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Illinois Chronic Wasting Disease: 2012-2013 Surveillance and Management Report

Posted Sep 19 2013 5:17pm
 

Illinois Chronic Wasting Disease: 2012-2013 Surveillance and Management Report Paul Shelton and Patrick McDonald Forest Wildlife Program, Illinois Department of Natural Resources August 30, 2013
 
 
Background
 
 
First CWD positive: A suspect adult female deer from northwest Boone County was diagnosed with CWD in November 2002, after exhibiting clinical signs that included food impaction, aspiration pneumonia, and behavioral abnormalities.
 
Total samples through June 30, 2012: 66,045+
 
Total positives through June 30, 2012: 372
 
Number of counties affected through June 30, 2012:
 
10 (JoDaviess, Stephenson, Winnebago, Boone, McHenry, Ogle, DeKalb, Kane, LaSalle, Grundy)
 
Distribution through June 30, 2012:
 
90% of positives were found in the four original CWD counties (Winnebago, Boone, McHenry, and DeKalb), while 2 of those counties (Winnebago and Boone) accounted for 71% of positives. The outbreak consisted of a central core of disease along the Winnebago‐Boone county line, with more diffuse distribution at increasing distance from that area (Fig. 1).

 
Fig. 1. Historical distribution of CWD‐infected deer identified in Illinois as of June 30, 2012.
 
CWD Surveillance Protocols During FY2012‐2013 (July 1, 2012‐June 30, 2013)
 
Testing: All CWD testing was conducted using immunohistochemistry (IHC) at Illinois Department of Agriculture’s (IDOA) Animal Disease Laboratory in Galesburg, Illinois. Samples were initially screened using retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RPLN), followed by confirmatory testing of recut RPLN tissue and obex.
 
Sampling of hunter‐harvested deer: Three sources were used to provide tissue samples from adult deer harvested by hunters: (1) mandatory firearm deer check stations in high‐risk counties in northern Illinois; (2) designated voluntary drop‐off testing locations in northern Illinois; and (3) cooperating meat lockers/taxidermists who collected heads/sample tissues for IDNR.
 
Surveillance by other agencies/individuals authorized by special permits: Recipients of special permits from IDNR authorizing lethal deer removals were required to collect CWD samples when working in high‐risk CWD areas or in areas needing additional surveillance. These permits included (1) Deer Population Control Permits (used by some agencies to control urban deer populations); (2) nuisance Deer Removal Permits (for crop depredation, etc.); and (3) Scientific Permits (various research projects).
 
Suspect (“target”) deer surveillance: Upon receiving reports from the public about sick deer, IDNR staff collected samples for CWD testing from deer that exhibited signs/symptoms consistent with chronic wasting disease. Surveillance from post‐hunting season sharpshooting: Sharpshooting was conducted from mid‐January through the end of March by trained IDNR staff. Sharpshooting was restricted to areas where CWD‐infected deer had been identified (limited to lands within a 2‐section buffer around known positive sections).
 
CWD Surveillance Results FY2012‐2013
 
Total number of CWD samples collected statewide: 8,069. Figure 3 compares our yearly collection efforts; Appendix A summarizes the samples collected/positives identified by county and collection source.
 
Number of usable samples collected: 8,064
 
Number of CWD‐positive deer identified: 36. Table 1 presents a comparison of the number of positive deer found each year by county.
 
Number of counties with positive deer: 12 — Boone (4), DeKalb (7), DuPage (1), Grundy (3), JoDaviess (1), Kane (4), Kendall (1), LaSalle (1), McHenry (3), Ogle (3), Stephenson (3), Winnebago (5). For distribution of positive sections, see Figure 5.
 
Number of new CWD counties: 2 — DuPage and Kendall
 
CWD prevalence information for the 12‐county CWD area (adult deer from hunting sources only) —
 
Average CWD prevalence (all adult deer): 0.54% (20/3702)
 
Average CWD prevalence (adult males): 0.52% (10/1919)
 
Average CWD prevalence (adult females): 0.56% (10/1783)


 
Fig. 2. Distribution of CWD sampling effort in Illinois counties during FY2012‐2013 (all sources).
 
snip...
 
Figure 7. Number of deer counted during aerial censuses and removed by sharpshooters in CWD‐affected areas of northern Illinois during winter 2012‐2013. Totals reflect number counted/culled within the shaded flight boundary.
 
Discussion: Illinois CWD in FY2012‐2013 Thirty‐six CWD‐positive deer were identified from 8,064 usable samples collected statewide. Estimated prevalence rates in the CWD counties remained low, with an overall rate of 0.54% in the 12‐county area. There has been no increasing trend in CWD prevalence since 2002 (Fig. 8), in contrast with increasing prevalence trends observed in many other states where chronic wasting disease has been found. Estimated prevalence rates in the original four CWD counties have averaged about 2.5 times higher than in the 12‐county area during this period. There are some specific local areas of concern in Illinois. These include (1) areas in which there is resistance to management (and therefore limited sharpshooting), which has created refuges for sick animals; and (2) recently‐established, outlying disease foci with increasing prevalence rates, in which our initial management approach has typically been limited to a small amount of sharpshooting for follow‐up surveillance after discovery of CWD in the area.
 
Surveillance resulted in identification of positive deer in two new counties this year: a suspect adult female deer near Yorkville in Kendall County in July 2012; and an adult female taken under authority of a Deer Population Control Permit in DuPage County in November 2012.
 
snip...
 
For the second straight year, highest CWD prevalence rates in adult deer (12.77%) were found in Block 2,0, which includes the northwest corner of DeKalb County (Fig. 6). There is opposition to disease management in this area, and the Department has access to only a few properties for sharpshooting, so conditions are unlikely to improve unless additional cooperators can be found. High prevalence was also observed in Block 3,4 (Northeast DuPage County — a new area), but those high rates were due to sample distribution in relation to the block boundaries. After initial detection of the positive deer, additional samples were collected locally for follow‐up evaluation, but the boundary of the block is within a few hundred yards of the positive location, and most follow‐up samples fell into Block 3,3. However, no additional positive deer were found, and most suitable deer habitat in that area falls to the west in Block 3,3.
 
During winter 2012‐13, sharpshooting activities were confined to peripheral areas outside the main disease core, and aimed at preventing disease spread. Many of the sharpshooting locations were ‘spark’ areas, where CWD has been found but is not known to be established. In those locations the primary goal was to gather additional surveillance information to clarify the disease status of the area, rather than to bring about significant population change. Because of this, the number of deer taken at those locations was limited, and sharpshooting ceased when surveillance quotas were reached. Higher numbers of deer were taken from areas which have produced multiple CWD cases, particularly where deer densities are high. Agency sharpshooters removed 661 deer, with an additional 229 removed by permittees with Deer Population Control Permits.
 
snip...
 
In 2013 scientists from the Illinois Natural History Survey, the University of Illinois, Purdue University, and the Department of Natural Resources published the results of a study that examined the effectiveness of the first several years of IDNR’s management program for chronic wasting disease in the northern Illinois deer herd. The paper appears in the Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine (Vol. 110: 541‐548), and is available online (without charge) at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01675877 .
 
The authors concluded that IDNR sharpshooting was associated with a decline in CWD prevalence in the areas where management occurred during the study period. Some other findings of the study included:
 
• In areas with management, declines in CWD prevalence were more consistently observed in young deer than in adults, suggesting that management reduced the risk of new infections;
 
• In areas where no sharpshooting occurred, the odds of a female deer having CWD were about 2.5 times higher than in areas where sharpshooters removed moderate to high numbers of deer (9‐59 deer per section per year). Results for male deer differed somewhat, with lower risk of CWD at different levels of sharpshooting. Additional years of data should help clarify the nature of this relationship;
 
• Deer taken by agency sharpshooters were about twice as likely to be CWD‐positive than deer taken by hunters.
 
The results suggest that frequent and consistent sharpshooting events with at least moderate culling intensity are needed to reduce CWD prevalence.
 
 
 
snip...see full report 15 pages ;
 
 
 
 
 
Chronic Wasting Disease Illinois
 
 
Update July 1, 2013:
 
We now have a total of 408 cases of CWD.
 
Note: Years are reported by fiscal year: 2013 is the period from July 1, 2012 through June 30, 2013, etc.
 
 
 
 
 
Illinois CWD-Infected Sections - August 15, 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CWD Testing Exception for HD Events
 
1
 
Overview
 
A requirement of the federal CWD interim final rule is that every qualifying cervid twelve months of age and older that originates from a herd participating in the CWD Herd Certification Program be sampled and tested for CWD at the time of death. In addition, herd owners enrolled in the program are required to report these deaths to the office of the State Animal Health Official (SAHO).
 
An exception to this requirement can be made by the SAHO in the case of a mass casualty / mortality event such as Hemorrhagic Disease (HD) caused by (Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) or bluetongue virus (BTV). In these events, CWD sample collection can be limited to two (2) animals per event. When only two animals are to be sampled, the sample collector will sample the highest risk animals available for testing. This includes older animals, males preferentially over females, and those animals having any known pre-existing health conditions. In addition to the above, since one cannot predict which animals may die during a HD event, all males 4 years of age and older that die during the event must have samples submitted for testing. All animals 12 month or older that die and are in poor body condition must be sampled regardless of the ongoing HD event. All deaths must continue to be reported even if an HD event is ongoing.
 
Definitions
 
HD Event: A HD event is considered to be ongoing when there is acute, mass morbidity / mortality occurring in a herd during the time of year when biting midges are active and a diagnosis of HD has been made in the herd by the herd veterinarian. The event will be considered to be over 10 days after the first killing frost has occurred since the diagnosis was made.
 
Diagnosis: A veterinary diagnosis of HD will be considered to be valid if it meets one of the following criteria:
 
1. The veterinarian has submitted blood samples from one or more animals in the herd and the testing laboratory has confirmed HD infection.
 
2. The veterinarian or herd owner has submitted one or more animals to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory and the laboratory has made the HD diagnosis.
 
3. The veterinarian has submitted tissues from a field necropsy to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory and the laboratory has made the HD diagnosis.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dec 2012 -Jan 2013 Late Winter/CWD Deer Seasons
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



Annual Reports

 
 
 
 
 
 
Greetings Illinois Officials and Hunters et al,
 
 
amazing, a perfectly good time to test a mass kill event for cwd i.e. during a supposedly ehd outbreak, where 100s of deer are dead at once, a perfect time for cwd testing to find out the real numbers on cwd, and what do they do, regulations call to test only 2 animals. and they call this looking for cwd ??
 
 
‘’An exception to this requirement can be made by the SAHO in the case of a mass casualty / mortality event such as Hemorrhagic Disease (HD) caused by (Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) or bluetongue virus (BTV). In these events, CWD sample collection can be limited to two (2) animals per event.’’
 
 
absolutely amazing, sad, but amazing.
 
 
I wish to update you on the CWD science from the PRION2013 congressional abstracts, and other related science on the TSE prion disease.
 
the PRION2013 congressional abstracts on cwd will be toward the bottom, about 3/4 of the way down the page.
 
good luck!
 
 
kind regards,
terry
 
;;
 
 
 
Monday, April 08, 2013
 
Evaluation of a wild white-tailed deer population management program for controlling chronic wasting disease in Illinois, 2003–2008
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, January 16, 2013
 
Illinois DuPage county deer found with Chronic Wasting Disease CWD
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, November 13, 2012
 
ILLINOIS CWD UPDATE NOVEMBER 2012
 
 
 
 
Friday, November 09, 2012
 
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species
 
 
 
 
Thursday, February 10, 2011
 
CWD ILLINOIS UPDATE FEBRUARY 2011 Locations of CWD-Positive Deer - Updated 2/07/2011
 
 
 
 
Thursday, January 28, 2010
 
CWD ILLINOIS UPDATE 2010
 
 
 
 
Saturday, March 08, 2008
 
CWD UPDATE ILLINOIS Stephenson County joins CWD list
 
 
 
 
 
From: TSS
 
Subject: 16 MORE CWD DEER CONFIRMED IN ILLINOIS
 
Date: December 23, 2006 at 9:08 am PST
 
Published: December 23, 2006
 
Quick Shots: Outdoors 16 more CWD deer discovered
 
Tests for chronic wasting disease found 16 more confirmed cases in northern Illinois this fall, bringing the total to 163 since the state’s first infected deer was discovered in 2002 near Roscoe.
 
The positive tests came from deer killed by firearm and archery hunters and a few suspicious deer taken by DNR staff.
 
Winnebago and DeKalb counties each had six; Boone County four.
 
All but one case was from deer in previously infected areas. The exception was a deer killed in southern DeKalb County, about seven miles from the LaSalle County line.
 
The state has included southern DeKalb in next month’s special CWD hunt because of the new discovery.
 
The latest positives came from about 2,500 deer. Tests have not been completed on all deer sampled during the firearm seasons.
 
Hunters find more than deer
 
Deer hunters in Michigan, Arkansas and Tennessee found methamphetamine labs or their remnants this season, according to Gannett News Services. Meth is an addictive stimulant made in home labs, which are often hidden in rural settings.
 
Midwest deer harvests increase
 
Midwest states had increased firearm deer harvests this season.
 
Illinois’ total was 115,192 deer, compared with 114,209 last year.
 
Wisconsin’s harvest was 336,211, compared with 325,630 in 2005.
 
Michigan’s harvest was up about 7 percent at about 258,000.
 
Minnesota doesn’t yet have a total but officials expect it to surpass 250,000, which would place it among the state’s five best harvests.
 
Court rules in muted swan fight
 
A District of Columbia Circuit Court of Appeals recently ruled in favor of government agencies’ right to manage muted swans.
 
An animal-rights group contended the swans were protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act.
 
Agencies in several states, including Wisconsin, Indiana and Maryland, have been challenged as they try to control muted swan population.
 
The swans are considered destructive to the wetland systems. They also are known to attack nesting native swans and waterfowl.
 
Ringing Salvation Army bell
 
If you’re out doing holiday shopping this morning, stop by the Wal-Mart at Owen Center Road and Riverside Boulevard where I’ll be manning the Salvation Army Christmas kettle from 10 a.m. to noon at the retail entrance.
 
Stop by, say hi and make a donation to a good cause.
 
Last week several readers visited and contributed, including a couple who delivered a cookie tin and sock filled with pennies.
 
Great plate
 
In response to my request for interesting outdoors-related license plates, Register Star copy assistant Gareth Sleger reported spotting this one on an Illinois car: GO FISH. Angler or card player? You decide.
 
If you have or see an interesting outdoors-related plate, contact me at the phone number or e-mail address below.
 
Doug Goodman’s Quick Shots on outdoors appear Saturdays. Contact him at 815-987-1386 or dgoodman@rrstar.com
 
 
 
SEE LATEST MAP DECEMBER 2006
 
 
 
Illinois Chronic Wasting Disease:
 
2005-2006 Surveillance/Management Summary
 
 
 
 
Published Date: 2006-12-28 00:00:00
 
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Chronic wasting disease, cervids - USA (WV, IL)
 
Archive Number: 20061228.3644
 
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE, CERVIDS - USA (WEST VIRGINIA, ILLINOIS)
 
***********************************************
 
snip...
 
 
16 more CWD deer discovered
 
 
-----------------------------------
 
 
Tests for chronic wasting disease found 16 more confirmed cases in northern Illinois this fall [2006], bringing the total to 163 since the state's 1st infected deer was discovered in 2002 near Roscoe. The positive tests came from deer killed by firearm and archery hunters and a few suspicious deer taken by DNR staff. Winnebago and DeKalb counties each had 6, Boone County 4. All but one case was from deer in previously infected areas. The exception was a deer killed in southern DeKalb County, about 7 miles from the LaSalle County line. The state has included southern DeKalb in next month's [January 2007] special CWD hunt because of the new discovery. The latest positives came from about 2500 deer. Tests have not been completed on all deer sampled during the firearm seasons. Midwest states had increased firearm deer harvests this season. Illinois' total was 115 192 deer, compared with 114 209 last year [2005]. Wisconsin's harvest was 336 211, compared with 325 630 in 2005. Michigan's harvest was up about 7 percent at about 258 000. Minnesota doesn't yet have a total, but officials expect it to surpass 250 000, which would place it among the state's 5 best harvests. [Byline: Doug Goodman ] See Latest Map, December 2006: Illinois Chronic Wasting Disease 2005-2006 Surveillance/Management
 
Summary: . -- Terry S. Singeltary Sr. flounder9@verizon.net [It is interesting that 2 of the 3 states named as having a larger deer harvest have CWD and that the 3rd state's deer have been involved in the tuberculosis outbreak in Michigan. There are no links to indicate that CWD has caused any human health problems. - Mod.TG]
 
 
 
 
From: TSS
 
Subject: ILLINOIS FINDS 16 MORE CASES OF CWD WITH New cases found in Northern Illinois
 
Date: January 10, 2006 at 11:57 am PST
 
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE January 9, 2006
 
DEER SEASON SAMPLING FINDS ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE New cases found in Northern Illinois
 
SPRINGFIELD, IL. – Sixteen additional cases of chronic wasting disease (CWD) have been detected in northern Illinois through sampling of hunter-harvested deer during the state’s 2005-06 deer seasons. The new cases include two deer taken by hunters in Ogle County, the first time CWD has been detected there.
 
“The Department of Natural Resources continues intensive sampling for CWD as part of our effort to slow the spread of the disease in our wild deer herd,” said Paul Shelton, manager of the IDNR Forest Wildlife Program. “We appreciate the support of hunters who continue to voluntarily allow us to take tissue samples from their deer to test for the disease. The sampling, testing and surveillance is extremely important as we deal with CWD.”
 
Chronic wasting disease was first discovered in Illinois in November 2002 and to date Illinois has detected 112 positive cases.
 
The disease had been confined in northern Illinois in Boone, Winnebago, McHenry and northern DeKalb until the two new cases were detected in nearby Ogle County this winter.
 
“We were somewhat surprised to find these two cases in Ogle County because no cases had been detected there previously despite very intensive sampling,” Shelton said. “We’ve sampled nearly 2,000 deer in Ogle County since 2003 and these are the only two cases we have found there to date. We are still awaiting the results of approximately 350 other samples from Ogle County taken this fall.”
 
Illinois biologists have collected samples from more than 2,500 deer in seven northern Illinois counties so far during the 2005-06 firearm and archery deer seasons and from suspect animals reported to the IDNR.
 
Hunters in Boone, Winnebago and McHenry counties a portion of DeKalb County north of the East-West Tollway will participate in a CWD Deer Season Jan. 13-15 to help control deer densities and the spread of chronic wasting disease. Hunters with unfilled 2005 firearm, muzzleloader or archery deer permits valid for one of the open counties may use those to hunt. Hunters using unfilled permits from the 2005 firearm, muzzleloader or archery season may take deer appropriate for that permit (antlerless-only or either-sex). Special CWD season permits were also issued previously. Check stations will be manned in the four counties and successful hunters who submit samples for CWD testing will be provided with an additional permit valid for the remainder of the season.
 
Confirmed CWD cases by county: Boone-53 Winnebago-42 McHenry-9 Dekalb-6 Ogle-2
 
Check station locations for the CWD Deer Season:
 
Boone County - Boone County Fairgrounds, Rt. 76 and Business Rt. 20, Belvidere. DeKalb County - Potawatomi Woods Forest Preserve, 32199 Kirkland Rd.(one-quarter mile north of Rt. 72), Kirkland. McHenry County - Sportsman’s Choice, intersection of Routes 14 and 47, Woodstock. Winnebago County - Rock Cut State Park, 6425 Hart Rd. (one mile east of Perryville Rd. on Hart Rd.), Loves Park.
 
While not thought to be contagious to humans or livestock, CWD is known to spread from animal to animal among deer and elk. The disease affects the brain of the infected animal, causing it to become emaciated, display abnormal behavior, lose coordination and eventually die.
 
Illinois expanded its chronic wasting disease surveillance effort in 2002 following the discovery of CWD in neighboring Wisconsin. For updated information about CWD, check the IDNR web site at: http://dnr.state.il.us/cwd . Hunters who participated in the CWD sampling can check the status of their deer at this site. Hunters who provided samples from deer that test positive are notified by the IDNR.
 
###
 
 
 
 
 
From: TSS (216-119-136-42.ipset16.wt.net)
 
Subject: 9 NEW CWD CASES FOUND IN NORTHERN ILLINOIS Date: December 20, 2003 at 6:58 pm PST
 
9 new CWD cases found in northern Illinois DOUG GOODMAN , Rockford Register Star
 
Illinois has nine more confirmed cases of a fatal deer disease first discovered in the state last fall near Roscoe, wildlife officials announced Friday.
 
The new cases were found among 1,100 hunter-harvested deer tested for chronic wasting disease during the first session of the firearm season last month.
 
The latest cases include five in Boone County, three in Winnebago County and the first-ever in DeKalb County. The state now has 30 confirmed cases.
 
Paul Shelton, state Department of Natural Resources wildlife program manager, said the DeKalb deer was killed in the county's northern section near the Kishwaukee River about 20 miles from Roscoe, where the majority of the cases have been found.
 
"It's possible it could have traveled from the Roscoe area," he said. "Or it's possible we could have missed a pocket (of diseased deer) during our sampling where we don't have as high a prevalence of CWD among the deer. When more data comes in, we'll get a clearer picture."
 
The tests also showed CWD in two other new areas -- just west of Rockton and northeastern Boone County. The Rockton case was the first west of Interstate 90, while the earlier Boone cases were all on the western border along Winnebago County.
 
"The numbers in themselves were not surprising. They were in line with what we expected," Shelton said. "More important than the numbers is the distribution of the (positive) samples."
 
The latest results were from tests in Winnebago, Boone, DeKalb, Stephenson, McHenry and Ogle counties.
 
About 3,500 samples were taken during the firearms seasons in northern Illinois, but not all the tests have been completed.
 
Shelton contacted hunters with deer testing positive Wednesday night.
 
He added the DNR appreciates the cooperation hunters have provided during the testing process. "They've been fantastic."
 
Roscoe hunter Jim Hart said CWD has gained a level of acceptance among the majority of his colleagues.
 
"A certain number of hunters have told me they are terrified of (CWD), but most are accepting of it," he said, adding he knows of some hunters who quit the sport this year for fear of the disease.
 
Contact: dgoodman@register
 
startower.com; 815-987-1386.
 
 
 
 
From: TSS (216-119-136-111.ipset16.wt.net)
 
Subject: Chronic Wasting Disease Surveillance Summary: Status of CWD in Illinois
 
Date: November 10, 2003 at 6:36 am PST
 
Chronic Wasting Disease Surveillance Summary:
 
Status of CWD in Illinois
 
Forest Wildlife Program
 
Illinois Department of Natural Resources
 
October 1, 2003
 
Page 1 of 6
 
Figure 1. Sampling goals and distribution of counties sampled for CWD during the 2002 firearm deer season.
 
Figure 2. Locations (to the nearest section) of CWD-positive deer identified as of February 1, 2003.
 
Background:
 
On November 1, 2002 Illinois Department of Natural Resources officials received confirmation that chronic wasting disease (CWD) in a wild Illinois deer had been found for the first time, the result of routine testing of a suspect animal from Boone County. During the ensuing firearm deer season in November and December, a total of 4,060 samples were taken from hunterharvested deer in 36 Illinois counties (Fig. 1). The following counties were sampled during that season: Adams, Boone, Bureau, Carroll, Clark, Clinton, DeKalb, Effingham, Fayette, Fulton, Hancock, Jefferson, Jo Daviess, Johnson, LaSalle, Lawrence, Macoupin, Madison, Marion, McHenry, McLean, Ogle, Pike, Pope, Randolph, Rock Island, Sangamon, Shelby, St. Clair, Stephenson, Union, Vermilion, Washington, Whiteside, Williamson, and Winnebago. Six additional CWD-positive deer were identified from these samples. Two clusters of infection were identified - one located along the Boone-Winnebago county line northeast of Rockford, and the other southeast of Woodstock in McHenry County (Figure 2).
 
Page 2 of 6
 
Figure 3. Locations (to the nearest section) of deer collected for chronic wasting disease testing after the close of the deer hunting season. Follow-up Surveillance:
 
After identification of those areas in which CWD-positive deer were found, the Department followed up with additional sampling (via sharpshooting) in those two locations so as to better evaluate the status of CWD in the immediate area. Sample locations were limited by the distribution of adequate habitat, by suitability of sites for sharpshooting purposes (i.e., safety), and by the willingness of landowners to allow access. A few additional samples were collected from road-killed deer when found in the vicinity of the core sampling area. In the Winnebago-Boone county area, samples were also taken from a high-density deer herd several miles to the south. DNR staff contacted potential landowners, both private and public, in an effort to gain access to suitable properties. Sampling commenced on February 6 and continued through March 31. Sharpshooting was normally conducted from late afternoon throughout the night (but varied by site) by staff of USDA-APHIS Wildlife Services and IDNR.
 
Samples were collected and tested from 185 deer, including 62 from Boone County, 29 from McHenry County, and 94 from Winnebago County. Figure 3 depicts the distribution of samples in those counties. Twenty-seven samples were collected from an area in southern Winnebago County not considered part of the primary area of concern for CWD, so these samples will be excluded from analyses pertaining to CWD prevalence, etc.
 
None of the 27 samples from southern Winnebago County tested positive for CWD. In addition, none of the 29 samples from McHenry County were positive. In the Boone-Winnebago sampling unit, 4 of 78 adult deer (5.1%) and 1 of 51 fawns (2.0%) were CWD-positive. All positive animals except one originated from sections already known to contain CWD-infected deer, with the new section being located just east of Roscoe in Winnebago County. Table 1 presents a summary of surveillance information found during this follow-up period.
 
Page 3 of 6
 
Figure 4. Firearm deer season samples included in CWD analyses.
 
Table 1. CWD Follow-up Surveillance Summary
 
Sampling Unit Age Number of Samples Number of Positives Percent Positive Boone-Winnebago Unit Fawn 51 1 2.0% Adult 78 4 5.1% Total 129 5 3.9% McHenry Unit Fawn 12 0 0.0% Adult 17 0 0.0% Total 29 0 0.0% Both Units Combined Fawn 63 1 1.6% Adult 95 4 4.2% Total 158 5 3.2%
 
Results of All Random Surveillance Data Combined
 
We combined the sample/test data from the follow-up surveillance (sharpshooting) with information gathered during the 2002 firearm deer season. In order to do this, we limited firearm deer season data to those samples taken from sections within 2 miles of a known positive section. This resulted in an additional 56 samples from an approximately 69.5 mi2 area of Boone-Winnebago counties, and 12 samples from a 38 mi2 portion of McHenry County (Figure 4). All of the samples from the firearm deer season were from adult deer, as no fawns were sampled during that season. Results of the combined surveillance testing are presented in Table 2.
 
Page 4 of 6
 
Table 2. Summary of all random surveillance data (from firearm deer season and follow-up sampling) for Illinois’ known CWD-affected areas.
 
Sampling Unit Age Number of Samples Number of Positives Percent Positive Boone-Winnebago Unit Fawn 51 1 2.0% Adult 134 8 6.0% Total 185 9 4.9% McHenry Unit Fawn 12 0 0.0% Adult 29 2 6.9% Total 41 2 4.9% Both Units Combined Fawn 63 1 1.6% Adult 163 10 6.1% Total 226 11 4.9%
 
Suspect Animal Surveillance Testing
 
Deer with clinical signs of illness continue to be submitted for CWD testing by IDNR field staff. To date, four such deer have been diagnosed as having CWD. All four originated from the Boone- Winnebago unit.
 
Surveillance Using Deer Population Control Permits
 
Four Illinois counties (Cook, DuPage, Kane, and Lake) in northeastern Illinois are closed to firearm deer hunting, thus precluding the collection of CWD samples by the same methods as in other counties. In addition, collection of samples from hunter-harvested deer in other counties is unlikely to provide significant representation of deer residing in urban/suburban areas. In an effort to collect samples from such locations, we requested that land-managing agencies controlling urban/suburban deer herds through the use of a Deer Population Control Permit (DPCP) collect samples for CWD testing. Participating permittees were provided supplies and training, as well as assistance in getting samples to the laboratory.
 
Approximately 317 samples were collected and tested through the DPCP program, primarily in northeastern Illinois. Preliminary data indicate that DPCP samples were taken in Cook (30), DuPage (159), Lake (68), Winnebago (9), and JoDaviess (51). An additional 5 samples were taken in Lake County in conjunction with an ongoing research project in Highland Park. None of the samples from any source were found to be positive for CWD.
 
Page 5 of 6
 
Figure 5. Illinois sections in which CWD-positive deer have been found (by all surveillance methods) and the number of infected animals identified in each as of 1 October 2003.
 
Discussion
 
Minimum deer densities in the areas of concern were determined by helicopter surveys flown on 5 March 2003 over snow cover. Minimum Boone-Winnebago densities were slightly more than 20 deer per square mile over approximately 48 mi2 surveyed, while McHenry County densities were lower (<15 12="" 2.8="" 2="" 3.1.="" 3.7="" 3="" 4.0="" 4.9="" 5="" 6.0="" 6.1="" 6.6="" 6.9="" 6="" 7="" 9.2="" 95="" a="" accurate="" across="" adult="" adults="" age="" all="" alone="" an="" and="" animals="" appear="" appears="" apply="" are="" area.="" area="" areas="" as="" assessment="" be="" been="" boone-winnebago="" boone="" both="" buffer="" but="" calculations="" came="" can="" caution="" classes="" combined="" concentrated="" confidence="" considerable="" contains="" counties="" county="" cwd-positive="" cwd="" date="" deer="" densities="" disease="" distributed="" distribution="" div="" does="" either="" estimate="" estimated="" estimates="" exist="" expressed="" fifteen="" for="" found="" from="" habitat="" have="" high="" hunting="" identified="" igure="" in="" included="" including="" interpreting="" intervals="" is="" known="" land="" landscape="" large="" mchenry.="" mchenry="" mi2="" miles="" most="" must="" not="" number="" occurred="" of="" only="" or="" particularly="" positives="" preclude="" presence="" preserves="" pressure="" prevalence="" primarily="" publicly-owned="" rates="" rather="" rectangle="" refuges="" relatively="" residential="" result="" results.="" sample="" samples="" similar="" sizes="" small="" so="" somewhat="" sources="" still="" sufficiently="" suitable="" than="" that="" the="" these="" to="" total="" two="" unit.="" unit="" units="" used="" variation="" was="" which="" wide="" widely="" winnebago="" wintering="" with="" would="" x="" yet="" zone.="">
 
Page 6 of 6
 
Appendix A. Summary of CWD-positive deer collected through 1 October 2003.
 
Date Collected County Map Coordinates Sex Age Surveillance Method 10/23/2002 Boone 46N 3E S31 Female Adult Suspect 11/23/2002 McHenry 44N 7E S26 Male 1.5 Hunter 12/05/2002 McHenry 44N 7E S13 Male 1.5 Hunter 12/06/2002 Boone 45N 3E S6 Male 2.5 Hunter 12/06/2002 Winnebago 45N 2E S12 Female 1.5 Hunter 12/07/2002 Boone 45N 3E S4 Male 1.5 Hunter 12/08/2002 Boone 46N 3E S7 Female 2.5 Hunter 02/08/2003 Boone 46N 3E S31 Female 4.5 Suspect 02/10/2003 Boone 46N 3E S31 Female 2.5 Follow-up 03/12/2003 Boone 45N 3E S6 Female 2.5 Follow-up 03/18/2003 Boone 45N 3E S6 Female 2.5 Follow-up 03/24/2003 Boone 46N 3E S31 Male Fawn Follow-up 03/31/2003 Winnebago 46N 2E S26 Female 5.5+ Follow-up 04/02/2003 Winnebago 46N 2E S27 Female 5.5+ Suspect 09/16/2003 Winnebago 45N 2E S2 Female 4.5+ Suspect
 
 
Search CWD test results
 
 
TSS
 
 
From: TSS (216-119-162-48.ipset44.wt.net)
 
Subject: CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE, CERVIDS - USA (ILLINOIS, WISCONSIN)
 
Date: May 10, 2003 at 7:08 pm PST
 
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE, CERVIDS - USA (ILLINOIS, WISCONSIN)
 
**************************************************
 
A ProMED-mail post
 
ProMED-mail, a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
 
[1] Date: 1 May 2003 From: A-Lan Banks Source: Week-TV, Illinois [edited]
 
Illinois officials say Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in the state appears to be confined to small areas of Boone, Winnebago, and McHenry counties.
 
The Illinois department of Natural Resources (DNR) says 185 tissue samples collected in February 2003 turned up 7 new cases. Forest Program Manager Paul Shelton says the results are encouraging signs that the state can control the neurological disease that kills deer.
 
Shelton says fairly intensive testing has not turned up any cases in central and southern Illinois.
 
-- ProMED-mail
 
 
****** [2] Date: 29 Apr 2003 From: A-Lan Banks Source: Newsday [edited]
 
 
Another 49 deer with chronic wasting disease have been found in Wisconsin, all within the area where the brain disease was discovered a year ago, reported the state Department of Natural Resources (DNR).
 
The new cases bring the total number of diseased deer found in the Mount Horeb area to 190, about 2 percent of the deer that were examined, the agency said. All but 2 of the diseased deer were killed in Dane and Iowa counties.
 
The disease that threatens the state's $1 billion hunting industry had never been found east of the Mississippi River until it was detected 13 months ago near Mount Horeb in southwestern Wisconsin.
 
Scientists have tested the brains of 39 012 of the 40 111 hunter-killed deer statewide and donated for analysis for chronic wasting disease, in an unprecedented attempt to determine how far the disease had spread into a whitetail herd estimated at 1.6 million deer, according to the DNR.
 
The ailment creates sponge-like holes in a deer's brain, causing the animal to become thin, act abnormally, and die. Scientists believe it is spread by animal-to-animal contact. There is no scientific evidence it can infect humans, but people are advised not to eat an infected deer.
 
Of the diseased deer found so far, 99 were in Iowa County, 89 were in Dane County, one in Richland County, and one in Sauk County. Only 6 deer with the disease have been found outside the 411-square-mile eradication zone around Mount Horeb where the DNR wants all the deer killed to try to wipe out the disease from the herd. Those 6 were found in the so-called management zone nearby and suggest that the rate of the infection in that area is 0.10 percent, the DNR said.
 
Wildlife officials will make no decision on whether to expand the eradication zone to include land near those deer until the state Natural Resources Board acts on some proposed permanent regulations concerning the disease, DNR spokesman Bob Manwell said.
 
The Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Madison had reported it had analyzed all deer samples for the disease. Manwell said getting the final test results may take another week or 2. The results so far are positive because the disease seems clustered in a fairly small area, Manwell said.
 
"We have not found those outliers way out that everybody was kind of fearful of," he said. "Some of our fears are beginning to lessen a little bit." The DNR still does not know how the disease got into the herd, Manwell said.
 
"We are not anywhere near saying we got this thing in hand or under control," he said. "Granted, it is a relatively low prevalence in the overall population. We are going to be watching it carefully over the years to come."
 
[Byline: Robert Imrie]
 
-- ProMED-mail
 
[Although the Wisconsin DNR is to be commended for its desire to eradicate the disease, it seems inappropriate to attempt to eradicate all the animals within a certain designated area. The animals are known to travel some distances and to jump fences and would not recognize a man-made designated area. A survey might seem appropriate, but the eradication attempt does not seem well thought-out, especially in view of the low percentage of positives. - Mod.TG]
 
[see also:
 
snip...end...tss
 
 
 
 
From: TSS (216-119-163-132.ipset45.wt.net)
 
Subject: GOD HELP THE NEEDY! (potentially sub-clinical MAD deer/elk to be donated to food pantry's) ILLINOIS
 
Date: February 6, 2003 at 7:52 am PST
 
Illinois Department of Natural Resources
 
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE February 5, 2003
 
DNR TO DO ADDITIONAL CWD TESTING
 
SPRINGFIELD, Ill. – The Department of Natural Resources is undertaking additional testing of white-tailed deer in Boone, McHenry and Winnebago counties for chronic wasting disease, where seven confirmed cases of CWD have occurred.
 
IDNR will be taking samples at Rock Cut State Park in Winnebago County, owned by the Department; Kinnikinnick Conservation Area owned by the Boone County Conservation District; and select properties owned by private individuals. The deer removal is being conducted by teams comprised of USDA Wildlife Services staff and IDNR biologists. Properties that have been selected are located in the areas in which CWD-positive deer have been found, and contain significant blocks of deer habitat where the animals tend to concentrate during winter.
 
Chronic wasting disease is a fatal neurological disease found in deer and elk. The disease affects the brains of infected animals, causing them to become emaciated, display abnormal behavior, lose coordination and eventually die. It is not known to be contagious to livestock or humans.
 
So far, about 3,500 tests for CWD have been completed on the 4,100 samples taken from hunter-harvested deer. A total of seven deer have tested positive, including six taken during the firearm deer season in November and December. All of the positive cases have been in Boone, McHenry and Winnebago counties.
 
"This additional testing, concentrating on known CWD areas, will allow us to better assess the status of CWD in northern Illinois," said Paul Shelton, IDNR's Forest Wildlife Program Manager. Shelton noted that biologists have been unable to conduct aerial deer population surveys due to a lack of snow cover in the vicinity of known CWD-positive animals, but they intend to conduct the surveys as soon as weather conditions allow.
 
Additional samples will help biologists determine how long CWD may have been present and the distribution and prevalence of the disease. Sampling is expected to be completed by the end of February or early March, with results several weeks later. The test results will help the Department further refine its strategy for dealing with the disease. The deer carcasses will be held in an approved facility until CWD test results are available. Deer that test negative will be processed and donated to food pantries.
 
For updated information about chronic wasting disease, including answers to frequently asked questions and the Department's rules, please see our web site at: http://dnr.state.il.us/pubaffairs/2002/CWD.htm . A web application that allows participating hunters to check the status of test results for deer sampled during the firearm deer season is available at that site.
 
 
 
 
very important to those hunters looking for healthy deer/elk to eat...TSS
 
 
 
MRC-43-00
 
Issued: Monday, 28 August 2000
 
NEW EVIDENCE OF SUB-CLINICAL PRION INFECTION: IMPORTANT RESEARCH FINDINGS RELEVANT TO CJD AND BSE
 
A team of researchers led by Professor John Collinge at the Medical Research Council Prion Unit1 report today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, on new evidence for the existence of a 'sub-clinical' form of BSE in mice which was unknown until now.
 
The scientists took a closer look at what is known as the 'species barrier' - the main protective factor which limits the ability of prions2 to jump from one species to infect another. They found the mice had a 'sub-clinical' form of disease where they carried high levels of infectivity but did not develop the clinical disease during their normal lifespan. The idea that individuals can carry a disease and show no clinical symptoms is not new. It is commonly seen in conventional infectious diseases.
 
Researchers tried to infect laboratory mice with hamster prions3 called Sc237 and found that the mice showed no apparent signs of disease. However, on closer inspection they found that the mice had high levels of mouse prions in their brains. This was surprising because it has always been assumed that hamster prions could not cause the disease in mice, even when injected directly into the brain.
 
In addition the researchers showed that this new sub-clinical infection could be easily passed on when injected into healthy mice and hamsters.
 
The height of the species barrier varies widely between different combinations of animals and also varies with the type or strain of prions. While some barriers are quite small (for instance BSE easily infects mice), other combinations of strain and species show a seemingly impenetrable barrier. Traditionally, the particular barrier studied here was assumed to be robust.
 
Professor John Collinge said: "These results have a number of important implications. They suggest that we should re-think how we measure species barriers in the laboratory, and that we should not assume that just because one species appears resistant to a strain of prions they have been exposed to, that they do not silently carry the infection. This research raises the possibility, which has been mentioned before, that apparently healthy cattle could harbour, but never show signs of, BSE.
 
"This is a timely and unexpected result, increasing what we know about prion disease. These new findings have important implications for those researching prion disease, those responsible for preventing infected material getting into the food chain and for those considering how best to safeguard health and reduce the risk that theoretically, prion disease could be contracted through medical and surgical procedures."
 
ISSUED FRIDAY 25 AUGUST UNDER EMBARGO. PLEASE NOTE THAT THE EMBARGO IS SET BY THE JOURNAL.
 
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT THE MRC PRESS OFFICE ON 020 7637 6011 (OFFICE HOURS) OR 07818 428297 OR 0385 774357 (OUT-OF-OFFICE-HOURS) OR PROFESSOR JOHN COLLINGE ON 020 7594 3760. PLEASE NOTE THAT OWING TO TRAVEL COMMITMENTS PROFESSOR COLLINGE WILL ONLY BE AVAILABLE UNTIL 16.30 ON FRIDAY 25 AUGUST AND CONTACTABLE AGAIN ON MONDAY 28 AUGUST VIA THE MRC PRESS OFFICE. DR ANDREW HILL (A CO-AUTHOR ON THE PAPER) FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE WILL BE AVAILABLE ON 00 61 3 8344 3995 (DURING OFFICE HOURS) OR 00 61 3 9443 0009 (OUT-OF-OFFICE HOURS). PLEASE NOTE THAT AUSTRALIA IS TEN HOURS AHEAD OF UK TIME.
 
NOTES FOR EDITORS
 
Professor Collinge is a consultant neurologist and Director of the newly formed MRC Prion Unit based at The Imperial College School of Medicine at St Mary's Hospital. He is also a member of the UK Government's Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee (SEAC). The MRC prion unit is was set up in 1999, and its work includes molecular genetic studies of human prion disease and transgenic modelling of human prion diseases.
 
Prions are unique infectious agents that cause fatal brain diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie and BSE (mad cow disease) in animals. In some circumstances prions from one species of animals can infect another and it is clear that BSE has done this to cause the disease variant CJD in the UK and France. It remains unclear how large an epidemic of variant CJD will occur over the years ahead.
 
The strain of prion used here to infect the mice is the Sc237 strain (also known as 263K) which infects hamsters, and until now was assumed not to infect mice.
 
This research was funded by the Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust.
 
The Medical Research Council (MRC) is a national organisation funded by the UK tax-payer. Its business is medical research aimed at improving human health; everyone stands to benefit from the outputs. The research it supports and the scientists it trains meet the needs of the health services, the pharmaceutical and other health-related industries and the academic world. MRC has funded work which has led to some of the most significant discoveries and achievements in medicine in the UK. About half of the MRC's expenditure of £345 million is invested in over 50 of its Institutes and Units, where it employs its own research staff. The remaining half goes in the form of grant support and training awards to individuals and teams in universities and medical schools.
 
The Wellcome Trust is the world's largest medical research charity with a spend of some £600 million in the current financial year 1999/2000. The Wellcome Trust supports more than 5,000 researchers, at 400 locations, in 42 different countries to promote and foster research with the aim of improving human and animal health. As well as funding major initiatives in the public understanding of science, the Wellcome Trust is the country's leading supporter of research into the history of medicine.
 
©2002 Medical Research Council Data Protection policy | Contact the MRC
 
TSS
 
 
 
From: TSS (216-119-163-98.ipset45.wt.net)
 
Subject: CWD--ILLINOIS--THREE MORE POSITIVE CWD CASES FOUND !!!
 
Date: December 16, 2002 at 12:44 pm PST
 
Illinois Department of Natural Resources
 
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE December 16, 2002
 
THREE MORE POSITIVE CWD CASES FOUND IN ILLINOIS
 
SPRINGFIELD, ILL. – Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been detected in three more deer in northern Illinois, the Department of Natural Resources announced today, bringing to four the number of confirmed cases of the disease in Illinois. CWD is not known to be contagious to livestock or humans.
 
Two of the three new cases were found in the vicinity of the first CWD case reported in early November. One positive case each was returned from Boone, McHenry and Winnebago counties. This represents the second instance of a CWD-positive deer in Boone County. (Illinois'first case, originally reported as from Winnebago County, actually was just over the county line in Boone County). The locations of the three cases reported to date within Boone and Winnebago counties are within approximately two miles of each other in an area east of Roscoe, Illinois. The McHenry County positive deer came from an area a few miles northeast of Woodstock. The new cases include a 2.5-year-old buck (Boone), 1.5 year-old-buck (McHenry) and a 1.5-year-old doe (Winnebago).
 
The samples were taken as part of IDNR's CWD surveillance of deer harvested during the firearm deer season. Testing was conducted at the Illinois Department of Agriculture Disease Laboratories. A follow-up test on the McHenry County case was conducted at the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, confirming the diagnosis. Follow-up tests on the Boone and Winnebago county animals were deemed unnecessary, given their location and the contagious nature of the disease.
 
"It comes as no surprise that we found additional cases near the first one," said IDNR Director Brent Manning. "The identification of a new location in McHenry County, although an unwelcome result, does demonstrate that our surveillance program is proving effective. We will continue to study results as they come in, in order to incorporate the best science into our response strategies."
 
Illinois expanded its surveillance efforts regarding CWD earlier this year and created a joint task force with the Departments of Natural Resources and Agriculture following the CWD outbreak in southern Wisconsin. About 4,000 samples of hunter-harvested deer were taken in 36 counties around Illinois during the firearm deer season Nov. 22-24 and Dec.5-8. Tests have been completed on about 1,450 samples, with only the three positive results.
 
"We continue to be committed to a long-term plan of stepped up surveillance and monitoring and taking all steps biologically appropriate to combat chronic wasting disease in Illinois. Deer hunters and those who value the health of wildlife and outdoor recreation in Illinois played an important role during the firearm season and will continue to play an important role in that process."
 
Counties sampled for CWD during the 2002 firearm deer hunting season included: Jo Daviess, Stephenson, Winnebago, Boone, McHenry, Carroll, Ogle, DeKalb, Whiteside, Rock Island, Bureau, LaSalle, Hancock, Adams, Pike, Fulton, McLean, Vermilion, Sangamon, Macoupin, Shelby, Fayette, Effingham, Clark, Lawrence, Madison, St. Clair, Clinton, Washington, Randolph, Jefferson, Marion, Williamson, Union, Johnson and Pope. Counties were selected based on a variety of factors including geographic location, size of deer population and the number of facilities with captive deer or elk.
 
Chronic wasting disease is a fatal neurological disease found in deer and elk. The disease affects the brains of infected animals, causing them to become emaciated, display abnormal behavior, lose coordination and eventually die. It is not known to be contagious to livestock or humans.
 
CWD has been diagnosed in wild, free-ranging deer and elk as well as in captive animals in a number of western states but earlier this year was found in neighboring Wisconsin and Minnesota.
 
For updated information about chronic wasting disease, including answers to frequently asked questions and the Department’s rules, please see our web site at: http://dnr.state.il.us/pubaffairs/2002/CWD.htm . A web application that allows participating hunters to check the status of test results for deer sampled during the firearm deer season should be available this week.
 
###
 
 
TSS
 
 
 
From: TSS (216-119-162-20.ipset44.wt.net)
 
Subject: CWD FOUND IN ILLINOIS, FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE !!!
 
Date: November 2, 2002 at 8:06 am PST
 
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE November 1, 2002
 
POSITIVE CWD CASE FOUND IN ILLINOIS
 
SPRINGFIELD, ILL. ? Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been detected in a sample from a wild deer near Roscoe in Winnebago County, the Department of Natural Resources announced today. CWD is not known to be contagious to livestock or humans.
 
The young female deer was shot by a landowner in late October because he believed it was ill. DNR Conservation Police officers were contacted and collected the doe for testing at the Illinois Department of Agriculture laboratory in Centralia. A follow-up test conducted today at the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, confirmed the diagnosis.
 
"This is the first positive for CWD from any deer or elk in Illinois, though we've been monitoring and testing for the disease for the past five years," said IDNR Director Brent Manning. "Illinois expanded its surveillance efforts earlier this year and created a joint task force with the Departments of Natural Resources and Agriculture following the CWD outbreak in southern Wisconsin."
 
"The detection of CWD in Winnebago County is disappointing," Manning said. "We are committed to a long-term plan of stepped up surveillance and monitoring and to taking all steps biologically appropriate to control the spread of chronic wasting disease in Illinois. Deer hunters and those who value the health of wildlife and outdoor recreation in Illinois will continue to play an important role in that process."
 
Extensive testing for the disease is planned during Illinois' firearm deer season, which begins Friday, Nov. 22. About 3,500 samples in 36 counties from hunter- harvested deer around Illinois will be collected and tested. Larger numbers of samples from hunter-harvested deer are being collected in northern Illinois. Additional samples also are being taken from deer control programs in northeastern Illinois where firearm deer hunting is not allowed.
 
Counties tentatively to be sampled for CWD during the 2002 firearm deer hunting season include Jo Daviess, Stephenson, Winnebago, Boone, McHenry, Carroll, Ogle, DeKalb, Whiteside, Rock Island, Bureau, LaSalle, Hancock, Adams, Pike, Fulton, McLean, Vermilion, Sangamon, Macoupin, Shelby, Fayette, Effingham, Clark, Lawrence, Madison, St. Clair, Clinton, Washington, Randolph, Jefferson, Marion,Williamson, Union, Johnson and Pope. Counties were selected based on a variety of factors including geographic location, size of deer population and the number of facilities with captive deer or elk.
 
"Once we get test results back from our expanded surveillance efforts the task force will be able to evaluate the extent of the disease in Illinois and the necessary steps to control the disease," Manning said.
 
Chronic wasting disease is a fatal neurological disease found in deer and elk. The disease affects the brains of infected animals, causing them to become emaciated, display abnormal behavior, lose coordination and eventually die. It is not known to be contagious to livestock or humans.
 
CWD has been diagnosed in wild, free-ranging deer and elk as well as in captive animals in a number of western states but earlier this year was found in neighboring Wisconsin and Minnesota. Illinois has been testing suspect animals for the last five years, as well as taking samples during deer hunting season.
 
A task force, comprised of key staff from both agencies, has been working for months to develop plans to address surveillance of wild deer and captive herds, import and export of deer and elk and a planned response to a potential chronic wasting disease outbreak in Illinois.
 
The importation of hunter-harvested deer and elk is being limited, the importation of live animals has been restricted and the feeding of wild deer has been banned.
 
A DNR rule bans the importation of hunter-harvested deer and elk carcases into Illinois, except for deboned meat, antlers, antlers attached to skull caps, hides, upper canine teeth, and finished taxidermist mounts. Skull caps must be cleaned of all brain and muscle tissue. This action prevents hunters from bringing potentially diseased animals into Illinois and discarding their parts in a manner that could result in contamination of Illinois' deer herd.
 
The Department has banned the feeding of wild deer and other wildlife in areas where wild deer are present. The ban includes food, salt, mineral blocks and other food products, with some exceptions. For example, bird and squirrel feeders close to homes and incidental feeding of wildlife within active livestock operations, are exempt from the ban. For a complete list of the exemptions see the rule on the Department's web site.
 
The Department has also implemented regulations to minimize the threat of chronic wasting disease entering Illinois through the interstate transportation of captive deer and elk and to monitor captive herds already in Illinois. DNR shares responsibility with the Department of Agriculture in regulating captive deer and elk on game farms. DNR's new rule complements new regulations being adopted by the Agriculture Department for diseased animals.
 
For updated information about chronic wasting disease, including answers to frequently asked questions and the Department's rules, please see our web site at: http://dnr.state.il.us/pubaffairs/2002/CWD.htm .
 
 
TSS
 
 
 
From: TSS (216-119-162-10.ipset44.wt.net)
 
Subject: Re: CWD FOUND IN ILLINOIS, FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE !!!
 
Date: November 2, 2002 at 7:56 pm PST
 
In Reply to: CWD FOUND IN ILLINOIS, FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE !!! posted by TSS on November 2, 2002 at 8:06 am:
 
"This is the first positive for CWD from any deer or elk in Illinois,
 
 
>though we've been monitoring and testing for the disease for the past
 
 
>five years," said IDNR Director Brent Manning.
 
 
***oh really brent? tell us how many deer you have wild and game farm deer and elk you have tested in these 5 years. it seems you permitted all kinds of cr@p even after the Wisconsin thing blew up: "The Illinois DNR is also restricting importing live deer and elk to game farms for another 150 days and has banned the feeding of wild deer and other wildlife where wild deer are present" ie it used to be ok to import and feed them. July 30, 2002 emergency rule...
 
 
 
***your press release is totally silent about illinois game farms but it seems there might be a game farm right in the area where this one was found??
 
 
 
***Beans Whitetails Pearl City, IL DC Elk & Whitetail Deer Farm Elpaso, IL 4 the Sport Nebo, IL Higgins Trophy Whitetails Gays, IL Hunziker's Whitetail Deer Eureka, IL Meadow Creek Whitetail & Elk Effingham, IL Mill Creek Farms Quincy, IL Pruchniaks Deer Farm Wauconda, IL Williams Whitetail Deer Farm Stewardson, IL
 
TSS
 
 
 
From: TSS (216-119-162-10.ipset44.wt.net)
 
Subject: Wasting disease found in northern Illinois deer
 
Date: November 2, 2002 at 7:58 pm PST
 
In Reply to: Re: CWD FOUND IN ILLINOIS, FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE !!! posted by TSS on November 2, 2002 at 7:56 pm:
 
Wasting disease found in northern Illinois deer
 
A variant of mad-cow, the illness is fatal to cervids
 
November 2, 2002
 
By JEFF LAMPE of the Journal Star
 
PEORIA - The news Illinois deer hunters and wildlife officials have been dreading all fall became official Friday when a Winnebago County white-tailed deer tested positive for chronic wasting disease.
 
The young female deer shot by a landowner northeast of Rockford is the first Illinois animal to test positive for chronic wasting disease - a fatal neurological malady first found in Colorado elk in the 1960s.
 
Though the result was not unexpected, given a similar discovery last February in southern Wisconsin, Friday's news was not welcomed by wildlife officials.
 
"The detection of CWD in Winnebago County is disappointing," said Brent Manning, director of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources. "We are committed to a long-term plan of stepped-up surveillance and monitoring to control the spread of this disease."
 
CWD is a variant of mad-cow disease caused by an abnormally shaped protein that damages brain and nerve tissue. So far there is no scientific evidence indicating CWD is transmissible to humans.
 
"The first thing I would say is I personally eat venison," Manning said. "Secondly, there have been no confirmed cases of this disease being passed into the human population."
 
Similar sentiments have not eased the fears of some residents of Wisconsin. The disease was first found in that state near Mount Horeb, 40 miles north of the Illinois border.
 
Sales of hunting licenses are down 23 percent in the months since and revenues for the Wisconsin DNR have dropped by $3.8 million. And many Wisconsin citizens expressed outrage at that state's plan to kill every deer in a 361-square-mile area around Mount Horeb.
 
Illinois officials said Friday they have no plans to initiate a similar eradication plan in Winnebago County. Officials also stressed that Illinois' 230,000 deer hunters need not panic.
 
"One deer doesn't mean an epidemic. So we're taking this one step at a time," said John Buhnerkempe, head of the DNR's wildlife division. "I feel strongly the best approach is to take a very deliberate approach and not do anything extraordinary at this point and time."
 
To gauge the scope of the disease, the DNR plans to sample at least 3,500 deer during the shotgun hunting season.
 
Hunters are also asked to report any animals they see showing signs of emaciation, staggering, consuming large amounts of water, urinating excessively or generally showing a lack of wariness.
 
"After we gather data and apply the best science we have to that information we'll figure out how to deal with this disease and how to manage it for the state," Buhnerkempe said.
 
Beyond that, officials urge hunters to follow basic precautions when handling deer they shoot.
 
Preliminary indications from some hunters in Winnebago County is that they still plan to head afield. Archery season has been under way in Illinois since Oct. 1 and the first shotgun season runs Nov. 22-24.
 
"We were all pretty much hoping it wasn't here," said Robert Erb of Rockford, a long-time bowhunter. "But I don't think people are going to quit hunting. Unless it starts showing up more."
 
That possibility certainly exists.
 
Test results are still pending for an animal shot this week by conservation police officer Steve Vasicek near Tremont.
 
"It was emaciated and sick looking and would let me walk to within 10 yards of it before it would startle and run," Vasicek said.
 
That description is similar to the one called in Oct. 25 by the Winnebago County landowner who lived near the city of Roscoe.
 
"The farmer said the deer was sick and looked emaciated and let him walk right to it before he shot it," said Lt. William Shannon, a conservation police officer.
 
Tests conducted at both the Illinois Department of Agriculture laboratory in Centralia and the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, confirmed the disease.
 
As a result, Illinois joins the ranks of 10 other states and two Canadian provinces that have discovered CWD in deer or elk within their borders.
 
 
TSS
 
 
 
***PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS CWD TSE PRION DISEASE***
 
 
 
Sunday, August 25, 2013
 
***PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS
 
Prion2013 Chronic Wasting Disease CWD risk factors, humans, domestic cats, blood, and mother to offspring transmission
 
 
 
 
Sunday, July 21, 2013
 
*** As Chronic Wasting Disease CWD rises in deer herd, what about risk for humans?
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, September 04, 2013
 
***cwd - cervid captive livestock escapes, loose and on the run in the wild...
 
 
 
 
Thursday, August 08, 2013
 
***PRION2013 CONGRESSIONAL ABSTRACTS
 
Characterization of the first case of naturally occurring chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus) in North America
 
 
 
 
Sunday, September 01, 2013
 
hunting over gut piles and CWD TSE prion disease
 
 
 
 
Sunday, June 09, 2013
 
Missouri House forms 13-member Interim Committee on the Cause and Spread of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, August 21, 2013
 
IOWA DNR EMERGENCY CONSENT ORDER IN THE MATTER OF TOM & LINDA BRAKKE D/B/A PINE RIDGE HUNTING LODGE UPDATE AUGUST 21, 2013
 
 
 
 
Saturday, September 07, 2013
 
Georgia House Bill 1043 and Chronic Wasting Disease CWD
 
Greetings Honorable Representatives of the House, Game, Fish, & Parks,
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, October 23, 2012
 
PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free
 
 
 
 
USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”
 
Sunday, January 06, 2013
 
USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
 
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013
 
6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.
 
 
 
 
Monday, June 24, 2013
 
The Effects of Chronic Wasting Disease on the Pennsylvania Cervid Industry Following its Discovery
 
 
 
 
Saturday, June 29, 2013
 
PENNSYLVANIA CAPTIVE CWD INDEX HERD MATE YELLOW *47 STILL RUNNING LOOSE IN INDIANA, YELLOW NUMBER 2 STILL MISSING, AND OTHERS ON THE RUN STILL IN LOUISIANA
 
 
 
 
Friday, August 02, 2013
 
The Fight to Keep Chronic Wasting Disease Out of Florida
 
 
 
 
*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.
 
 
 
 
pens, pens, PENS ??
 
 
 
*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.
 
 
 
 
now, decades later ;
 
 
 
2012
 
PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer
 
Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA
 
snip...
 
The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in WTD after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile similar to CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for PrPSc by IHC and WB. Similar to IC inoculated deer, samples from these deer exhibited two different molecular profiles: samples from obex resembled CWD whereas those from cerebrum were similar to the original scrapie inoculum. On further examination by WB using a panel of antibodies, the tissues from deer with scrapie exhibit properties differing from tissues either from sheep with scrapie or WTD with CWD. Samples from WTD with CWD or sheep with scrapie are strongly immunoreactive when probed with mAb P4, however, samples from WTD with scrapie are only weakly immunoreactive. In contrast, when probed with mAb’s 6H4 or SAF 84, samples from sheep with scrapie and WTD with CWD are weakly immunoreactive and samples from WTD with scrapie are strongly positive. This work demonstrates that WTD are highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is differentiable from CWD.
 
 
 
 
2011
 
*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.
 
 
 
 
Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
 
Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA
 
snip...
 
This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues and 2) currently used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in white-tailed deer after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.
 
 
 
 
2011 Annual Report
 
Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit
 
2011 Annual Report
 
In Objective 1, Assess cross-species transmissibility of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in livestock and wildlife, numerous experiments assessing the susceptibility of various TSEs in different host species were conducted. Most notable is deer inoculated with scrapie, which exhibits similarities to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer suggestive of sheep scrapie as an origin of CWD.
 
snip...
 
4.Accomplishments 1. Deer inoculated with domestic isolates of sheep scrapie. Scrapie-affected deer exhibit 2 different patterns of disease associated prion protein. In some regions of the brain the pattern is much like that observed for scrapie, while in others it is more like chronic wasting disease (CWD), the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy typically associated with deer. This work conducted by ARS scientists at the National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA suggests that an interspecies transmission of sheep scrapie to deer may have been the origin of CWD. This is important for husbandry practices with both captive deer, elk and sheep for farmers and ranchers attempting to keep their herds and flocks free of CWD and scrapie.
 
 
 
 
White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection
 
Jodi D. Smith, Justin J. Greenlee, and Robert A. Kunkle; Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS
 
snip...
 
This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.
 
see full text ;
 
 
 
 
SEE MORE USAHA REPORTS HERE, 2012 NOT PUBLISHED YET...TSS
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thursday, June 20, 2013
 
atypical, BSE, CWD, Scrapie, Captive Farmed shooting pens (livestock), Wild Cervids, Rectal Mucosa Biopsy 2012 USAHA Proceedings, and CJD TSE prion Update
 
 
 
 
Friday, December 14, 2012
 
*** DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
 
snip...
 
In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.
 
Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:
 
1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and
 
2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.
 
Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.
 
The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.
 
Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.
 
There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.
 
snip...
 
36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011). The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.
 
snip...
 
The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).
 
snip...
 
In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.
 
snip...
 
In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.
 
snip...
 
Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.
 
snip...
 
 
 
 
SNIP...SEE ;
 
 
 
Friday, December 14, 2012
 
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, September 17, 2013
 
***USAHA 116TH ANNUAL MEETING October 18 – 24, 2012 CWD, Scrapie, BSE, TSE prion (September 17, 2013)
 
 
 
 
Sunday, September 1, 2013
 
***Evaluation of the Zoonotic Potential of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy
 
We previously described the biochemical similarities between PrPres derived from L-BSE infected macaque and cortical MM2 sporadic CJD: those observations suggest a link between these two uncommon prion phenotypes in a primate model (it is to note that such a link has not been observed in other models less relevant from the human situation as hamsters or transgenic mice overexpressing ovine PrP [28]). We speculate that a group of related animal prion strains (L-BSE, c-BSE and TME) would have a zoonotic potential and lead to prion diseases in humans with a type 2 PrPres molecular signature (and more specifically type 2B for vCJD)
 
snip...
 
Together with previous experiments performed in ovinized and bovinized transgenic mice and hamsters [8,9] indicating similarities between TME and L-BSE, the data support the hypothesis that L-BSE could be the origin of the TME outbreaks in North America and Europe during the mid-1900s.
 
 
 
 
Monday, September 02, 2013
 
Atypical BSE: role of the E211K prion polymorphism
 
Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES
 
Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit
 
 
 
 
Sunday, August 11, 2013
 
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America updated report August 2013
 
***Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease CJD cases rising North America with Canada seeing an extreme increase of 48% between 2008 and 2010
 
 
 
 
Saturday, July 6, 2013
 
*** Small Ruminant Nor98 Prions Share Biochemical Features with Human Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease and Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy
 
Research Article
 
 
 
 
Sunday, September 08, 2013
 
***Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease via surgical instruments and decontamination possibilities for the TSE prion
 
 
 
 
lost my mom to hvCJD i.e. the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease hvCJD ‘confirmed’ 12/14/97. just made a promise to her. back then, there was not much information in the public domain about the TSE prion disease. I could not and still, to this day, don’t accept the bogus myth that 85%+ of all human TSE prion disease i.e. sporadic CJD, just happens, without route and source of anything, a happenstance of bad luck, a spontaneous event, of a miss-folding protein. and in fact, we are learning today that some of the sporadic CJDs are being linked to atypical BSE and atypical scrapie, cwd will be next, if it has not happened already. ...
 
 
layperson
 
kind regards, terry
 
 
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
 
P.O. Box 42
 
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518
 
 
 
 
 

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