Health knowledge made personal
Join this community!
› Share page:
Go
Search posts:

Detection of CWD prions in salivary, urinary, and intestinal tissues of deer: potential mechanisms of prion shedding and transmi

Posted Jun 09 2011 3:42pm
Detection of CWD prions in salivary, urinary, and intestinal tissues of deer: potential mechanisms of prion shedding and transmission

Nicholas J. Haley1, Candace K. Mathiason1, Scott Carver1, Mark Zabel1, Glenn C. Telling2, and Edward A. Hoover1,*

1 Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

2 Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA

* Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523. Phone: (970)491-7587, Fax: (970)491-0523. Email: Edward.Hoover@colostate.edu

ABSTRACT

Efficient horizontal transmission is a signature trait of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Infectious prions shed into excreta appear to play a key role in this facile transmission, as has been demonstrated by bioassay in cervid and transgenic species and serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). However, the source(s) of infectious prions in these body fluids have yet to be identified. In the present study, we analyzed tissues proximate to saliva, urine, and feces production by sPMCA in an attempt to elucidate this unique aspect of CWD pathogenesis. Oropharyngeal, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tissues, along with blood and obex from CWD-exposed cervids (comprising 27 animals and >350 individual samples) were analyzed and scored based on apparent relative CWD burden. PrPCWD-generating activity was detected in a range of tissues, and was highest in salivary gland, urinary bladder, and the distal intestinal tract. In the same assays, blood from the same animals and unseeded normal brain homogenate controls (n= 116 of 117) remained negative. PrP-converting activity in peripheral tissues varied from 10-11 to 100 - fold that found in brain of the same animal. Deer with highest levels of PrPCWD amplification in the brain had higher and more widely disseminated prion amplification in excretory tissues. Interestingly, PrPCWD was not demonstrable by conventional western blotting in these excretory tissues, suggesting low prion burden or the presence of protease-sensitive infectious prions destroyed by harsh proteolytic treatments. These findings offer unique insights into the transmission of CWD in particular, and prion infection and trafficking overall.


http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/JVI.00425-11v1



http://wolftracksproductions.yuku.com/topic/4987/Detection--CWD-prions--salivary-urinary--intestinal-tissues



http://www.buckmasters.com/social/forums/cwd-and-deer-diseases/detection-of-cwd-prions-in-salivary-urinary-and-intestinal-tissues-of-deer-potential-mechanisms.aspx



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/



Wednesday, March 18, 2009

Detection of CWD Prions in Urine and Saliva of Deer by Transgenic Mouse Bioassay

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/03/detection-of-cwd-prions-in-urine-and.html



doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2008.08.003 Copyright © 2008 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Detection of infectious prions in urine


Dennisse Gonzalez-Romeroa, Marcelo A. Barriaa, Patricia Leona, Rodrigo Moralesa and Claudio Soto, a,

http://www.biggamehunt.net/forum/detection-infectious-prions-urine-soto-et-al-2008



CWD, GAME FARMS, BAITING, AND POLITICS

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/01/cwd-game-farms-baiting-and-politics.html


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2008/08/cwd-feeding-and-baiting-piles.html



Thursday, February 17, 2011

Environmental Sources of Scrapie Prions

http://scrapie-usa.blogspot.com/2011/02/environmental-sources-of-scrapie-prions.html



Saturday, May 14, 2011

Modeling Routes of Chronic Wasting Disease Transmission: Environmental Prion Persistence Promotes Deer Population Decline and Extinction

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/05/modeling-routes-of-chronic-wasting.html



Monday, February 14, 2011

THE ROLE OF PREDATION IN DISEASE CONTROL: A COMPARISON OF SELECTIVE AND NONSELECTIVE REMOVAL ON PRION DISEASE DYNAMICS IN DEER

NO, NO, NOT NO, BUT HELL NO !

Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 47(1), 2011, pp. 78-93 © Wildlife Disease Association 2011

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/02/role-of-predation-in-disease-control.html



Friday, February 25, 2011

Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/02/soil-clay-content-underlies-prion.html



Wednesday, January 07, 2009

CWD to tighten taxidermy rules Hunters need to understand regulations

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/01/cwd-to-tighten-taxidermy-rules-hunters.html



Monday, February 22, 2010

Aerosol and Nasal Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Cervidized Mice

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2010/02/aerosol-and-nasal-transmission-of.html



AS THE CROW FLIES, SO DOES CWD

Sunday, November 01, 2009

American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and potential spreading of CWD through feces of digested infectious carcases

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/11/american-crows-corvus-brachyrhynchos.html



Monday, July 13, 2009

Deer Carcass Decomposition and Potential Scavenger Exposure to Chronic Wasting Disease

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/07/deer-carcass-decomposition-and.html



Sunday, December 06, 2009

Detection of Sub-Clinical CWD Infection in Conventional Test-Negative Deer Long after Oral Exposure to Urine and Feces from CWD+ Deer

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/12/detection-of-sub-clinical-cwd-infection.html



THEN YOU have water that has been contaminated from a CWD-endemic area ;


Wednesday, October 14, 2009

Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/10/detection-of-protease-resistant-cervid.html



ALSO, NOTE MINERAL LICKS A POSSIBLE SOURCE AND TRANSMISSION MODE FOR CWD ;

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/08/third-international-cwd-symposium-july.html


http://www.cwd-info.org/pdf/3rd_CWD_Symposium_utah.pdf



Thursday, May 26, 2011

Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey

Journal of the American Dietetic Association Volume 111, Issue 6 , Pages 858-863, June 2011.

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/05/travel-history-hunting-and-venison.html



Tuesday, January 25, 2011

Generation of a new form of human PrPSc in vitro by inter-species transmission from cervids prions

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/01/generation-of-new-form-of-human-prpsc.html



Wednesday, April 06, 2011

Presence and Seeding Activity of Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/04/presence-and-seeding-activity-of.html



Wednesday, January 5, 2011

ENLARGING SPECTRUM OF PRION-LIKE DISEASES Prusiner Colby et al 2011

Prions

David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2


http://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/2011/01/enlarging-spectrum-of-prion-like.html



UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN


Wednesday, September 08, 2010

CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2010/09/cwd-prion-2010.html



Saturday, May 14, 2011

Modeling Routes of Chronic Wasting Disease Transmission: Environmental Prion Persistence Promotes Deer Population Decline and Extinction

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/05/modeling-routes-of-chronic-wasting.html



Wednesday, June 01, 2011

Management of CWD in Canada: Past Practices, Current Conditions, Current Science, Future Risks and Options

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/06/management-of-cwd-in-canada-past.html



Tuesday, May 31, 2011

Chronic Wasting Disease DOI: 10.1007/128_2011_159 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/05/chronic-wasting-disease-doi.html



Friday, May 13,

2011 EFSA Joint Scientific Opinion on any possible epidemiological or molecular association between TSEs in animals and humans

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/05/efsa-joint-scientific-opinion-on-any.html



Topics in Current Chemistry, 2011, 1-28, DOI: 10.1007/128_2011_161

Atypical Prion Diseases in Humans and Animals

Michael A. Tranulis, Sylvie L. Benestad, Thierry Baron and Hans Kretzschmar

Abstract

Although prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep, have long been recognized, our understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis is still in its early stages. Progress is hampered by the lengthy incubation periods and the lack of effective ways of monitoring and characterizing these agents. Protease-resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrP), known as the “scrapie form” (PrPSc), are used as disease markers, and for taxonomic purposes, in correlation with clinical, pathological, and genetic data. In humans, prion diseases can arise sporadically (sCJD) or genetically (gCJD and others), caused by mutations in the PrP-gene (PRNP), or as a foodborne infection, with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) causing variant CJD (vCJD). Person-to-person spread of human prion disease has only been known to occur following cannibalism (kuru disease in Papua New Guinea) or through medical or surgical treatment (iatrogenic CJD, iCJD). In contrast, scrapie in small ruminants and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids behave as infectious diseases within these species. Recently, however, so-called atypical forms of prion diseases have been discovered in sheep (atypical/Nor98 scrapie) and in cattle, BSE-H and BSE-L. These maladies resemble sporadic or genetic human prion diseases and might be their animal equivalents. This hypothesis also raises the significant public health question of possible epidemiological links between these diseases and their counterparts in humans.

Keywords Animal - Atypical - Atypical/Nor98 scrapie - BSE-H - BSE-L - Human - Prion disease - Prion strain - Prion type

http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=f433r34h34ugg617&size=largest




MUCH MORE HERE ;


Monday, May 23, 2011

Atypical Prion Diseases in Humans and Animals 2011

Top Curr Chem (2011)

DOI: 10.1007/128_2011_161

# Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

http://bse-atypical.blogspot.com/2011/05/atypical-prion-diseases-in-humans-and.html



Saturday, March 5, 2011

MAD COW ATYPICAL CJD PRION TSE CASES WITH CLASSIFICATIONS PENDING ON THE RISE IN NORTH AMERICA

http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/03/mad-cow-atypical-cjd-prion-tse-cases.html



Tuesday, April 26, 2011

sporadic CJD RISING Text and figures of the latest annual report of the NCJDRSU covering the period 1990-2009 (published 11th March 2011)

http://creutzfeldt-jakob-disease.blogspot.com/2011/04/sporadic-cjd-rising-text-and-figures-of.html




OLD HISTORY

Subject: MAD DEER/ELK DISEASE AND POTENTIAL SOURCES

Date: Sat, 20 Jul 2002 09:43:10 -0700

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."

Subject: MAD DEER/ELK DISEASE AND POTENTIAL SOURCES

Date: Sat, 25 May 2002 18:41:46 -0700

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."

Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy To: BSE-L@uni-karlsruhe.de

######## Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########

MAD DEER/ELK DISEASE AND POTENTIAL SOURCES

8420-20.5% Antler Developer For Deer and Game in the wild Guaranteed Analysis Ingredients / Products Feeding Directions Crude Protein (min) 20.50% Crude Fat (min) 2.50% Crude Fiber (max) 15.00% Calcium (min) 1.50% Calcium (max) 1.90% Phosphorus (min) 1.25% Potassium (min) 1.00% Magnesium (min) 0.45% Zinc (min) 450ppm Manganese (min) 250ppm Copper (min) 40ppm Copper (max) 60ppm Selenium (min) 0.30ppm Vitamin A (min) 25,000IU/LB Vitamin E (min) 20IU/LB Plant Protein, Soybean Hulls (16%), Grain, Processed Grain By-Products, Dehydrated Alfalfa Meal, Molasses, Defluorinated Phosphate, Monocalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate, Calcium Carbonate, Sodium Bicarbonate, __Animal Protein__, Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Vitamin E Supplement, Magnesium Oxide, Soybean Oil, DL-Mdethionine, Zinc Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate, Copper Sulfate, Ferrous Sulfate, Ethylenediamine Dihydriodide, Cobalt Carbonate, Sodium Selenite and Artificial Flavoring Feed to wildlife as a supplement to pasture and browse, or hay. Feed at a rate to maintain desired growth rate and body condition, antler development and fawn survival. For optimal results feed during times of nutrient stress, such as drought or when nutrient requirements are elevated such as lactation antler growth, or rapid fawn growth. Provide animals access to fresh clean water at all times.

CAUTION: This product contains high levels of copper. Do not feed to sheep.

http://www.surefed.com/deer.htm

================================

animal sterol????????

TSS

Ingredients

Grain Products, Plant Protein Products, Forage Products, Roughage Products 30%, Calcium Carbonate, Processed Grain By-Products, Deflourinated Phosphate, Salt, Molasses Products, Vitamin A Acetate with D-activated Animal Sterol (source of Vitamin D3, di-alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate, Artificial flavors added.

http://www.bodefeed.com/prod3.htm

=================================

[MORE ANIMAL PROTEIN PRODUCTS.....tss]

BODE'S GAME FEED SUPPLEMENT #400 A RATION FOR DEER NET WEIGHT 50 POUNDS 22.6 KG.

GUARANTEED ANALYSIS Crude Protein (Min) 15.5% Crude Fat (Min) 2.0% Crude Fiber (Max) 8.0% Calcium (Min) 0.30% Calcium (Max) 0.70% Phosphorus (Min) 0.30% Salt (Min) 0.05% Salt (Max) 0.25%

Ingredients

Grain Products, Plant Protein Products, Processed Grain By-Products, Forage Products, Roughage Products 15%, Molasses Products, __Animal Protein Products__, Monocalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Pyosphate, Salt, Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin A Acetate with D-activated Animal Sterol ( source of Vitamin D3), Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Riboflavin Supplement, Niacin Supplement, Calcium Panothenate, Choline Chloride, Folic Acid, Menadione Soduim Bisulfite Complex, Pyridoxine Hydorchloride, Thiamine Mononitrate, d-Biotin, Manganous Oxide, Zinc Oxide, Ferrous Carbonate, Calcium Iodate, Cobalt Carbonate, Dried Sacchoromyces Berevisiae Fermentation Solubles, Cellulose gum, Artificial Flavors added.

Ration CORN 666.67 LBS PEAS 666.67 LBS F# 3153 666.67 LBS

FEEDING DIRECTIONS Feed Free Choice

http://www.bodefeed.com/prod7.htm

===================================

[MORE ANIMAL PROTEIN...TSS]

Ingredients

Grain Products, Plant Protein Products, Processed Grain By-Products, Forage Products, Roughage Products 15%, Molasses Products, __Animal Protein Products__, Monocalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Pyosphate, Salt, Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin A Acetate with D-activated Animal Sterol ( source of Vitamin D3), Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Riboflavin Supplement, Niacin Supplement, Calcium Panothenate, Choline Chloride, Folic Acid, Menadione Soduim Bisulfite Complex, Pyridoxine Hydorchloride, Thiamine Mononitrate, d-Biotin, Manganous Oxide, Zinc Oxide, Ferrous Carbonate, Calcium Iodate, Cobalt Carbonate, Dried Sacchoromyces Berevisiae Fermentation Solubles, Cellulose gum, Artificial Flavors added.

http://www.bodefeed.com/prod6.htm

===================================

MORE ANIMAL PROTEIN PRODUCTS FOR DEER

Bode's #1 Game Pellets A RATION FOR DEER F3153

GUARANTEED ANALYSIS Crude Protein (Min) 16% Crude Fat (Min) 2.0% Crude Fiber (Max) 19% Calcium (Ca) (Min) 1.25% Calcium (Ca) (Max) 1.75% Phosphorus (P) (Min) 1.0% Salt (Min) .30% Salt (Max) .70%

Ingredients

Grain Products, Plant Protein Products, Processed Grain By-Products, Forage Products, Roughage Products, 15% Molasses Products, __Animal Protein Products__, Monocalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate, Salt, Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin A Acetate with D-activated Animal Sterol ( source of Vitamin D3) Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Roboflavin Supplement, Niacin Supplement, Calcium Pantothenate, Choline Chloride, Folic Acid, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Thiamine Mononitrate, e - Biotin, Manganous Oxide, Zinc Oxide, Ferrous Carbonate, Calcium Iodate, Cobalt Carbonate, Dried Saccharyomyces Cerevisiae Fermentation Solubles, Cellulose gum, Artificial Flavors added.

FEEDING DIRECTIONS Feed as Creep Feed with Normal Diet

http://www.bodefeed.com/prod8.htm

[PROBABLY MORE HERE, JUST FOLLOW THE ''NEXT BUTTON PRODUCTS''...TSS]

=================

[MORE ANIMAL PROTEIN DEER FEED...TSS]

Selling Tips

* Designed to improve the nutritional health of your herd * Provides consistent protein source * High levels of Vitamin E and Selenium * Yeast culture * Available in pellet form

Profile^(TM) Deer Builder Pellets Product Features: Product Benefits
* High quality protein

* Balanced for demanding nutritional stages of post and pre rut deer

* Extremely palatable

* Keeps deer coming to the feeding area

* Quality ingredients

* Assures that the deer is receiving a consistent source of quality nutrients

* Yeast culture

* For increased feed efficiency and increased fiber digestion

* Fortified with the proper balance of vitamins and minerals

* Especially Vitamin E and Selenium for reproduction efficiency, prevent white muscle disease and boost the immune system under stress

General Description: For deer with higher nutrient needs.

PROFILE Deer Builder Pellets

GUARANTEED ANALYSIS

Crude Protein, Not less than......................................................................................................20.0

% Crude Fat, Not less than................................................................................................................2.0

% Crude Fiber, Not more than........................................................................................................18.0

% Calcium (Ca), Not less than.........................................................................................................1.0

% Calcium (Ca), Not more than........................................................................................................1.5

% Phosphorus (P), Not less than..................................................................................................0.95

% Salt (NaCl), Not less than..............................................................................................................0.1

% Salt (NaCl), Not more than............................................................................................................0.6

% Potassium (K), Not less than.......................................................................................................1.0

% Selenium (Se), ppm, Not less than..................................................................................................0.6 Copper (Cu), ppm, Not less than......................................................................................................20 Zinc (Zn), ppm, Not less than...........................................................................................................250 Vitamin A, I.U./lb, Not less than..................................................................................................10,000 Vitamin D3, I.U./lb, Not less than.....................................................................................................600 Vitamin E, I.U./lb, Not less than..........................................................................................................70

INGREDIENTS

Grain Products, Roughage Products (not more than 35%), Processed Grain By-Products, Plant Protein Products, Forage Products, __Animal Protein Products__, L-Lysine, Calcium Carbonate, Salt, Monocalcium/Dicalcium Phosphate, Yeast Culture, Magnesium Oxide, Cobalt Carbonate, Basic Copper Chloride, Manganese Sulfate, Manganous Oxide, Sodium Selenite, Zinc Sulfate, Zinc Oxide, Sodium Selenite, Potassium Iodide, Ethylenediamine Dihydriodide, Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Mineral Oil, Mold Inhibitor, Calcium Lignin Sulfonate, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex, Calcium Pantothenate, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic Acid, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Mineral Oil, Chromium Tripicolinate

DIRECTIONS FOR USE

Deer Builder Pellets is designed to be fed to deer under range conditions or deer that require higher levels of protein. Feed to deer during gestation, fawning, lactation, antler growth and pre-rut, all phases which require a higher level of nutrition. Provide adequate amounts of good quality roughage and fresh water at all times.

http://www.profilenutrition.com/Products/Specialty/deer_builder_pellets.html


[OR HOW ABOUT SOME ANIMAL FAT FOR YOUR ELK...TSS]


Selling Tips

* Elk Lactation Cow Gest is for elk cows from 45 days prior to calving through weaning * Provides needed protein, energy, vitamins and minerals created by calving and milk production.

Profile^(TM) Elk Lactation Cow Gest Product Features: Product Benefits
* High quality plant protein

* Supply protein requirements during this high demand period

* Complex carbohydrates and fats

* Provide needed energy to help maintain body condition

* Highly digestible fiber

* Lowers risk of acidosis, while providing a high level of energy

* Highly fortified; complete vitamins and trace minerals with Zinpro organic trace minerals

* Meets trace nutrient requirements during this period of high-nutrient demand even in the presence of interfering trace elements

* Diamond V's XP Yeast

* Increases palatability and forage digestibility

* Pelleted

* Convenient and easy for the producer to handle

* Mold Inhibitor

* Feed stays fresh longer

* Apple Flavored

General Description: For elk cows from 45 days prior to calving through weaning.

PROFILE Elk Lactation Cow Gest

GUARANTEED ANALYSIS

Crude Protein, Not less than.......................................................................................................16.0% Crude Fat, Not less than.................................................................................................................3.0% Crude Fiber, Not more than.........................................................................................................20.0% Calcium (Ca), Not less than..........................................................................................................1.0% Phosphorus (P), Not less than......................................................................................................0.4% Salt (NaCl), Not less than...............................................................................................................0.1% Salt (NaCl), Not more than.............................................................................................................0.6% Potassium (K), Not less than........................................................................................................1.1% Magnesium (Mg), Not less than....................................................................................................0.3% Zinc (Zn), ppm, Not less than...........................................................................................................190 Copper (Cu), ppm, Not less than......................................................................................................50 Selenium (Se), ppm, Not less than..................................................................................................0.5 Vitamin A, I.U./lb, Not less than..................................................................................................15,000 Vitamin D3, I.U./lb, Not less than.................................................................................................4,000 Vitamin E, I.U./lb, Not less than..........................................................................................................75

INGREDIENTS

Grain Products, Roughage Products (Not more than 50%), Processed Grain By-Products, Forage Products, Plant Protein Products, Molasses Products, Animal Fat (Preserved with BHA and Citric Acid), Monocalcium/Dicalcium Phosphate, Calcium Carbonate, Salt, Potassium Chloride, Sodium Selenite, Copper Sulfate, Potassium Iodide, Cobalt Carbonate, Basic Copper Chloride, Manganese Sulfate, Manganous Oxide, Zinc Sulfate, Zinc Oxide, Ethylenediamine Dihydriodide, Manganese Amino Acid Complex, Zinc Methionine Complex, Copper Amino Acid, Complex, Cobalt Glucoheptonate, Mineral Oil, Propionic Acid, Vitamin A Supplement, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Vitamin E Supplement, Sodium Propionate, Natural & Artificial flavors

DIRECTIONS FOR USE

Feed at 1 to 1.5 lb per 100 lb body weight (ideally 3 to 8 lb) per head daily to lactating elk cows. Always provide adequate forage and fresh, clean water. If body condition is not being maintained at these recommended feeding rates, evaluate forage quality and health status before increasing the amount of Elk Lactation Gest fed beyond 8 lb per head per day. The maximum feeding rate for this product is 13 lb per head daily. Always follow good feeding and health management procedures.

Previous Product Next Product

http://www.profilenutrition.com/Products/Specialty/elk_lactationcowgest.html

===================================================


considering 1/2 to 1 gram of TSE material is lethal;


DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

April 9, 2001 WARNING LETTER

01-PHI-12 CERTIFIED MAIL RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED

Brian J. Raymond, Owner Sandy Lake Mills 26 Mill Street P.O. Box 117 Sandy Lake, PA 16145 PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT

Tel: 215-597-4390

Dear Mr. Raymond
Food and Drug Administration Investigator Gregory E. Beichner conducted an inspection of your animal feed manufacturing operation, located in Sandy Lake, Pennsylvania, on March 23, 2001, and determined that your firm manufactures animal feeds including feeds containing prohibited materials. The inspection found significant deviations from the requirements set forth in Title 21, code of Federal Regulations, part 589.2000 - Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed. The regulation is intended to prevent the establishment and amplification of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) . Such deviations cause products being manufactured at this facility to be misbranded within the meaning of Section 403(f), of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act).

Our investigation found failure to label your swine feed with the required cautionary statement "Do Not Feed to cattle or other Ruminants" The FDA suggests that the statement be distinguished by different type-size or color or other means of highlighting the statement so that it is easily noticed by a purchaser.

In addition, we note that you are using approximately 140 pounds of cracked corn to flush your mixer used in the manufacture of animal feeds containing prohibited material. This flushed material is fed to wild game including deer, a ruminant animal. Feed material which may potentially contain prohibited material should not be fed to ruminant animals which may become part of the food chain.

The above is not intended to be an all-inclusive list of deviations from the regulations. As a manufacturer of materials intended for animal feed use, you are responsible for assuring that your overall operation and the products you manufacture and distribute are in compliance with the law. We have enclosed a copy of FDA's Small Entity Compliance Guide to assist you with complying with the regulation... blah, blah, blah...

http://www.fda.gov/foi/warning_letters/g1115d.pdf


===================================================



now, what about those 'deer scents' of 100% urine', and the prion that is found in urine, why not just pass the prion with the urine to other deer...



Mrs. Doe Pee Doe in Estrus Model FDE1 Mrs. Doe Pee's Doe in Estrus is made from Estrus urine collected at the peak of the rut, blended with Fresh Doe Urine for an extremely effective buck enticer. Use pre-rut before the does come into heat. Use during full rut when bucks are most active. Use during post-rut when bucks are still actively looking for does. 1 oz.

http://www.gamecalls.net/huntingproducts/deerlures.html

ELK SCENT/SPRAY BOTTLE

*

Works anytime of the year *

100 % Cow Elk-in-Heat urine (2oz.) *

Economical - mix with water in spray mist bottle *

Use wind to your advantage

Product Code WP-ESB $9.95

http://www.elkinc.com/Scent.asp

prions in urine?

[PDF] A URINE TEST FOR THE IN-VIVO DIAGNOSIS OF PRION DISEASES

http://www.sigov.si/vurs/PDF/diagnoastika-bse-urin.pdf

Subject: Cervid (Deer) Meat from BSE Countries

Effective immediately, deer meat from all countries the USDA considers to be affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) may be allowed entry into the US if each shipment is accompanied by a certificate endorsed by an official of the National Veterinary Service of the country of origin certifying that the meat was derived from either wild cervidae or from farm raised cervidae that have never been fed ruminant origin meat and bone meal. Previously, the only BSE-affected country which was allowed to export deer to the US was Scotland.

Ronald B. Caffey Assistant to the Deputy Administrator Plant Protection and Quarantine

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/manuals/PPQ_BB/Update%20APM%20120299.htm

TO: ALL PPQ PORT OFFICES (If a location in your jurisdiction cannot access the PPQ Bulletin Board, please forward a copy of this notice to that location.)

Subject: Importation of Cervid (deer) Antlers from BSE Countries

Effective immediately, processed and unprocessed deer antlers from all countries that USDA considers to be affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) may be allowed entry into the US if each shipment is accompanied by a certificate endorsed by an official of the National Veterinary Service of the country of origin certifying that the antlers were derived from either wild cervidae or farm raised cervidae that have never been fed ruminant origin meat and bone meal.

Elizabeth A. Klontz Veterinary Medical Officer Plant Protection and Quarantine

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/ppq/manuals/PPQ_BB/Update%20APM%20060500.htm

Greetings List Members,

wonder what species these animal proteins and fats are? some more of that non-species coding i imagine? that non-species coding system comes in real handy i would imagine on both exports, imports and even home grown...

kind regards, Terry S. Singeltary Sr., Bacliff, Texas USA

########### http://mailhost.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/warc/bse-l.html ############





Subject: DOCKET-- 03D-0186 -- FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed; Availability

Date: Fri, 16 May 2003 11:47:37 -0500

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." To: fdadockets@oc.fda.gov


http://madcowfeed.blogspot.com/2008/07/docket-03d-0186-fda-issues-draft.html






Saturday, May 16, 2009


Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program Document ID APHIS-2006-0118-0096


http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/05/chronic-wasting-disease-herd.html





TSS
Post a comment
Write a comment: