Fast, broad-range disinfection of bacteria, fungi, viruses and prions
Posted Jan 27 2010 11:22am
Originally published as JGV in Press, 10.1099/vir.0.016337-0 on October 28, 2009 J Gen Virol 91 (2010), 580-589; DOI 10.1099/vir.0.016337-0
Fast, broad-range disinfection of bacteria, fungi, viruses and prions
Michael Beekes1, Karin Lemmer1,2, Achim Thomzig1, Marion Joncic1, Kathrin Tintelnot3 and Martin Mielke4
1 P24, Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies, Robert Koch-Institut, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany 2 ZBS 2, Highly Pathogenic Microbial Pathogens, Bacteria and Fungi, Robert Koch-Institut, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany 3 FG 16, Mycology, Robert Koch-Institut, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany 4 FG 14, Applied Infection Control and Hospital Hygiene, Robert Koch-Institut, Nordufer 20, 13353 Berlin, Germany
Correspondence Michael Beekes BeekesM@rki.de
Effective disinfectants are of key importance for the safe handling and reprocessing of surgical instruments. This study tested whether new formulations containing SDS, NaOH and 1-propanol (n-propanol) are simultaneously active against a broad range of pathogens including bacteria, fungi, non-enveloped viruses and prions. Inactivation and disinfection were examined in suspension and on carriers, using coagulated blood or brain homogenate as an organic contaminant. Coomassie blue staining was used to assess whether the formulations undesirably fixed proteins to rough surfaces. A mixture of 0.2 % SDS and 0.3 % NaOH in 20 % n-propanol achieved potent decontamination of steel carriers contaminated with PrPTSE, the biochemical marker for prion infectivity, from 263K scrapie hamsters or from patients with sporadic or variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. 263K scrapie infectivity on carriers was decreased by 5.5 logs. Furthermore, the formulation effectively inactivated poliovirus, hepatitis A virus and caliciviruses (including murine norovirus) in suspension tests. It also yielded significant titre reductions of bacteria (Enterococcus faecium, Mycobacterium avium; >6 logs), fungi (spores of Aspergillus niger; 5 logs) and poliovirus (>4 logs) embedded in coagulated blood on carriers. The formulation was not found to fix proteins more than was observed with water as the cleaning reagent. In conclusion, SDS, NaOH and n-propanol can synergistically achieve fast, broad-range disinfection.
Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to a chimpanzee by electrodes contaminated during neurosurgery.
Gibbs CJ Jr, Asher DM, Kobrine A, Amyx HL, Sulima MP, Gajdusek DC.
Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.
Stereotactic multicontact electrodes used to probe the cerebral cortex of a middle aged woman with progressive dementia were previously implicated in the accidental transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) to two younger patients. The diagnoses of CJD have been confirmed for all three cases. More than two years after their last use in humans, after three cleanings and repeated sterilisation in ethanol and formaldehyde vapour, the electrodes were implanted in the cortex of a chimpanzee. Eighteen months later the animal became ill with CJD. This finding serves to re-emphasise the potential danger posed by reuse of instruments contaminated with the agents of spongiform encephalopathies, even after scrupulous attempts to clean them.
BSE prions propagate as either variant CJD-like or sporadic CJD-like prion strains in transgenic mice expressing human prion protein
Emmanuel A. Asante, Jacqueline M. Linehan, Melanie Desbruslais, Susan Joiner, Ian Gowland, Andrew L. Wood, Julie Welch, Andrew F. Hill, Sarah E. Lloyd, Jonathan D.F. Wadsworth, and John Collinge1 MRC Prion Unit and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, University College, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK 1Corresponding author e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgReceived August 1, 2002; Revised September 24, 2002; Accepted October 17, 2002.
Western blot analyses of PrPres accumulating in the brain of BSE-infected cattle have demonstrated 3 different molecular phenotypes regarding to the apparent molecular masses and glycoform ratios of PrPres bands. We initially described isolates (H-type BSE) essentially characterized by higher PrPres molecular mass and decreased levels of the diglycosylated PrPres band, in contrast to the classical type of BSE. This type is also distinct from another BSE phenotype named L-type BSE, or also BASE (for Bovine Amyloid Spongiform Encephalopathy), mainly characterized by a low representation of the diglycosylated PrPres band as well as a lower PrPres molecular mass. Retrospective molecular studies in France of all available BSE cases older than 8 years old and of part of the other cases identified since the beginning of the exhaustive surveillance of the disease in 20001 allowed to identify 7 H-type BSE cases, among 594 BSE cases that could be classified as classical, L- or H-type BSE. By Western blot analysis of H-type PrPres, we described a remarkable specific feature with antibodies raised against the C-terminal region of PrP that demonstrated the existence of a more C-terminal cleaved form of PrPres (named PrPres#2 ), in addition to the usual PrPres form (PrPres #1). In the unglycosylated form, PrPres #2 migrates at about 14 kDa, compared to 20 kDa for PrPres #1. The proportion of the PrPres#2 in cattle seems to by higher compared to the PrPres#1. Furthermore another PK–resistant fragment at about 7 kDa was detected by some more N-terminal antibodies and presumed to be the result of cleavages of both N- and C-terminal parts of PrP. These singular features were maintained after transmission of the disease to C57Bl/6 mice. The identification of these two additional PrPres fragments (PrPres #2 and 7kDa band) reminds features reported respectively in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome in humans.
Research Project: Study of Atypical Bse Location: Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock
Project Number: 3625-32000-086-05 Project Type: Specific Cooperative Agreement
Start Date: Sep 15, 2004 End Date: Sep 14, 2009
Objective: The objective of this cooperative research project with Dr. Maria Caramelli from the Italian BSE Reference Laboratory in Turin, Italy, is to conduct comparative studies with the U.S. bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) isolate and the atypical BSE isolates identified in Italy. The studies will cover the following areas: 1. Evaluation of present diagnostics tools used in the U.S. for the detection of atypical BSE cases. 2. Molecular comparison of the U.S. BSE isolate and other typical BSE isolates with atypical BSE cases. 3. Studies on transmissibility and tissue distribution of atypical BSE isolates in cattle and other species.
Approach: This project will be done as a Specific Cooperative Agreement with the Italian BSE Reference Laboratory, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, in Turin, Italy. It is essential for the U.S. BSE surveillance program to analyze the effectiveness of the U.S diagnostic tools for detection of atypical cases of BSE. Molecular comparisons of the U.S. BSE isolate with atypical BSE isolates will provide further characterization of the U.S. BSE isolate. Transmission studies are already underway using brain homogenates from atypical BSE cases into mice, cattle and sheep. It will be critical to see whether the atypical BSE isolates behave similarly to typical BSE isolates in terms of transmissibility and disease pathogenesis. If transmission occurs, tissue distribution comparisons will be made between cattle infected with the atypical BSE isolate and the U.S. BSE isolate. Differences in tissue distribution could require new regulations regarding specific risk material (SRM) removal.
Both of the BSE cases ascertained in the US native-born cattle were atypical cases (H-type), which contributed to the initial ambiguity of the diagnosis. 174, 185 In Canada, there have been 2 atypical BSE cases in addition to the 14 cases of the classic UK strain of BSE2: one was the H-type, and the other was of the L-type.198
Enhanced Abstract Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association January 1, 2009, Vol. 234, No. 1, Pages 59-72
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Jane L. Harman, DVM, PhD; Christopher J. Silva, PhD