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IMPORTANT: Cervid Industry and State Veterinarians on Rewriting Chronic Wasting Disease Rule

Posted Apr 02 2013 11:41am
IMPORTANT: Cervid Industry and State Veterinarians on Rewriting Chronic Wasting Disease Rule





USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service sent this bulletin at 04/01/2013 01:40 PM EDT






During its regularly scheduled conference call with USDA officials, the National Assembly of State Animal Health Officials discussed the progress that has been made by the Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) Program Standards Working Group.



Because members of the working group represent varied interests, it has been difficult for the group to reach consensus.



Further, Federal dollars to support the CWD program have dramatically decreased, leaving limited options for managing the program.



USDA recognizes that producers have continued concerns about the language in the program standards and the provisions of the CWD interim final rule. Dr. John Clifford, Deputy Administrator, APHIS Veterinary Services, does not support withdrawing the rule or developing a separate industry program; however, he agreed on the conference call to listen to the concerns of stakeholders.





***






 
 
 
 
CWD in Farmed Herds




Elk ImageVoluntary National CWD Herd Certification Program




The APHIS National CWD Herd Certification Program (HCP) is designed to be a voluntary federal -state- industry cooperative program administered by APHIS and implemented by participating states. The 2012 interim final CWD rule published in the Federal Register on June 13, 2012 addresses the needs of the farmed cervid industry and concerns of State animal health and wildlife partners, and establishes the national voluntary CWD HCP. This program was developed in coordination with States and the farmed cervid industry. States may apply to become an Approved State HCP if they meet (or exceed) national program requirements. Cervid owners can enroll and participate in their Approved State CWD HCP. Based on availability of appropriated funding, APHIS may provide for herd owner enrollment directly in the national program if no Approved State CWD HCP exists in that herd owner's State. National CWD HCP requirements include fencing, individual animal ID's, regular inventories, and testing of all animals over 12 months that die for any reason. With each year of successful surveillance, participating herds will advance in status until reaching five years with no evidence of CWD, at which time herds are certified as being low risk for CWD. Interstate movement of animals will be dependent on participation in the program, maintaining compliance with program requirements, and having achieved herd certification status. A copy of the CWD Program Standards is available for further details on the National CWD HCP.




The 2012 interim final rule for the Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk, and Moose is available through this website link to the Federal Register. Several states already have CWD monitoring or certification programs for captive herds. To find out more about your state's activities related to CWD, visit the State Information page for links to state agriculture agencies or go to the CWD Alliance website at www.cwd-info.org .




Summary of Nationwide Chronic Wasting Disease Testing in Farmed/Captive Cervids:




Since 1998 samples from farmed/captive cervids have been tested with assistance from APHIS as concerns continued to build for the risk of introduction and transmission of CWD in farmed cervid herds. By mid-2012, 55 cervid herds in 11 States were reported to be CWD positive. View a graph of annual totals of CWD surveillance in farmed/captive cervid herds and a map depicting states with CWD in farmed/captive cervid herds.    Listing of Approved State CWD Herd Certification Programs (HCPs)   



http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/cwd/farmed.shtml






SUMMARY: We are amending a final rule, which will take effect when these amendments become effective, that will establish a herd certification program to control chronic wasting disease (CWD) in farmed or captive cervids in the United States. Under that rule, owners of deer, elk, and moose herds who choose to participate in the CWD Herd Certification Program would have to follow requirements for animal identification, testing, herd management, and movement of animals into and from herds. This document amends that final rule to provide that our regulations will set minimum requirements for the interstate movement of farmed or captive deer, elk, and moose but will not preempt State or local laws or regulations that are more restrictive than our regulations. This document requests public comment on that change. This document also amends the final rule to require farmed or captive deer, elk, and moose to participate in the Herd Certification Program and to be monitored for CWD for 5 years before they can move interstate, clarify our herd inventory procedures, establish an optional protocol for confirmatory DNA testing of CWD-positive samples, add a requirement to continue testing cervids that are killed or sent to slaughter from Certified herds, and make several other changes. These actions will help to control the incidence of CWD in farmed or captive cervid herds and prevent its spread. DATES: Effective Date: This interim final rule is effective August 13, 2012. Additionally, the effective date of FR Doc 06–6367, published on July 21, 2006 (71 FR 41682–41707), and delayed by FR Doc E6–14861, published on September 8, 2006 (71 FR 52983), is now August 13, 2012. Compliance Date





see full text ;





http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-13/pdf/2012-14186.pdf







Chronic Wasting Disease Program Standards July 2012





Chronic Wasting Disease—Program Standards 1 Introduction These Program Standards will be reviewed at least annually by representatives of the cervid industry and appropriate State and Federal agencies. A notice may be published in the Federal Register to inform stakeholders of any revisions APHIS plans to the Program Standards. These Program Standards also may be amended in the future by replacing pages or by adding new pages. Part A. Herd Certification Program These Program Standards are the minimum standards adopted and approved by the Deputy Administrator, Veterinary Services (VS), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). They were established for three primary purposes: 1. To assist Federal and State agencies in maintaining CWD-certified herds of deer, elk, and moose (all Odocoileus spp. and Cervus spp. and their hybrids and Alces alces). 2. To provide guidance on procedures to certify herds as a low risk for CWD by remaining in continuous compliance with the CWD Herd Certification Program requirements found in 9 CFR Part 55. 3. To provide guidance on complying with the minimum requirements for interstate movement of cervids found in 9 CFR Part 81. Part B. Guidance on Response to CWD-Affected Herds The CWD regulations at 9 CFR part 55 describe minimum requirements in response to the finding of a CWD-affected herd in accordance with the national CWD HCP. This section further provides suggested best management practices that may be used by a State and herd owner to investigate and manage CWD-affected herds, including quarantine, depopulation, cleaning and decontamination, and herd plans.





snip...see full text ;





http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/cwd/downloads/cwd_program_standards.pdf






see state CWD programs ;






http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/cwd/stateinfo2.shtml









USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE




"it‘s no longer its business.”




problem solved $$$...TSS







Sunday, January 06, 2013



USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”




http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2013/01/usda-to-pgc-once-captives-escape-its-no.html







 

 

Monday, March 18, 2013




PROCEEDINGS ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING of the UNITED STATES ANIMAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION September 29 – October 5, 2011




see updated 2012 RESOLUTIONS












Friday, December 14, 2012




DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012




snip...




In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.




Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:




1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and




2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.




Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.




The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.




Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.




There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.




snip...




36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011).




The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).




Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.




snip...




The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).




snip...




In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.




snip...




In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.




snip...




Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.




snip...













Friday, December 14, 2012



DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012












please note, I do not know how much of this 125 TONS of banned mad cow protein was part of the ;






e) "Big Jim's" BBB Deer Ration, Big Buck Blend, Recall # V-104-6;


bbbut, this was about 10 years post mad cow feed ban from 1997. 10 years later, and still feeding banned mad cow protein to cervids??


considering that .005 gram is lethal to several bovines, and we know that the oral consumption of CWD tainted products is very efficient mode of transmission of CWD.


Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALL AL AND FL VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE 125 TONS Products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006


Date: August 6, 2006 at 6:16 pm PST


PRODUCT


a) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish, Recall # V-100-6;


b) Performance Sheep Pell W/Decox/A/N, medicated, net wt. 50 lbs, Recall # V-101-6;


c) Pro 40% Swine Conc Meal -- 50 lb, Recall # V-102-6;


d) CO-OP 32% Sinking Catfish Food Medicated, Recall # V-103-6;




***e) "Big Jim's" BBB Deer Ration, Big Buck Blend, Recall # V-104-6;




f) CO-OP 40% Hog Supplement Medicated Pelleted, Tylosin 100 grams/ton, 50 lb. bag, Recall # V-105-6;


g) Pig Starter Pell II, 18% W/MCDX Medicated 282020, Carbadox -- 0.0055%, Recall # V-106-6;


h) CO-OP STARTER-GROWER CRUMBLES, Complete Feed for Chickens from Hatch to 20 Weeks, Medicated, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, 25 and 50 Lbs, Recall # V-107-6;


i) CO-OP LAYING PELLETS, Complete Feed for Laying Chickens, Recall # 108-6;


j) CO-OP LAYING CRUMBLES, Recall # V-109-6;


k) CO-OP QUAIL FLIGHT CONDITIONER MEDICATED, net wt 50 Lbs, Recall # V-110-6;


l) CO-OP QUAIL STARTER MEDICATED, Net Wt. 50 Lbs, Recall # V-111-6;


m) CO-OP QUAIL GROWER MEDICATED, 50 Lbs, Recall # V-112-6


CODE


Product manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/06/2006


RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER


Alabama Farmers Cooperative, Inc., Decatur, AL, by telephone, fax, email and visit on June 9, 2006. FDA initiated recall is complete.


REASON


Animal and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".


VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE


125 tons


DISTRIBUTION


AL and FL


END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 2, 2006


###










10,000,000 lbs banned blood laced meat and bone meal mbm 2007











pens, PENS, PENS ??






*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.











now, decades later ;





2012



PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer



Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA



Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of these experiments was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD) to scrapie and to compare the resultant clinical signs, lesions, and molecular profiles of PrPSc to those of chronic wasting disease (CWD). We inoculated WTD intracranially (IC; n = 5) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal (IN); n = 5) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer were inoculated with a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate from sheep with scrapie (1ml IC, 1 ml IN, 30 ml oral). All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation. PrPSc was detected in lymphoid tissues as early as 7 months-post-inoculation (PI) and a single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months had widespread distribution of PrPSc highlighting that PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues prior to the onset of clinical signs. IC inoculated deer necropsied after 20 months PI (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in WTD after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile similar to CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for PrPSc by IHC and WB. Similar to IC inoculated deer, samples from these deer exhibited two different molecular profiles: samples from obex resembled CWD whereas those from cerebrum were similar to the original scrapie inoculum. On further examination by WB using a panel of antibodies, the tissues from deer with scrapie exhibit properties differing from tissues either from sheep with scrapie or WTD with CWD. Samples from WTD with CWD or sheep with scrapie are strongly immunoreactive when probed with mAb P4, however, samples from WTD with scrapie are only weakly immunoreactive. In contrast, when probed with mAb’s 6H4 or SAF 84, samples from sheep with scrapie and WTD with CWD are weakly immunoreactive and samples from WTD with scrapie are strongly positive. This work demonstrates that WTD are highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is differentiable from CWD.









2011



*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.









Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)



Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA provided a presentation on scrapie and CWD in inoculated deer. Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. We inoculated white-tailed deer intracranially (IC) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal inoculation) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation and those necropsied after 20 months post-inoculation (PI) (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. A single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months PI did not have clinical signs, but had widespread distribution of PrPSc. This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues and 2) currently used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in white-tailed deer after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.



Committee Business:



The Committee discussed and approved three resolutions regarding CWD. They can be found in the report of the Reswolutions Committee. Essentially the resolutions urged USDA-APHIS-VS to:



Continue to provide funding for CWD testing of captive cervids



Finalize and publish the national CWD rule for Herd Certification and Interstate Movement



Evaluate live animal test, including rectal mucosal biopsy, for CWD in cervids









2011 Annual Report


Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit


2011 Annual Report


In Objective 1, Assess cross-species transmissibility of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in livestock and wildlife, numerous experiments assessing the susceptibility of various TSEs in different host species were conducted. Most notable is deer inoculated with scrapie, which exhibits similarities to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer suggestive of sheep scrapie as an origin of CWD.


snip...


4.Accomplishments 1. Deer inoculated with domestic isolates of sheep scrapie. Scrapie-affected deer exhibit 2 different patterns of disease associated prion protein. In some regions of the brain the pattern is much like that observed for scrapie, while in others it is more like chronic wasting disease (CWD), the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy typically associated with deer. This work conducted by ARS scientists at the National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA suggests that an interspecies transmission of sheep scrapie to deer may have been the origin of CWD. This is important for husbandry practices with both captive deer, elk and sheep for farmers and ranchers attempting to keep their herds and flocks free of CWD and scrapie.








White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection



Jodi D. Smith, Justin J. Greenlee, and Robert A. Kunkle; Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS



Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after a natural route of exposure. Deer (n=5) were inoculated by concurrent oral (30 ml) and intranasal (1 ml) instillation of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. Non-inoculated deer were maintained as negative controls. All deer were observed daily for clinical signs. Deer were euthanized and necropsied when neurologic disease was evident, and tissues were examined for abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot (WB). One animal was euthanized 15 months post-inoculation (MPI) due to an injury. At that time, examination of obex and lymphoid tissues by IHC was positive, but WB of obex and colliculus were negative. Remaining deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 MPI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.



see full text ;









how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ??



? game farms in a state X $465,000., do all these game farms have insurance to pay for this risk of infected the wild cervid herds, in each state ??



how many game farms, are too many game farms ?



when you have states handing out shooting pen permits like candy on halloween, just to advance their coffers, then other states wanting to do the same thing, with most all of them ignoring the science on shooting pens and cwd, what do you expect is going to happen.



when is enough, enough ?





Tuesday, December 20, 2011


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011


The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.


RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.


Form 1100-001


(R 2/11)


NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD AGENDA ITEM


SUBJECT: Information Item: Almond Deer Farm Update


FOR: DECEMBER 2011 BOARD MEETING


TUESDAY


TO BE PRESENTED BY TITLE: Tami Ryan, Wildlife Health Section Chief




SUMMARY:












SEE MORE USAHA REPORTS HERE, 2012 NOT PUBLISHED YET...TSS





















Wednesday, November 14, 2012


PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD INVESTIGATION MOVES INTO LOUISIANA and INDIANA












Pennsylvania CWD number of deer exposed and farms there from much greater than first thought


Published: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 10:44 PM Updated: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 11:33 PM











Tuesday, October 23, 2012


PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free









HERE, we see why these shooting pen owners some much like the USDA oversight of these game farms ;







USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”


problem solved $$$...TSS


Sunday, January 06, 2013


USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”










what happened to the PA deer from the CWD index heard that went to Louisiana ??





or Indiana ??








Saturday, July 07, 2012


TEXAS Animal Health Commission Accepting Comments on Chronic Wasting Disease Rule Proposal


Considering the seemingly high CWD prevalence rate in the Sacramento and Hueco Mountains of New Mexico, CWD may be well established in the population and in the environment in Texas at this time.









Friday, October 12, 2012


Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) is Now Accepting Comments on Rule Proposals for “Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)”


TO: comments@tahc.state.tx.us; Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)








***



The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.










Friday, November 09, 2012



*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species











Sunday, November 11, 2012



*** Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012











Friday, December 14, 2012



Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012













Tuesday, December 18, 2012



A Growing Threat How deer breeding could put public trust wildlife at risk










Tuesday, April 02, 2013


Ind. panel votes to allow fenced deer preserves 'shooting pens'









tss


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