Informer: Case of slain DeQuincy man still open
Last Modified: Sunday, April 14, 2013 11:19 PM
By Andrew Perzo / American Press
It is my understanding that deer farmers in the state of Louisiana are under a quarantine. If this is so, why and for how long? And is there any danger to the public?
Officials, worried about cases of chronic wasting disease in deer from other states, suspended importation of deer into Louisiana on Nov. 19, said Veronica Mosgrove, spokeswoman for the state Department of Agriculture and Forestry.
“The suspension will remain in place until the export states can confirm that their farms are not at risk of CWD infection,”Mosgrove wrote in an email. “This disease is very infectious to deer and can live in the environment for many years, creating a great risk to the deer population in Louisiana. Only deer, elk and moose are susceptible to CWD.”
She said officials know of no cases of CWD in deer — either farmed or native — in Louisiana and that federal health officials have found no link between human illness and CWD, which like mad cow disease is transmitted by an infectious protein called a prion.
“Specific studies have begun that focus on identifying human prion disease in a population that is at increased risk for exposure to potentially CWD-infected deer or elk meat,” reads the website of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
“Because of the long time between exposure to CWD and the development of disease, many years of continued follow-up are required to be able to say what the risk, if any, of CWD is to humans.”
According to the CDC, more than 120 counties in 17 states — including two west Texas counties — had reported cases of CWD in free-ranging deer and related animals by last August.
The states most affected are Nebraska, with 24 disease-positive counties; Colorado, 20; Wyoming, 16; Kansas, 14; Wisconsin, 13; and Illinois, 10.
“Because the disease has a long incubation period, deer, elk, and moose infected with CWD may not produce any visible signs of the disease for a number of years after they become infected,”reads the website of the U.S Agriculture Department’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
“As the disease progresses, deer, elk, and moose with CWD show changes in behavior and appearance. These clinical signs may include progressive weight loss, stumbling, tremors, lack of coordination, depression, blank facial expressions, excessive salivation and drooling, loss of appetite, excessive thirst and urination, listlessness, teeth grinding, abnormal head posture, and drooping ears.
“Unfortunately, these signs are not specific to CWD and can occur with other diseases or malnutrition.”
• • •
The Informer answers questions from readers each Sunday, Monday and Wednesday. It is researched and written by Andrew Perzo, an American Press staff writer. To ask a question, call 494-4098, press 5 and leave voice mail, or email firstname.lastname@example.org
Wednesday, November 14, 2012
PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD INVESTIGATION MOVES INTO LOUISIANA and INDIANA
PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD INVESTIGATION MOVES INTO LOUISIANA AND INDIANA
Got a private email.
snip...as follows ;
I would pass along a story. Nothing official has come out, but I have inside sources with multiple federal and state agencies in LA. But a deer or multiple deer, not sure which, from a CWD positive pen in PA was moved to a pen somewhere around Lake Charles, LA. The deer may have been moved to at least one other pen in LA, and possible one in MS as well, but no one really knows. There are supposedly 150 deer at the pen in Lake Charles that were quarentined and killed and they are now trying to figure out how and where to dispose of the carcasses. Everything is very sketchy and grey right now, but it is now possible that CWD could have spread to 1 or 2 more states. We shall see in the next few weeks if any kind of official press release comes out...end
Read more: http://www.pfsc.proboards.com/index.cgi?action=display&board=disease&thread=583&page=1#ixzz2CDyJGlfY
so, I gave the Pa dept of ag a call. this is the kind reply I got. ...tss
From: xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx
Sent: Wednesday, November 14, 2012 4:03 PM
Subject: Deer information
Terry - The animal moved on a certificate of veterinary inspection prior to the discovery of the positive CWD herd in Pennsylvania. Louisiana animal health authorities are investigating the movement of this deer that was epidemiologically linked to the index Pennsylvania herd, into their state. We are awaiting their response.
Since the announcement of CWD positives in Pennsylvania there are no states permitting the movement of imported Pennsylvania deer and the Department of Agriculture is not permitting the movement of any deer into the commonwealth.
Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture | Press Office 2301 North Cameron Street | Hbg PA 17110 Phone: 717.787.5085 | Fax: 717.787.1039 www.agriculture.state.pa.us
I thank the Dept of Penn Ag for that kind reply and information.
I pray that CWD has not been transported to Louisiana from Pennsylvania, via the great escape of CWD 2012 into Pennsylvania from captive game farming. ...tss
Tuesday, November 13, 2012
PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD
P.S. UPDATE NOVEMBER 17, 2012 SATURDAY
AFTER posting this, i got an email, from the Son of the Father that owns said game farm in Louisiana that is now under quarantine. sadly, the day before the farm was quarantined, his Father fell out of a tree and was killed in a hunting accident. my condolences goes out to the family at this difficult time. but this nightmare just keeps getting worse. here is what the Son told me, i cannot confirm any of the following, other than the Son told me this over the phone. Louisiana refuses to comment publically about this mess $$$ ;
spoke with Donald Hodge Jr. today on his Dads farm. his Dad just passed recently (see below).
it seems that several deer from Pennsylvania CWD exposed herd, or cohorts, were brought to Louisiana via Donald Hodge Sr. 6 deer were transported from PA to LA by Mr. Elmer Fisher, and the truck driver was Dustin Miller. here is where the story gets a bit tricky. seems there are NO records of the deer actually ever arriving at Donald Hodge Sr.’s Farm. seems that they were suppose to go to Lafayette Louisiana, but, seems he had a silent partner, a Jarrod somebody? the son was not sure. the son said that from his fathers notes (that’s all they had to go by), these 6 deer from PA never reached his farm, even though his Dad signed for them. the 6 deer were never logged into inventory, there were no tags, no micro chips from them found. the Dept. of Ag took soil samples. to date, the son said everything at his Dad’s farm is negative. now here is where the story gets even more fishy. the location changed from Lafayette Louisiana , to a location of an unregistered hunting club, or shooting pen, as he called it, and there was some attempted deal between the silent partner, and the delivery driver, to bring the 6 deer to this shooting pen in the area of Slidell Louisiana instead. the driver was offered $1,000. to take the deer there. but he refused, so evidently, the silent partner set up a meeting place, where another trailer was brought in, and the deer were then boxed up, and sent to this shooting pen up around Slidell Louisiana, somewhere along the Mississippi border. that is where the trail runs cold for these 6 deer from PA. the Donald Hodge Farm in LA, has about 160 cervids. NONE have been slaughtered or tested to date, and are being fed, and they are under quarantine. seems in Louisiana, there are no requirements for IN STATE movement of cervids, from what Jr. told me. Donald Jr. told me the Dept. of Ag says there are two options if these 6 deer are not located.
1. kill the whole herd
2. Quarantine for 5 years.
Donald Jr. told me he could not afford to quarantine for 5 years.
seems right now, everything is in a holding pattern by the Dept of Ag, until they can locate the 6 deer from PA.
the Son told me that he was told there is NO indemnity program if they slaughter the deer.
It’s really a sad situation. Donald Hodge Sr., died Oct. 16 in a hunting accident, and Oct. 17 his farm was quarantined, and the family is beside themselves to say the least, as you can understand.
UPDATE LOUISIANA NOVEMBER 20, 2012
i have been trying to find out about the Louisiana investigation into the PA deer, where they are at, and how many. from the letter below from the Dept. of ag in Pa, there is an investigation into this ongoing in PA, but they will not speak about the Louisiana deer, the Louisiana dept of ag, are the ones that can only speak about that part of this issue. so, i called them, finally got ahold of a Mr. walter, i had been trying all day to speak with Dr. Brent Robins, but when i called back at the time i was suppose to call back and speak with Dr. Robins, he had apparently left the office, after I was told to call him back at at a specific time. so i had to talk with a Mr. Walter, or a Mr. Walters or a Walter somebody, that was chief of something there at Animal Health & Food Safety in Baton Rouge, LA - (225) 925-3962 Office Telephone No: (225) 925-3962. bottom line, the investigation is ‘ongoing’, and it’s an ‘open’ investigation, and they refuse to talk anymore about it. told me they would release a report when and if the investigation is over with. so, apparently, we still have from 1 to 6 deer loose in Louisiana from PA CWD positive index herd, and nobody from Louisiana is talking about it. all PA dept of ag says is Louisiana has them, but they can’t talk about them, and all Louisiana dept. of ag will say, is it’s an open ongoing investigation. he would not even confirm, or not, if they have located said deer or how many were in the investigation. from what I got from the Son (see below), they have no clue where they are. so, we will see if any report is made in the future, or not. ...
more on Great Escape of CWD from Pennsylvania 2012 coming out of Indiana
A farm in Pennsylvania, where chronic wasting disease was detected, has sold 10 animals to farms in Indiana over the past three years. DNR spokesman Phil Bloom said two were sold to farms in Noble and Whitley counties; the rest went to two facilities in Jackson County, one of which is the site of the escape.
DNR officials are concerned because a Pennsylvania farm -- where chronic wasting disease was detected -- sold 10 animals to farms in Indiana over the past three years. Bloom said two does were sold to farms in Noble and Whitley counties; the rest went to a farm in Jackson County.
Some of the Jackson County deer were moved to a fourth facility in Jackson County, where the escape happened.
Shawn Hanley, president of the Indiana Deer and Elk Farmers' Association, said a storm caused a tree to fall on the farm's fence. A Pennsylvania buck remains on the loose.
"We have been in contact with the DNR and with the (Indiana Board of Animal Health), and will cooperate fully with attempts to recover the lost animal," Hanley said in an email.
Citing the ongoing investigation, Bloom declined to release the name of the farms. So did Douglas Metcalf, chief of staff for the Board of Animal Health.
Tuesday, October 23, 2012
PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free
> Ag is one of the agencies cooperating in the response plan because it has responsibility for regulating captive deer and deer farms, of which there are estimated to be more 23,000 on 1,100 Pennsylvania properties.
Tuesday, November 06, 2012
PA Department of Agriculture investigating possible 2nd case of chronic wasting disease
Thursday, November 01, 2012
PA GAME COMMISSION TO HOLD PUBLIC MEETING TO DISCUSS CWD Release #128-12
Friday, October 26, 2012
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD PENNSYLVANIA GAME FARMS, URINE ATTRACTANT PRODUCTS, BAITING, AND MINERAL LICKS
Tuesday, October 23, 2012
PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free
Monday, October 15, 2012
PENNSYLVANIA GAME COMMISSION AND AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT TO HOLD PUBLIC MEETING TO DISCUSS CWD MONITORING EFFORTS FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: October 15, 2012 Release #124-12
Commissioner Strain Sir, I believe you can see the history here, where the state of Pennsylvania DNR forum banned me for speaking about CWD back in 2005 ;
Thursday, October 11, 2012
Pennsylvania Confirms First Case CWD Adams County Captive Deer Tests Positive
Pennsylvania CWD number of deer exposed and farms there from much greater than first thought
Published: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 10:44 PM Updated: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 11:33 PM
USDA-APHIS-VS Chronic Wasting Disease National Program
Patrice N. Klein of USDA APHIS VS – National Center for Animal Health Programs provided an update on the agency’s CWD–related activities:
CWD Rule Update: The amended final rule on chronic wasting disease (CWD) is currently in departmental clearance. The rule will set minimum standards for interstate movement and establish the national voluntary Herd Certification Program (HCP). Farmed/captive cervid surveillance testing: Through FY2010, VS conducted surveillance testing on approximately 20,000 farmed /captive cervids by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) standard protocol. As of September 15, 2011, approximately 19,000 farmed /captive cervids were tested by IHC for CWD with funding to cover lab costs provided through NVSL.
Farmed/captive cervid CWD status: The CWD positive captive white-tailed deer (WTD) herd reported in Missouri (February 2010) was indemnified and depopulation activities were completed in June 2011. All depopulated animals were tested for CWD and no additional CWD positive animals were found.
In FY 2011, CWD was reported in two captive elk herds in Nebraska (December, 2010 and April 2011, respectively).
To date, 52 farmed/captive cervid herds have been identified in 11 states: CO, KS, MI, MN, MO, MT, NE, NY, OK, SD, WI.
Thirty-nine were elk herds and 13 were WTD herds. At this time, eight CWD positive herds remain – six elk herds in Colorado and the two elk herds in Nebraska.
Wild Cervid surveillance: In FY 2009 funding supported surveillance in approximately 74,330 wild cervids in 47 cooperating States. Wild cervid CWD surveillance totals are pending for fiscal year 2010 (2010 – 2011 calendar year) due to seasonal surveillance activities and completion of final cooperative agreement reporting to APHIS.
In fiscal year 2011, there are 15 ‘tier 1’ States, 20 ‘tier 2’ States, and 15 ‘tier 3’ States. Two new ‘tier 1’ States, Minnesota and Maryland, were added in fiscal year 2011 based on the new CWD detections in a free-ranging white-tailed deer in southeastern Minnesota and in western Maryland. Consequently, Delaware was upgraded to ‘tier 2’ status as an adjacent State to Maryland. For FY 2011, 45 States and 32 Tribes will receive cooperative agreement funds to complete wild cervid surveillance and other approved work plan activities. Based on FY 2012 projected budget reductions, future cooperative agreement funds will be eliminated.
APHIS CWD Funding: In FY2011, APHIS received approximately $15.8 million in appropriated funding for the CWD Program. The President’s FY 2012 budget proposes to reduce program funding for CWD by $13.9 million, leaving the program with a request of $1.925 million to provide some level of Federal coordination for the national herd certification program (HCP).
Consequently, APHIS is planning to amend its role in the program to one of Federal coordination. Based on the projected FY 2012 budget, funding for CWD cooperative agreements and indemnity funding for States and Tribes will be eliminated. Under this scenario, the States or cervid industry producers will likely be responsible for the costs of surveillance testing and indemnity for appraisal, depopulation, and disposal of CWD-positive animals.
Commodity Health Line Structure: In the FY 2012 budget, livestock commodities regulated by USDA have been organized into ‘Commodity Health Line’ structures or groupings. APHIS’ Equine, Cervid and Small Ruminant (ECSR) Health line supports efforts to protect the health and thereby improve the quality and productivity of the equine, cervid and small ruminant industries. Activities supported by the ECSR Health line range from monitoring and surveillance to investigation and response actions undertaken when health issues relevant to the industry are identified. APHIS also maintains regulations and program standards which guide ECSR activities at both the Federal and State/Tribal level.
The ECSR Health line funds essential activities necessary to maintain current ECSR surveillance and program operations while providing the flexibility to respond to new and emerging industry-specific health concerns. APHIS’ current activities include Scrapie, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), Slaughter Horse Transport, and Brucellosis/Tuberculosis in cervids. Overall, APHIS will use funding from the ECSR Health Line Item to support Agency efforts in the following mission areas: prevention, preparedness and communication; monitoring, surveillance and detection; response and containment; and continuity of business, mitigation and recovery
Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA provided a presentation on scrapie and CWD in inoculated deer. Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. We inoculated white-tailed deer intracranially (IC) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal inoculation) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation and those necropsied after 20 months post-inoculation (PI) (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. A single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months PI did not have clinical signs, but had widespread distribution of PrPSc. This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues and 2) currently used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in white-tailed deer after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.
The Committee discussed and approved three resolutions regarding CWD. They can be found in the report of the Reswolutions Committee. Essentially the resolutions urged USDA-APHIS-VS to:
Continue to provide funding for CWD testing of captive cervids
Finalize and publish the national CWD rule for Herd Certification and Interstate Movement
Evaluate live animal test, including rectal mucosal biopsy, for CWD in cervids
how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ??
? game farms in a state X $465,000., do all these game farms have insurance to pay for this risk of infected the wild cervid herds, in each state ??
Tuesday, December 20, 2011
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011
The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.
RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.
NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD AGENDA ITEM
SUBJECT: Information Item: Almond Deer Farm Update
FOR: DECEMBER 2011 BOARD MEETING
TO BE PRESENTED BY TITLE: Tami Ryan, Wildlife Health Section Chief
*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.
*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.
Generation of a new form of human PrPSc in vitro by inter-species transmission from cervids prions
Marcelo A. Barria1, Glenn C. Telling2, Pierluigi Gambetti3, James A. Mastrianni4 and Claudio Soto1,* 1Mitchell Center for Alzheimer’s disease and related Brain disorders, Dept of Neurology, University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA 2Dept of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics, and Neurology, Sanders Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY, USA 3Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA 4Dept of Neurology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Running Title: Conversion of human PrPC by cervid PrPSc Keywords: Prion / transmissible spongiform encephalopathy / infectivity / misfolded prion protein / prion strains * To whom correspondence should be addressed. University of Texas Houston Medical School, 6431 Fannin St, Houston, TX 77030. Tel 713-5007086; Fax 713-5000667; E-mail Claudio.Soto@uth.tmc.edu The latest version is at http://www.jbc.org/cgi/doi/10.1074/jbc.M110.198465 JBC Papers in Press.
Published on January 4, 2011 as Manuscript M110.198465 Copyright 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. 5, Downloaded from www.jbc.org by guest, on November 11, 2012 2
Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and animals that result from the conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) into the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc). Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disorder of increasing prevalence within the United States that affects a large population of wild and captive deer and elk. Determining the risk of transmission of CWD to humans is of utmost importance, considering that people can be infected by animal prions, resulting in new fatal diseases. To study the possibility that human PrPC can be converted into the misfolded form by CWD PrPSc we performed experiments using the Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) technique, which mimic in vitro the process of prion replication. Our results show that cervid PrPSc can induce the conversion of human PrPC, but only after the CWD prion strain has been stabilized by successive passages in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the newly generated human PrPSc exhibits a distinct biochemical pattern that differs from any of the currently known forms of human PrPSc. Our results also have profound implications for understanding the mechanisms of prion species barrier and indicate that the transmission barrier is a dynamic process that depend on the strain and moreover the degree of adaptation of the strain. If our findings are corroborated by infectivity assays, they will imply that CWD prions have the potential to infect humans, and that this ability depends on CWD strain adaptation.
Various studies aimed to analyze the transmission of CWD to transgenic mice expressing human PrP have consistently given negative results (9-11), indicating a strong species barrier. This conclusion is consistent with our many failed experiments to attempt converting human PrPC with natural CWD, even after pushing the PMCA conditions (see figure 1). We found successful conversion only after adaptation of the CWD prion strain by successive passages in vitro or in cervid transgenic mice. We are not aware that in any of the transgenic mice studies the inoculum used was a previously stabilized CWD strain. Although, it has been shown that strain stabilization in vitro by PMCA (17;26) and in vivo using experimental rodents (36) has similarities with the strain adaptation process occurring in natural hosts, we cannot rule out that the type of CWD strain adaptation that is required to produce strains transmissible to humans may take much longer time in cervids or not occur at all. An important experiment will be to study transmissibility to humanized transgenic mice of CWD passed experimentally in deer several times. Besides the importance of our results for public health in relation to the putative transmissibility of CWD to humans, our data also illustrate a very important and novel scientific concept related to the mechanism of prion transmission across species barriers. Today the view is that species barrier is mostly controlled by the degree of similarity on the sequence of the prion protein between the host and the infectious material (4). In our study we show that the strain and moreover the stabilization of the strain plays a major role in the inter-species transmission. In our system there is no change on the protein sequence, but yet strain adaptation results in a complete change on prion transmissibility with potentially dramatic consequences. Therefore, our findings lead to a new view of the species barrier that should not be seen as a static process, but rather a dynamic biological phenomenon that can change over time when prion strains mature and evolve. It remains to be investigated if other species barriers also change upon progressive strain adaptation of other prion forms (e.g. the sheep/human barrier).
Our results have far-reaching implications for human health, since they indicate that cervid PrPSc can trigger the conversion of human PrPC into PrPSc, suggesting that CWD might be infectious to humans. Interestingly our findings suggest that unstable strains from CWD affected animals might not be a problem for humans, but upon strain stabilization by successive passages in the wild, this disease might become progressively more transmissible to man.
Generation of a New Form of Human PrPScin Vitro by Interspecies Transmission from Cervid Prions*
Marcelo A. Barria‡, Glenn C. Telling§, Pierluigi Gambetti¶, James A. Mastrianni‖ and Claudio Soto‡,1 + Author Affiliations
From the ‡Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Brain Disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030, the §Departments of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics and Neurology, Sanders Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, the ¶Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, and the ‖Department of Neurology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed: University of Texas Medical School at Houston, 6431 Fannin St., Houston, TX 77030. Tel.: 713-500-7086; Fax: 713-500-0667; E-mail: email@example.com.
Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals and that result from the conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) into the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc). Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disorder of increasing prevalence within the United States that affects a large population of wild and captive deer and elk. Determining the risk of transmission of CWD to humans is of utmost importance, considering that people can be infected by animal prions, resulting in new fatal diseases. To study the possibility that human PrPC can be converted into the misfolded form by CWD PrPSc, we performed experiments using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique, which mimics in vitro the process of prion replication. Our results show that cervid PrPSc can induce the conversion of human PrPC but only after the CWD prion strain has been stabilized by successive passages in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the newly generated human PrPSc exhibits a distinct biochemical pattern that differs from that of any of the currently known forms of human PrPSc. Our results also have profound implications for understanding the mechanisms of the prion species barrier and indicate that the transmission barrier is a dynamic process that depends on the strain and moreover the degree of adaptation of the strain. If our findings are corroborated by infectivity assays, they will imply that CWD prions have the potential to infect humans and that this ability progressively increases with CWD spreading.
UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN
Wednesday, September 08, 2010 CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010
Tuesday, June 05, 2012
Captive Deer Breeding Legislation Overwhelmingly Defeated During 2012 Legislative Session
Friday, August 31, 2012
COMMITTEE ON CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK and CWD 2009-2012 a review
Friday, August 24, 2012
Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America
The overall diagnostic specificity was 99.8%. Selective use of antemortem rectal biopsy sample testing would provide valuable information during disease investigations of CWD-suspect deer herds.
Tuesday, April 09, 2013
EFFICACY OF ANTEMORTEM RECTAL BIOPSIES TO DIAGNOSE AND ESTIMATE PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN FREE-RANGING COW ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSONI)
Monday, March 18, 2013
PROCEEDINGS ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING of the UNITED STATES ANIMAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION September 29 – October 5, 2011
see updated 2012 RESOLUTIONS
Monday, April 01, 2013
Dr. Deer/Dough from Texas on Wisconsin’s CWD implementation survey, is now available
Tuesday, April 02, 2013
IMPORTANT: Cervid Industry and State Veterinarians on Rewriting Chronic Wasting Disease Rule
Friday, April 12, 2013
Federal Protocol on Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) - Darrel Rowledge, Alliance for Public Wildlife
Saturday, April 13, 2013
Tennessee Launches CWD Herd Certification Program in the wake of legislation for game farms
The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.
Friday, November 09, 2012
*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species
Sunday, November 11, 2012
*** Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012
Friday, December 14, 2012
Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012
Monday, April 01, 2013
Dr. Deer/Dough from Texas on Wisconsin’s CWD implementation survey, is now available
Thursday, March 29, 2012
TEXAS DEER CZAR SAYS WISCONSIN DNR NOT DOING ENOUGH ABOUT CWD LIKE POT CALLING KETTLE BLACK
Tuesday, July 10, 2012
Chronic Wasting Disease Detected in Far West Texas
Monday, February 11, 2013
TEXAS CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD Four New Positives Found in Trans Pecos
Tuesday, December 18, 2012
A Growing Threat How deer breeding could put public trust wildlife at risk
Friday, December 14, 2012
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.
Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:
1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and
2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.
Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.
The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.
Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.
There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.
36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011).
The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.
The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).
In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.
In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.
Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.
Friday, December 14, 2012
DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012
layperson MOM DOD 12/14/97 hvCJD ‘confirmed’
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518