglycosylated (white bars) PrPres moieties as determined by the Quantity One software package (Bio-Rad, Rheinach, Switzerland). Data are based on 4 independent runs, and error bars indicate SD. Note the different extent of PrPres glycosylation in bovine and porcine BSE. By contrast, the molecular masses of the unglycosylated PrPres were similar and scored 18.89 kDa (SD ± 0.28 kDa) and 18.90 kDa (SD ± 0.42 kDa) in bovine and porcine BSE, respectively. Molecular masses of the standards are indicated on the left in panel A.

Emerging Infectious Diseases . www.cdc.gov/eid . Vol. 16, No. 1, January 2010

http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/1/pdfs/164.pdf


Torsten Seuberlich and Andreas Zurbriggen Author affi liation: University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland DOI: 10.3201/eid1601.091104

References

1. Espinosa JC, Herva ME, Andreoletti O, Padilla D, Lacroux C, Cassard H, et al. Transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein resistant to classical scrapie but susceptible to sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy and atypical scrapie. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1214-21. DOI: 10.3201/eid1508.081218

2. Wells GA, Hawkins SA, Austin AR, Ryder SJ, Done SH, Green RB, et al. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to pigs. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1021-31.

3. Collinge J, Sidle KC, Meads J, Ironside J, Hill AF. Molecular analysis of prion strain variation and the aetiology of 'new variant' CJD. Nature. 1996;383:685-90.

4. Hill AF, Desbruslais M, Joiner S, Sidle KC, Gowland I, Collinge J, et al. The same prion strain causes vCJD and BSE. Nature. 1997;389:448-50.

Address for correspondence: Torsten Seuberlich, NeuroCentre, Reference Laboratory for TSE in Animals, University of Berne, Bremgartenstrasse 109a, CH-3001 Berne, Switzerland; email: torsten.seuberlich@itn.unibe.ch

http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/1/pdfs/164.pdf


Thursday, October 15, 2009 Transmissibility studies of vacuolar changes in the rostral colliculus of pigs Research article Open Access T

Transmissibility studies of vacuolar changes in the rostral colliculus of pigs

Timm Konold*1,2, John Spiropoulos1, Melanie J Chaplin3, Leigh Thorne3, Yvonne I Spencer1, Gerald AH Wells1 and Steve AC Hawkins1 Address: 1Department of Pathology, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, UK, 2Royal Veterinary College, Infection and Immunity Research Group, North Mymms, Hatfield, UK and 3Department of Molecular Pathogenesis and Genetics, Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, UK Email: Timm Konold* - t.konold@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk; John Spiropoulos - j.spiropoulos@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk; Melanie J Chaplin - m.j.chaplin@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk; Leigh Thorne - l.thorne@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk; Yvonne I Spencer - y.i.spencer@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk; Gerald AH Wells - g.a.h.wells@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk; Steve AC Hawkins - s.a.c.hawkins@vla.defra.gsi.gov.uk * Corresponding author

Abstract Background:

Histopathological examinations of brains from healthy pigs have revealed localised vacuolar changes, predominantly in the rostral colliculus, that are similar to the neuropil vacuolation featured in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and have been described in pigs challenged parenterally with the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Feedstuff containing BSE-contaminated meat and bone meal (MBM) may have been fed to pigs prior to the ban of mammalian MBM in feed of farmed livestock in the United Kingdom in 1996, but there is no evidence of the natural occurrence of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) in the domestic pig. Furthermore, experimental transmission of BSE to pigs by the oral route has been unsuccessful. A study was conducted to investigate whether the localised vacuolar changes in the porcine brain were associated with a transmissible aetiology and therefore biologically significant. Two groups of ten pigs were inoculated parenterally with vacuolated rostral colliculus from healthy pigs either born before 1996 or born after 1996. Controls included ten pigs similarly inoculated with rostral colliculus from New Zealand-derived pigs and nine pigs inoculated with a bovine BSE brain homogenate. Results: None of the pigs inoculated with rostral colliculus developed a TSE-like neurological disease up to five years post inoculation when the study was terminated, and disease-associated prion protein, PrPd, was not detected in the brains of these pigs. By contrast, eight of nine BSE-inoculated pigs developed neurological signs, two of which had detectable PrPd by postmortem tests. No significant histopathological changes were detected to account for the clinical signs in the PrPd-negative, BSE-inoculated pigs. Conclusion: The findings in this study suggest that vacuolation in the porcine rostral colliculus is not caused by a transmissible agent and is probably a clinically insignificant change. The presence of neurological signs in pigs inoculated with BSE without detectable PrPd raises the possibility that the BSE agent may produce a prion disease in pigs that remains undetected by the current postmortem tests.

SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;

http://madporcinedisease.blogspot.com/2009/10/transmissibility-studies-of-vacuolar.html


SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;

7 OF 10 LITTLE PIGGIES WENT ON TO DEVELOP BSE;

1: J Comp Pathol. 2000 Feb-Apr; 122(2-3): 131-43. Related Articles,

Links

Click here to read

The neuropathology of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the pig.

Ryder SJ, Hawkins SA, Dawson M, Wells GA.

Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK.

In an experimental study of the transmissibility of BSE to the pig, seven of 10 pigs, infected at 1-2 weeks of age by multiple-route parenteral inoculation with a homogenate of bovine brain from natural BSE cases developed lesions typical of spongiform encephalopathy. The lesions consisted principally of severe neuropil vacuolation affecting most areas of the brain, but mainly the forebrain. In addition, some vacuolar change was identified in the rostral colliculi and hypothalamic areas of normal control pigs. PrP accumulations were detected immunocytochemically in the brains of BSE-infected animals. PrP accumulation was sparse in many areas and its density was not obviously related to the degree of vacuolation. The patterns of PrP immunolabelling in control pigs differed strikingly from those in the infected animals.

PMID: 10684682 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?holding=npg&cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10684682&dopt=Abstract


IN CONFIDENCE

EXPERIMENTAL PORCINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

1. CMO should be aware that a pig inoculated experimentally (ic, iv, and ip) with BSE brain suspension has after 15 months developed an illness, now confirmed as a spongiform encephalopathy. This is the first ever description of such a disease in a pig, although it seems there ar no previous attempts at experimental inoculation with animal material. The Southwood group had thought igs would not be susceptible. Most pigs are slaughtered when a few weeks old but there have been no reports of relevant neurological illness in breeding sows or other elderly pigs. ...see full text ;

http://web.archive.org/web/20040302031004/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/08/23001001.pdf



IN CONFIDENCE

So it is plausible pigs could be preclinically affected with BSE but since so few are allowed to reach adulthood this has not been recognised through clinical disease. ...

http://web.archive.org/web/20040904150118/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/08/23002001.pdf



CONFIDENTIAL

EXPERIMENTAL PORCINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

While this clearly is a cause for concern we should not jump to the conclusion that this means that pigs will necessarily be infected by bone and meat meal fed by the oral route as is the case with cattle. ...

http://web.archive.org/web/20031026000118/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/08/23004001.pdf


we cannot rule out the possibility that unrecognised subclinical spongiform encephalopathy could be present in British pigs though there is no evidence for this: only with parenteral/implantable pharmaceuticals/devices is the theoretical risk to humans of sufficient concern to consider any action.

http://web.archive.org/web/20030822031154/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/10007001.pdf



May I, at the outset, reiterate that we should avoid dissemination of papers relating to this experimental finding to prevent premature release of the information. ...


http://web.archive.org/web/20030822052332/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/11005001.pdf



3. It is particularly important that this information is not passed outside the Department, until Ministers have decided how they wish it to be handled. ...


http://web.archive.org/web/20030822052438/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/12002001.pdf



But it would be easier for us if pharmaceuticals/devices are not directly mentioned at all. ...


http://web.archive.org/web/20030518170213/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/13004001.pdf


Our records show that while some use is made of porcine materials in medicinal products, the only products which would appear to be in a hypothetically ''higher risk'' area are the adrenocorticotrophic hormone for which the source material comes from outside the United Kingdom, namely America China Sweden France and Germany. The products are manufactured by Ferring and Armour. A further product, ''Zenoderm Corium implant'' manufactured by Ethicon, makes use of porcine skin - which is not considered to be a ''high risk'' tissue, but one of its uses is described in the data sheet as ''in dural replacement''. This product is sourced from the United Kingdom.....


http://web.archive.org/web/20030822054419/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/21009001.pdf


BSE TO PIGS NEWS RELEASE


http://web.archive.org/web/20030822162313/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/24001001.pdf


CONFIDENTIAL

BSE: PRESS PRESENTATION


http://web.archive.org/web/20030822160958/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/20003001.pdf



http://web.archive.org/web/20040623191707/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/24013001.pdf


http://web.archive.org/web/20030820195733/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/20010001.pdf



http://web.archive.org/web/20030820195733/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/25013001.pdf


http://web.archive.org/web/20030820195733/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/25015001.pdf



INDUSTRY RESPONSE TYPICAL


http://web.archive.org/web/20030822055917/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/25007001.pdf


DEFENSIVE BRIEFING


http://web.archive.org/web/20030820195733/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/25016001.pdf



CONFIDENTIAL

pigs & pharmaceuticals


http://web.archive.org/web/20010305223234/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/09/10007001.pdf



http://web.archive.org/web/20010305223234/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/08/23002001.pdf



http://web.archive.org/web/20010305223234/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/08/23004001.pdf


http://web.archive.org/web/20010305223234/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/08/29003001.pdf


COMMERCIAL IN CONFIDENCE COMMITTEE ON SAFETY OF MEDICINE NOT FOR PUBLICATION BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY WORKING GROUP

There are only two products using porcine brain and these use corticotrophin BP, made from porcine pituitary, source from outside the UK.............


http://web.archive.org/web/20040622220349/www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1990/10/31003001.pdf


SEE FULL TEXT ;


http://madporcinedisease.blogspot.com/




Monday, December 21, 2009

Distinct Molecular Signature of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Prion in Pigs


http://madporcinedisease.blogspot.com/2009/12/distinct-molecular-signature-of-bovine.html




Harash Narang's book THE LINK (i believe he went to work for NIH on TSEs, not sure if he is still there) there is a part about BSE IN HENS (page 135), that a farmer in kent in Nov. 1996 noticed that one of his 20 free range hens the oldest, aged about 30 months, was having difficulty entering its den and appeared frightened and tended to lose its balance when excited. Having previously experiencing BSE cattle on his farm, he took particular notice of the bird and continued to observe it over the following weeks. It lost weight, its balance deteriorated and characteristic tremors developed which were closely associated with the muscles required for standing (Fig. 15). In its attempts to maintain its balance it would claw the ground more than usual and the ataxia progressively developed in the wings and legs, later taking a typical form of paralysis with a clumsy involuntary jerky motion. Violent tremors of the entire body, particularly the legs, similar to those seen in BSE, became common sparked off by the slightest provocation. Three other farmers from the UK are known to have reported having hens with similar symptoms...

with this agent, i would not rule out anything or any species...TSS

From: TSS Subject: TRANSMISSION STUDIES OF DOMESTIC FOWL AND OSTRICH...... Date: May 9, 2002 at 7:36 am PST

######## Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########

Greetings List Members,

just reading over a few old documents, i am pondering a few things out loud here, hope some find them interesting...TSS

snip...

SE1806

TRANSMISSION STUDIES OF BSE TO DOMESTIC FOWL BY ORAL EXPOSURE TO BRAIN HOMOGENATE

1 challenged cock bird was necropsied (41 months p.i.) following a period of ataxia, tremor, limb abduction and other neurological signs. Histopathological examination failed to reveal any significant lesions of the central or peripheral nervous systems...

snip...

94/01.19/7.1

http://www.bse.org.uk/files/yb/1994/01/19007001.pdf




SE 1802 AND SE 1803 SE1805 AND SE 1806


http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20020525205812/http://bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1994/01/19007001.pdf



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/11/american-crows-corvus-brachyrhynchos.html




A contribution to the neuropathology of the red-necked ostrich (struthio camelus) - spongiform encephalopathy

spongiform encephlopathy in the red-necked ostrich (struthio camelus). A case history



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE NEUROPATHOLOGY OF THE RED-NECKED OSTRICH (STRUTHIO CAMELUS) - SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/sc/Seac10/tab06.pdf




http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20080102120315/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/sc/Seac10/tab06.pdf





SEE ;



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/11/american-crows-corvus-brachyrhynchos.html





P04.27

Experimental BSE Infection of Non-human Primates: Efficacy of the Oral Route

Holznagel, E1; Yutzy, B1; Deslys, J-P2; Lasmézas, C2; Pocchiari, M3; Ingrosso, L3; Bierke, P4; Schulz-Schaeffer, W5; Motzkus, D6; Hunsmann, G6; Löwer, J1 1Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Germany; 2Commissariat à l´Energie Atomique, France; 3Instituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy; 4Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease control, Sweden; 5Georg August University, Germany; 6German Primate Center, Germany

Background:

In 2001, a study was initiated in primates to assess the risk for humans to contract BSE through contaminated food. For this purpose, BSE brain was titrated in cynomolgus monkeys.

Aims:

The primary objective is the determination of the minimal infectious dose (MID50) for oral exposure to BSE in a simian model, and, by in doing this, to assess the risk for humans. Secondly, we aimed at examining the course of the disease to identify possible biomarkers.

Methods:

Groups with six monkeys each were orally dosed with lowering amounts of BSE brain: 16g, 5g, 0.5g, 0.05g, and 0.005g. In a second titration study, animals were intracerebrally (i.c.) dosed (50, 5, 0.5, 0.05, and 0.005 mg).

Results:

In an ongoing study, a considerable number of high-dosed macaques already developed simian vCJD upon oral or intracerebral exposure or are at the onset of the clinical phase. However, there are differences in the clinical course between orally and intracerebrally infected animals that may influence the detection of biomarkers.

Conclusions:

Simian vCJD can be easily triggered in cynomolgus monkeys on the oral route using less than 5 g BSE brain homogenate. The difference in the incubation period between 5 g oral and 5 mg i.c. is only 1 year (5 years versus 4 years). However, there are rapid progressors among orally dosed monkeys that develop simian vCJD as fast as intracerebrally inoculated animals.

The work referenced was performed in partial fulfilment of the study “BSE in primates“ supported by the EU (QLK1-2002-01096).

http://www.prion2007.com/pdf/Prion%20Book%20of%20Abstracts.pdf




look at the table and you'll see that as little as 1 mg (or 0.001 gm) caused 7% (1 of 14) of the cows to come down with BSE;

Risk of oral infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in primates Corinne Ida Lasmézas, Emmanuel Comoy, Stephen Hawkins, Christian Herzog, Franck Mouthon, Timm Konold, Frédéric Auvré, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nicole Salès, Gerald Wells, Paul Brown, Jean-Philippe Deslys Summary The uncertain extent of human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)--which can lead to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)--is compounded by incomplete knowledge about the efficiency of oral infection and the magnitude of any bovine-to-human biological barrier to transmission. We therefore investigated oral transmission of BSE to non-human primates. We gave two macaques a 5 g oral dose of brain homogenate from a BSE-infected cow. One macaque developed vCJD-like neurological disease 60 months after exposure, whereas the other remained free of disease at 76 months. On the basis of these findings and data from other studies, we made a preliminary estimate of the food exposure risk for man, which provides additional assurance that existing public health measures can prevent transmission of BSE to man.

snip...

BSE bovine brain inoculum 100 g 10 g 5 g 1 g 100 mg 10 mg 1 mg 0·1 mg 0·01 mg Primate (oral route)* 1/2 (50%) Cattle (oral route)* 10/10 (100%) 7/9 (78%) 7/10 (70%) 3/15 (20%) 1/15 (7%) 1/15 (7%) RIII mice (ic ip route)* 17/18 (94%) 15/17 (88%) 1/14 (7%) PrPres biochemical detection The comparison is made on the basis of calibration of the bovine inoculum used in our study with primates against a bovine brain inoculum with a similar PrPres concentration that was inoculated into mice and cattle.8 *Data are number of animals positive/number of animals surviving at the time of clinical onset of disease in the first positive animal (%). The accuracy of bioassays is generally judged to be about plus or minus 1 log. ic ip=intracerebral and intraperitoneal. Table 1: Comparison of transmission rates in primates and cattle infected orally with similar BSE brain inocula

Published online January 27, 2005

http://www.thelancet.com/journal/journal.isa


It is clear that the designing scientists must also have shared Mr Bradley's surprise at the results because all the dose levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/ws/s145d.pdf


2) Infectious dose:

To cattle: 1 gram of infected brain material (by oral ingestion)

http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/sci/bio/bseesbe.shtml


''FDA has determined that each animal could have consumed, at most and in total, five-and-one-half grams - approximately a quarter ounce -- of prohibited material. These animals weigh approximately 600 pounds.'' ???

http://madcowfeed.blogspot.com/2009/03/millions-and-millions-of-pounds-of-mad.html


FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE P01-05 January 30, 2001 Print Media : 301-827-6242 Consumer Inquiries: 888-INFO-FDA Note: On Dec. 23, 2003, the U.S. Department of Agriculture reported that a cow in Washington state had tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or mad cow disease). As a result, information on this Web page stating that no BSE cases had been found in the United States is now incorrect. However, because other information on this page continues to have value, the page will remain available for viewing.

FDA ANNOUNCES TEST RESULTS FROM TEXAS FEED LOT

Today the Food and Drug Administration announced the results of tests taken on feed used at a Texas feedlot that was suspected of containing meat and bone meal from other domestic cattle -- a violation of FDA's 1997 prohibition on using ruminant material in feed for other ruminants. Results indicate that a very low level of prohibited material was found in the feed fed to cattle.

FDA has determined that each animal could have consumed, at most and in total, five-and-one-half grams - approximately a quarter ounce -- of prohibited material. These animals weigh approximately 600 pounds.

It is important to note that the prohibited material was domestic in origin (therefore not likely to contain infected material because there is no evidence of BSE in U.S. cattle), fed at a very low level, and fed only once. The potential risk of BSE to such cattle is therefore exceedingly low, even if the feed were contaminated.

According to Dr. Bernard Schwetz, FDA's Acting Principal Deputy Commissioner, "The challenge to regulators and industry is to keep this disease out of the United States. One important defense is to prohibit the use of any ruminant animal materials in feed for other ruminant animals. Combined with other steps, like U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) ban on the importation of live ruminant animals from affected countries, these steps represent a series of protections, to keep American cattle free of BSE."

Despite this negligible risk, Purina Mills, Inc., is nonetheless announcing that it is voluntarily purchasing all 1,222 of the animals held in Texas and mistakenly fed the animal feed containing the prohibited material. Therefore, meat from those animals will not enter the human food supply. FDA believes any cattle that did not consume feed containing the prohibited material are unaffected by this incident, and should be handled in the beef supply clearance process as usual.

FDA believes that Purina Mills has behaved responsibly by first reporting the human error that resulted in the misformulation of the animal feed supplement and then by working closely with State and Federal authorities.

This episode indicates that the multi-layered safeguard system put into place is essential for protecting the food supply and that continued vigilance needs to be taken, by all concerned, to ensure these rules are followed routinely.

FDA will continue working with USDA as well as State and local officials to ensure that companies and individuals comply with all laws and regulations designed to protect the U.S. food supply.

Office of Public Affairs 2001-JAN-30

http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/news/2001/new00752.html


SEE FULL TEXT OF ALL THIS HERE ;

2009 UPDATE ON ALABAMA AND TEXAS MAD COWS 2005 and 2006

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2006/08/bse-atypical-texas-and-alabama-update.html


I ask Professor Kong ;

Thursday, December 04, 2008 3:37 PM Subject: RE: re--Chronic Wating Disease (CWD) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies (BSE): Public Health Risk Assessment

''IS the h-BSE more virulent than typical BSE as well, or the same as cBSE, or less virulent than cBSE? just curious.....''

Professor Kong reply ;

.....snip

''As to the H-BSE, we do not have sufficient data to say one way or another, but we have found that H-BSE can infect humans. I hope we could publish these data once the study is complete.

Thanks for your interest.''

Best regards,

Qingzhong Kong, PhD Associate Professor Department of Pathology Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH 44106 USA

END...TSS

I look forward to further transmission studies, and a true ENHANCED BSE/atypical BSE surveillance program put forth testing all cattle for human and animal consumption for 5 years. a surveillance program that uses the most sensitive TSE testing, and has the personnel that knows how to use them, and can be trusted. I look forward to a stringent mad cow feed ban being put forth, and then strictly enforced. we need a forced, not voluntary feed ban, an enhanced feed ban at that, especially excluding blood. we need some sort of animal traceability. no more excuses about privacy. if somebody is putting out a product that is killing folks and or has the potential to kill you, then everybody needs to know who they are, and where that product came from. same with hospitals, i think medical incidents in all states should be recorded, and made public, when it comes to something like a potential accidental transmission exposure event. so if someone is out there looking at a place to go have surgery done, if you have several hospitals having these type 'accidental exposure events', than you can go some place else. it only makes sense. somewhere along the road, the consumer lost control, and just had to take whatever they were given, and then charged these astronomical prices. some where along the line the consumer just lost interest, especially on a long incubating disease such as mad cow disease i.e. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy. like i said before, there is much more to the mad cow story than bovines and eating a hamburger, we must start focusing on all TSE in all species. ...TSS

Month Number of Tests

Feb 2009 -- 1,891

Jan 2009 -- 4,620

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/hot_issues/bse/surveillance/ongoing_surv_results.shtml


P02.35

Molecular Features of the Protease-resistant Prion Protein (PrPres) in H-type BSE

Biacabe, A-G1; Jacobs, JG2; Gavier-Widén, D3; Vulin, J1; Langeveld, JPM2; Baron, TGM1 1AFSSA, France; 2CIDC-Lelystad, Netherlands; 3SVA, Sweden

Western blot analyses of PrPres accumulating in the brain of BSE-infected cattle have demonstrated 3 different molecular phenotypes regarding to the apparent molecular masses and glycoform ratios of PrPres bands. We initially described isolates (H-type BSE) essentially characterized by higher PrPres molecular mass and decreased levels of the diglycosylated PrPres band, in contrast to the classical type of BSE. This type is also distinct from another BSE phenotype named L-type BSE, or also BASE (for Bovine Amyloid Spongiform Encephalopathy), mainly characterized by a low representation of the diglycosylated PrPres band as well as a lower PrPres molecular mass. Retrospective molecular studies in France of all available BSE cases older than 8 years old and of part of the other cases identified since the beginning of the exhaustive surveillance of the disease in 20001 allowed to identify 7 H-type BSE cases, among 594 BSE cases that could be classified as classical, L- or H-type BSE. By Western blot analysis of H-type PrPres, we described a remarkable specific feature with antibodies raised against the C-terminal region of PrP that demonstrated the existence of a more C-terminal cleaved form of PrPres (named PrPres#2 ), in addition to the usual PrPres form (PrPres #1). In the unglycosylated form, PrPres #2 migrates at about 14 kDa, compared to 20 kDa for PrPres #1. The proportion of the PrPres#2 in cattle seems to by higher compared to the PrPres#1. Furthermore another PK–resistant fragment at about 7 kDa was detected by some more N-terminal antibodies and presumed to be the result of cleavages of both N- and C-terminal parts of PrP. These singular features were maintained after transmission of the disease to C57Bl/6 mice. The identification of these two additional PrPres fragments (PrPres #2 and 7kDa band) reminds features reported respectively in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome in humans.

http://www.neuroprion.com/pdf_docs/conferences/prion2007/abstract_book.pdf


Research Project: Study of Atypical Bse Location: Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock

Project Number: 3625-32000-086-05 Project Type: Specific Cooperative Agreement

Start Date: Sep 15, 2004 End Date: Sep 14, 2009

Objective: The objective of this cooperative research project with Dr. Maria Caramelli from the Italian BSE Reference Laboratory in Turin, Italy, is to conduct comparative studies with the U.S. bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) isolate and the atypical BSE isolates identified in Italy. The studies will cover the following areas: 1. Evaluation of present diagnostics tools used in the U.S. for the detection of atypical BSE cases. 2. Molecular comparison of the U.S. BSE isolate and other typical BSE isolates with atypical BSE cases. 3. Studies on transmissibility and tissue distribution of atypical BSE isolates in cattle and other species.

Approach: This project will be done as a Specific Cooperative Agreement with the Italian BSE Reference Laboratory, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, in Turin, Italy. It is essential for the U.S. BSE surveillance program to analyze the effectiveness of the U.S diagnostic tools for detection of atypical cases of BSE. Molecular comparisons of the U.S. BSE isolate with atypical BSE isolates will provide further characterization of the U.S. BSE isolate. Transmission studies are already underway using brain homogenates from atypical BSE cases into mice, cattle and sheep. It will be critical to see whether the atypical BSE isolates behave similarly to typical BSE isolates in terms of transmissibility and disease pathogenesis. If transmission occurs, tissue distribution comparisons will be made between cattle infected with the atypical BSE isolate and the U.S. BSE isolate. Differences in tissue distribution could require new regulations regarding specific risk material (SRM) removal.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=408490


Wednesday, February 11, 2009

Atypical BSE North America Update February 2009

Both of the BSE cases ascertained in the US native-born cattle were atypical cases (H-type), which contributed to the initial ambiguity of the diagnosis. 174, 185 In Canada, there have been 2 atypical BSE cases in addition to the 14 cases of the classic UK strain of BSE2: one was the H-type, and the other was of the L-type.198

snip...end

source :

Enhanced Abstract Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association January 1, 2009, Vol. 234, No. 1, Pages 59-72

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Jane L. Harman, DVM, PhD; Christopher J. Silva, PhD

http://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/ref/10.2460/javma.234.1.59


Atypical BSE North America Update February 2009

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2009/02/atypical-bse-north-america-update.html


snip...

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2009/04/transmission-of-atypical-bovine.html




PLEASE SEE ALSO ;

Members of The HSUS are also concerned about the meat products provided to their children through the National School Lunch Program. More than 31 million school children receive lunches through the program each school day. To assist states in providing healthful, low-cost or free meals, USDA provides states with various commodities including ground beef. As evidenced by the HallmarkNVestland investigation and recall, the potential for downed animals to make their way into the National School Lunch Program is neither speculative nor hypothetical.

http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/cases/FDA/hsus-v-schafer-usda-complaint.pdf


Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.

snip...

The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...

http://web.archive.org/web/20030516051623/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m09/tab05.pdf



Friday, September 4, 2009

FOIA REQUEST ON FEED RECALL PRODUCT 429,128 lbs. feed for ruminant animals may have been contaminated with prohibited material Recall # V-258-2009

http://madcowfeed.blogspot.com/2009/09/foia-request-on-feed-recall-product.html


Saturday, August 29, 2009

FOIA REQUEST FEED RECALL 2009 Product may have contained prohibited materials Bulk Whole Barley, Recall # V-256-2009

http://madcowfeed.blogspot.com/2009/08/foia-request-feed-recall-2009-product.html


C O N F I R M E D


----- Original Message ----- From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." To: Sent: Thursday, November 05, 2009 9:25 PM Subject: [BSE-L] re-FOIA REQUEST ON FEED RECALL PRODUCT contaminated with prohibited material Recall # V-258-2009 and Recall # V-256-2009

http://madcowfeed.blogspot.com/2009/11/re-foia-request-on-feed-recall-product.html


Thursday, November 12, 2009

BSE FEED RECALL Misbranding of product by partial label removal to hide original source of materials 2009

http://madcowfeed.blogspot.com/2009/11/bse-feed-recall-misbranding-of-product.html


PLEASE be aware, for 4 years, the USDA fed our children all across the Nation dead stock downer cows, the most high risk cattle for BSE aka mad cow disease and other dangerous pathogens. who will watch our children for CJD for the next 5+ decades ???

SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM FROM DOWNER CATTLE UPDATE

http://downercattle.blogspot.com/2009/05/who-will-watch-children.html


http://downercattle.blogspot.com/


please see full text here ;

Tuesday, November 17, 2009

SEAC EFFECT OF AGE ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES SEAC 103/2

http://downercattle.blogspot.com/2009/11/seac-effect-of-age-on-pathogenesis-of.html




Saturday, January 2, 2010

Human Prion Diseases in the United States January 1, 2010 ***FINAL***

http://prionunitusaupdate2008.blogspot.com/2010/01/human-prion-diseases-in-united-states.html


my comments to PLosone here ;


http://www.plosone.org/annotation/listThread.action?inReplyTo=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fannotation%2F04ce2b24-613d-46e6-9802-4131e2bfa6fd&root=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fannotation%2F04ce2b24-613d-46e6-9802-4131e2bfa6fd



JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY

MARCH 26, 2003

Send Post-Publication Peer Review to journal:

Re: RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States

Email Terry S. Singeltary:

flounder@wt.net

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?

http://www.neurology.org/cgi/eletters/60/2/176#535


LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL

Volume 3, Number 8 01 August 2003

Newsdesk

Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America

Xavier Bosch

My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth.

http://infection.thelancet.com/journal/journal.isa


Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734. Vol. 285 No. 6, February 14, 2001 JAMA

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

To the Editor: In their Research Letter, Dr Gibbons and colleagues1 reported that the annual US death rate due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been stable since 1985. These estimates, however, are based only on reported cases, and do not include misdiagnosed or preclinical cases. It seems to me that misdiagnosis alone would drastically change these figures. An unknown number of persons with a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in fact may have CJD, although only a small number of these patients receive the postmortem examination necessary to make this diagnosis. Furthermore, only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies should be reportable nationwide and internationally.

Terry S. Singeltary, Sr Bacliff, Tex

1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States: 1979-1998. JAMA. 2000;284:2322-2323. FREE FULL TEXT

http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/extract/285/6/733?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=singeltary&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT


http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/285/6/733?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=singeltary&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT


2 January 2000

British Medical Journal

U.S. Scientist should be concerned with a CJD epidemic in the U.S., as well

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/320/7226/8/b#6117


15 November 1999

British Medical Journal

vCJD in the USA * BSE in U.S.

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/319/7220/1312/b#5406


THE PATHOLOGICAL PROTEIN

BY Philip Yam

Yam Philip Yam News Editor Scientific American www.sciam.com

http://www.thepathologicalprotein.com/


WHAT about atypical BSE TSE ???

Some atypical BSE i.e. the l-BSE is more virulent, and the data on h-BSE is still out, but we do know that h-BSE is capable of transmitting to humans. With an incubation period as such with human and animal TSE, the known transmission studies of confirmed transmission of different TSE, and all the unknowns still, I think it is absolutely asinine to even consider this. It's sad, and very concerning that man never learns from his mistakes.

Stupid is, as Stupid does. ...Forest Gump. ...TSS
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