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CWD TSE PRION, dr. deer, shooting pen type game farms and ranchers, Texas, TAHC, Houston Chronicle, all silent about disease ?

Posted Dec 27 2012 11:52am
CWD TSE PRION, dr. deer, shooting pen type game farms and ranchers, Texas, TAHC, Houston Chronicle, all silent about disease ?




Outdoors: Cameras give hunters an edge over whitetail


Aimed at scrapes and rubs, monitors can help track hard-to-find mature bucks


By John Goodspeed | December 26, 2012 | Updated: December 26, 2012 9:18pm




snip...



Other key trail camera locations are at food plots, along edges of different vegetation or terrain and at water. He also puts a trail camera in brush and scatters a little corn about 12 feet away.


"We get a lot more older bucks that way than we get at feeders," Kroll said.



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Greetings Mr. Goodspeed, Houston Chronicle et al,



I read your praise of dr. deer, the supposed great ‘deer czar’ from Texas. but while he was playing dr. deer in Wisconsin, Texas fell to CWD.



I am sure with all the credentials and all the Phds dr. deer probably has, he can say just about anything and most everyone will jump and be amazed with his last breath. except me. he is like all the rest of the high end shooting pens in my opinion.



I wish folks from the media would educate themselves a bit on CWD and these game farms, and start writing about it. seems the Houston Chronicle and it’s writers have gone mum about cwd and mad cow disease, along with other TSE prion disease in Texas, since all have now been documented in Texas. before that, it was like the USDA with it’s infamous ‘GOLD CARD’, I.E. BSE FREE, before that fateful day in December of 2003, the day the TSE Prion science changed $$$



sad.



seems CWD has become a non-topic, non-concern, for everybody involved in the industry of cervidae type shooting pen game farms, or ranches. what’s up with that? also, since CWD has been detected in Texas, thanks to the state of New Mexico, because let’s be perfectly honest, Texas would have never documented and made this public, if not for the insistence of the state of New Mexico. but it’s like it did not happen here in Texas, and with about 98% of hunting land in Texas in Private hands, I think the true numbers of CWD are not being told, or tested for. there is simply not enough testing on these captive shooting pen farms and ranches. you wait until a deer shows signs or is dead, by then, it’s much too late, and that is if, and this is a BIG IF, if the SSS policy of SHOOT, SHOVEL, AND SHUT THE HELL UP is not used. the SSS policy is a proven mode of disposal in TEXAS for livestock. ...



for your information Sir, for what ever that might be worth. ...



kind regards, terry


layperson





March 29, 2012



According to Wisconsin’s White-Tailed Deer Trustee Dr. James Kroll, people who call for more public hunting opportunities are “pining for socialism.” He further states, “(Public) Game management is the last bastion of communism.”



OPINION BLOG



These are just two insights into the man who has been asked to provide analysis and recommended changes to Wisconsin’s deer management program. Kroll’s insights are from an article entitled “Which Side of the Fence Are You On?” by Joe Nick Patoski for a past edition of Texas Monthly.



If nothing more, the article gives an unabashed look into the mind-set that will be providing the Wisconsin DNR with recommendations on how to change their deer management practices. James Kroll (also known as “Deer Dr.”) was appointed to the Wisconsin “deer czar” position last fall. He was hired by the Department of Administration and instructed to complete a review of the state’s deer management program.




Here’s a sample of the article:




“Game Management,” says James Kroll, driving to his high-fenced, two-hundred-acre spread near Nacogdoches, “is the last bastion of communism.”



Kroll, also known as Dr. Deer, is the director of the Forestry Resources Institute of Texas at Stephen F. Austin State University, and the “management” he is referring to is the sort practiced by the State of Texas. The 55-year-old Kroll is the leading light in the field of private deer management as a means to add value to the land. His belief is so absolute that some detractors refer to him as Dr. Dough, implying that his eye is on the bottom line more than on the natural world.



Kroll, who has been the foremost proponent of deer ranching in Texas for more than thirty years, doesn’t mind the controversy and certainly doesn’t fade in the heat. People who call for more public lands are “cocktail conservationists,” he says, who are really pining for socialism. He calls national parks “wildlife ghettos” and flatly accuses the government of gross mismanagement. He argues that his relatively tiny acreage, marked by eight-foot fences and posted signs warning off would-be poachers, is a better model for keeping what’s natural natural while making money off the land.



A trip to South Africa six years ago convinced Kroll that he was on the right track. There he encountered areas of primitive, lush wildlife-rich habitats called game ranches. They were privately owned, privately managed, and enclosed by high fences. He noticed how most of the land outside those fences had been grazed to the nub, used up. “Game ranches there derive their income from these animals — viewing them, hunting them, selling their meat,” he says. “There are no losers.”




snip...




Friday, June 01, 2012


*** TEXAS DEER CZAR TO WISCONSIN ASK TO EXPLAIN COMMENTS







Mr. Goodspeed, I thought I might pass on some of this data to you about cwd/tse/prion disease for your files. ........



kind regards, terry




any passive attempt to eradicate or contain CWD will only fail, and let the TSE agent spread further.


it seems all dr. deer did was try and promote more game farms ;


Letter from Rep. Danou: on Dr. Deer report $$$


Letter from Rep. Danou:


Deer Czar report is only the first step Last week, Dr. James Kroll released his 136 page report on deer management for Wisconsin.





SNIP...




Another recommendation is for the DNR to provide more assistance to private landowners on deer management. Although he did not specifically mention setting up private hunting preserves which exist in Kroll’s home state of Texas, I am particularly interested in learning more about this recommendation and its specific details for implementation. This is one recommendation that will definitely require more personnel to implement.





SNIP...










National Wildlife Health Center


Enhanced Surveillance Strategies for Detecting and Monitoring Chronic Wasting Disease in Free-Ranging Cervids


Open-File Report 2012–1036


snip...


Spatial Risk Factors


snip...


In addition to locations of known CWD-positive individuals, other spatial risk factors related to CWD exposure should be considered. For example, the risk of free-ranging animals being exposed to CWD is likely greater in areas where captive cervid facilities have or had CWD-positive animals. Current evidence indicates that CWD infection rates are much higher in captive facilities than in wild populations (Keane and others, 2008), and perhaps this is driven by environmental contamination (Miller and others, 2006). This higher rate of infection in captive animals can increase the risk of disease exposure to surrounding wild populations. Furthermore, movement of infectious animals, carcasses, or other materials across the landscape, naturally or with human assistance, likely increases the risk to uninfected populations. The frequent movement of farmed elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer between production facilities, the concentration of infected animals on some facilities, and the possibility of their escape into the wild increases the risk of spreading CWD to uninfected populations of free-ranging animals. Because the infectious prions may persist in the environment for long periods, the introduction of either captive or free-ranging uninfected animals into a contaminated environment could increase their risk of infection. For example, locations from which sheep have been removed may remain contaminated with scrapie agent for more than 15 years (Georgsson and others, 2006). In a similar manner, translocation of cervids from areas that have not been documented to be CWD-free could pose a risk of disease introduction. In this situation, the risk of introduction is likely related to the probability of infected animals being moved and their ability to spread CWD to other susceptible animals or into the environment. Thus, surveillance on and around cervid farms or free-ranging populations that have received animals from known CWD areas and bordering jurisdictions with CWD-positive animals can increase the likelihood of disease spread. Additional risk factors, such as the presence of scrapie in sheep populations that are sympatric with deer and elk (Greenlee and others, 2011), feeding of animal protein to cervids (Johnson, McKenzie, and others, 2011), baiting and feeding programs (Thompson and others, 2008), or other environmental factors also may be considered, although their roles in CWD epidemiology has not been clearly established.



The soil composition of a region may also play an important role in the occurrence and maintenance of CWD and other TSEs (Smith and others, 2011). Recently, it has been shown that certain soil types can chemically bind and increase infectivity of prion protein (PrP), creating the potential for the protein to be maintained at the soil surface for uptake by foraging animals (Johnson and others, 2006; Johnson and others, 2007; Polano and others, 2008; Imrie, 2009); however, the fate of prions may be highly dependent on source of deposition into the soil (for example, fluid or tissue; Saunders and others 2009). In addition, organic soil components (humic acids) appear to enhance the adsorption of PrP to clay minerals and show a great affinity for the protein as well; however, it is unclear whether the effect of the organic matter increases or decreases infectivity (Polano and others, 2008). The importance of soil in CWD epidemiology was reaffirmed by Walter and others (2011) who demonstrated an 8.9-percent increase in an individual’s deer’s odds of CWD infection with each 1-percent increase in soil clay content within its approximate home range in north-central Colorado. These results suggest that some regions may have a greater probability of maintaining and spreading CWD based solely on their geologic and chemical attributes. Thus, the soil characteristics within an animal’s range represent a potentially important spatial risk factor for CWD occurrence and maintenance.



The risk of disease amplification (increasing the number of infected animals) in a target population or location postexposure likely increases as cervid population densities increase and predation decreases. In north-central Colorado, the greater the area of a mule deer’s (Odocoileus hemionus) approximate home range that contained wintering concentration areas of deer (high deer densities) the greater the odds of individual CWD infection (Farnsworth and others, 2006; Walter and others, 2011). The absence of predators or harvest potentially allows infected animals a longer period when they can transmit CWD to other animals by direct contact or indirectly through environmental reservoirs (Wild and others, 2011). Removal of infectious animals by harvest or other means likely reduces the rate of disease transmission and prevalence in free-ranging cervids (Gross and Miller, 2001; Schauber and Woolf, 2003; Wasserberg and others, 2009; Habib and others, 2011), deposition of infectious prions into the environment, and the rate of disease spread. However, if infection rates are high and sustained, even intense selective predation of infected individuals may not reduce the spread and persistence of CWD (Miller and others, 2008), possibly due to the effects of indirect transmission on the disease process (Almberg and others, 2011). Baiting or feeding, which artificially increases concentrations of animals, may increase the chance of disease spread through direct contact among animals or indirect contact with environmental contamination (Thompson and others, 2008; Mathiason and others, 2009; Tamguney and others, 2009; Haley and others, 2011). Thus, variation in density of deer or infected deer across the landscape is another important spatial risk factor to consider when conducting disease surveillance or monitoring (Joly and others, 2009).



snip...



Anthropogenic activities, management policies, and land use patterns within an area may also be important considerations when designing CWD surveillance or monitoring strategies. The amount of private land within a deer’s approximate home range has been shown to influence CWD infection rates in Colorado (Farnsworth and others, 2006; Walter and others, 2011). Although no causal mechanism has been established, it is probable that private lands may act as refugia from harvest pressure (Vieira and others, 2003), and private lands may often occur on more moist and productive soils, providing better production and habitat that may be selected for by cervids. In addition, these soils may be composed of soil types that may increase the infectivity of the prions as previously described. These conditions can concentrate animals, increase density, and affect the age-structure of local populations, which consequently affects disease dynamics. Management policies at multiple scales can also affect infection risk. For example, limited or no harvest or predation of deer in urban areas, compared to undeveloped areas, may promote higher densities of deer and prevent the removal of infected individuals (Farnsworth and others, 2005), thus increasing disease prevalence (Wasserberg and others, 2009). Likewise, spatially and temporally varying harvest regulations and management strategies across a jurisdiction affects cervid densities and population structure ( age and sex ratios), and may create spatial variability in CWD infection risk (Gross and Miller, 2001; Wasserberg and others, 2009; Bergman and others, 2011; Sharp and Pastor, 2011).



snip...



Demographic Risk Factors



Other demographic risk factors are less well understood. For example, there is evidence that genetics plays a role in individual susceptibility and rate of disease progression. Similar to other TSEs, polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) may moderate individual susceptibility to and progression of CWD infection of elk, mule, and white-tailed deer (O’Rourke and others, 2004; Spraker and others, 2004; Jewell and others, 2005; Fox and others, 2006; Hamir and others, 2006; Goldmann, 2008; Keane and others, 2008; Perucchini and others, 2008). Therefore, it appears that certain individuals are innately at higher risk of CWD infection based solely on their PRNP genotype. For example, Wisconsin white-tailed deer with the PRNP genotype G96G have approximately four times higher rate of infection and 8 months shorter survival after infection compared to G96S deer (Robinson and others, 2012). However, unlike other TSEs, there is no evidence that any of the PRNP genotypes in wild cervids are immune to CWD infection.



snip...



Finally, high population density, which also can be considered a spatial risk factor, is generally believed to create increased risk of disease transmission through higher direct or indirect contact rates (Swinton and others, 2001; Ramsey and others, 2002). This is the basis for population reduction strategies used by many wildlife management agencies for CWD management in free-ranging cervids (Williams and others, 2002; Joly and others, 2003; Williams, 2005; Joly and others, 2006). The actual transmission route of CWD is not known, however, experimental evidence from captive cervids suggests that CWD infection occurs via horizontal transmission through both direct and indirect contact between susceptible and infected individuals (Miller and Williams, 2003; Williams and Miller, 2003), and both kinds of contact can be influenced by density. Experimental inoculation with blood, urine, feces, and saliva from CWD-infected individuals has been shown to provide viable routes of transmission, suggesting direct contact with any of these infectious materials could act as a route of infection (Miller and others, 2004; Mathiason and others, 2006; Miller and others, 2006; Trifilo and others, 2007; Safar and others, 2008; Haley and others, 2009; Mathiason and others, 2009; Tamguney and others, 2009; Haley and others, 2011). Indirect contact may play an important role in transmission dynamics via environmental contamination, because the CWD agent can persist in contaminated systems for 2 or more years (Miller and others, 2004), and if CWD is similar to scrapie, it may persist for 15 or more years (Georgsson and others, 2006). For captive cervids, the most likely route of exposure is orally through foraging activities in the immediate vicinity of fresh and decomposed carcasses or ingestion of fresh and residual excreta from infected individuals (Miller and others, 2004; Trifilo and others, 2007; Safar and others, 2008; Mathiason and others, 2009). However, the relative importance of direct and indirect transmission of CWD in wild cervids has not been determined. As previously mentioned, certain soil types can also increase oral infectivity of TSEs, which may allow environmental contamination to be problematic even in the presence of relatively low doses of the infective agent (Johnson and others, 2007). Thus, it is likely density of infected cervids can contribute to increased indirect contact rate between susceptible and infected individuals or contact with an environmental reservoir. However, it is unclear to what the extent density influences these processes.



snip...



When Is Enough…Enough?



Another common question is “when have I conducted enough surveillance to confidently believe my jurisdiction is disease-free?” Bohning and Greiner (2006) provide a statistical framework for estimating the smallest number of samples required over multiple survey events, which need to be tested to ensure an area is free of disease for a given design prevalence and power. Their approach is based on a geometric distribution for waiting time (that is, the time until first detection of disease) and was developed for surveillance of BSE. An extension of this framework allows for heterogeneity in design prevalence, which would be particularly useful for CWD surveillance.













Tuesday, December 18, 2012


A Growing Threat How deer breeding could put public trust wildlife at risk







Friday, December 14, 2012


Susceptibility of domestic cats to chronic wasting disease







Friday, December 14, 2012


Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012











Friday, December 14, 2012


DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012







Monday, November 26, 2012


Rapid Transepithelial Transport of Prions following Inhalation







while dr. deer, the game farmer/rancher from Texas was telling Wisconsin to take a passive approach to CWD, Texas fell to CWD.




if it had not been for the state of New Mexico, and their insistence that CWD is and has been waltzing across Texas for a decade or more, Texas still would have never _documented_ CWD. just like they did with mad cow disease. they did successfully cover up one mad cow, and the second mad cow sat up on a shelf, as a negative mad cow, even though a secret test showed it to be positive, sat up on a shelf for 7+ months, before international scientists were demanding that cow be retested. Thanks to the Honorable Phyllis Fong of the OIG, that cow was finally confirmed as mad cow disease, 7+ months later, on USDA BSE confirmation protocols that was supposed to be 48 hours.




The fact of the matter is, CWD has been waltzing across Texas for over a decade from the WSMR at New Mexico border, and the state of Texas, in my opinion, knew this. in my opinion, the state of Texas purposely tested the least amount of cervids in that area for years, why, they knew it was there, and I warned you of this in 2001, 2005, and year after year after year. now, it’s too late. Game farms and ranchers i.e. high fence operations here in Texas are out of control in my opinion, with the TAHC not having a clue as to the infection rate of CWD (if any) at these high fence operations. it has been proven in the past, they are nothing but a petri dish for CWD infection rates, with the highest infection rate in Wisconsin at the Buckhorn Flats Game farm toping out at 80%. TAHC actions now on CWD, as I finally applaud them, may well be much too late, and not near enough. I pray that I am wrong. However, because of this, I think the movement restrictions on cervids in Texas should include every region in the state of Texas, until a very large cwd sampling over a period of 7 to 10 years. ...






Tuesday, July 10, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease Detected in Far West Texas









see history of my failed attempts to get the TAHC to start testing for CWD in far west Texas started back in 2001 – 2002 ;






Saturday, July 07, 2012



TEXAS Animal Health Commission Accepting Comments on Chronic Wasting Disease Rule Proposal



Considering the seemingly high CWD prevalence rate in the Sacramento and Hueco Mountains of New Mexico, CWD may be well established in the population and in the environment in Texas at this time.










Thursday, March 29, 2012


TEXAS DEER CZAR SAYS WISCONSIN DNR NOT DOING ENOUGH ABOUT CWD LIKE POT CALLING KETTLE BLACK








Friday, June 01, 2012


*** TEXAS DEER CZAR TO WISCONSIN ASK TO EXPLAIN COMMENTS








Tuesday, July 10, 2012


Dr. James C. Kroll Texas deer czar final report on Wisconsin








Thursday, December 13, 2012


HUNTERS FEELING THE HEAT Houston Chronicle December 13, 2012 OUTDOORS not talking about CWD in Texas








Wednesday, November 07, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD, Texas, Houston Chronicle Shannon Thomkins 1998 - 2012 what happened ??








Thursday, July 12, 2012


CWD aka MAD DEER, ELK DISEASE TEXAS HOUSTON CHRONICLE Wednesday, July 11, 2012








Thursday, July 19, 2012


KANSAS NINE DEER TEST POSITIVE FOR CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE








Friday, July 20, 2012


CWD found for first time in Iowa at hunting preserve








CWD has been identified in free-ranging cervids in 15 US states and 2 Canadian provinces and in ≈ 100 captive herds in 15 states and provinces and in South Korea (Figure 1, panel B).




SNIP...




Long-term effects of CWD on cervid populations and ecosystems remain unclear as the disease continues to spread and prevalence increases. In captive herds, CWD might persist at high levels and lead to complete herd destruction in the absence of human culling. Epidemiologic modeling suggests the disease could have severe effects on free-ranging deer populations, depending on hunting policies and environmental persistence (8,9). CWD has been associated with large decreases in free-ranging mule deer populations in an area of high CWD prevalence (Boulder, Colorado, USA) (5).





PLEASE STUDY THIS MAP, COMPARE FARMED CWD TO WILD CWD...TSS










Saturday, February 18, 2012



Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease



CDC Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012



CWD has been identified in free-ranging cervids in 15 US states and 2 Canadian provinces and in ≈100 captive herds in 15 states and provinces and in South Korea (Figure 1, panel B).










Thursday, February 09, 2012


50 GAME FARMS IN USA INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE







Saturday, February 04, 2012


Wisconsin 16 age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised








Monday, June 11, 2012


OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting








Tuesday, June 05, 2012


Captive Deer Breeding Legislation Overwhelmingly Defeated During 2012 Legislative Session








Saturday, June 09, 2012


USDA Establishes a Herd Certification Program for Chronic Wasting Disease in the United States








Thursday, May 31, 2012


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD PRION2012 Aerosol, Inhalation transmission, Scrapie, cats, species barrier, burial, and more








LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL


Volume 3, Number 8 01 August 2003


Previous


Next


Newsdesk


Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America


Xavier Bosch


My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.


49-year-old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). So he decided to gather hundreds of documents on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and realised that if Britons could get variant CJD from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Americans might get a similar disorder from chronic wasting disease (CWD)the relative of mad cow disease seen among deer and elk in the USA. Although his feverish search did not lead him to the smoking gun linking CWD to a similar disease in North American people, it did uncover a largely disappointing situation.


Singeltary was greatly demoralised at the few attempts to monitor the occurrence of CJD and CWD in the USA. Only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal TSEs should be reportable nationwide and internationally, he complained in a letter to the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source.


Until recently, CWD was thought to be confined to the wild in a small region in Colorado. But since early 2002, it has been reported in other areas, including Wisconsin, South Dakota, and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Indeed, the occurrence of CWD in states that were not endemic previously increased concern about a widespread outbreak and possible transmission to people and cattle.


To date, experimental studies have proven that the CWD agent can be transmitted to cattle by intracerebral inoculation and that it can cross the mucous membranes of the digestive tract to initiate infection in lymphoid tissue before invasion of the central nervous system. Yet the plausibility of CWD spreading to people has remained elusive.


Getting data on TSEs in the USA from the government is like pulling teeth, Singeltary argues. You get it when they want you to have it, and only what they want you to have.




SNIP...FULL TEXT ;








now, a few things to ponder about those said double fences that will supposedly stop those deer from escaping.


what about water that drains from any of these game farms. surrounding water tables etc., are the double fences going to stop the water from becoming contaminated? where does it drain? who's drinking it?





Detection of Protease-Resistant Prion Protein in Water from a CWD-Endemic Area


65


Tracy A. Nichols*1,2, Bruce Pulford1, Christy Wyckoff1,2, Crystal Meyerett1, Brady Michel1, Kevin Gertig3, Jean E. Jewell4, Glenn C. Telling5 and M.D. Zabel1 1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA 2National Wildlife Research Center, Wildlife Services, United States Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80521, USA 3Fort Collins Water and Treatment Operations, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80521, USA 4 Department of Veterinary Sciences, Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, 82070, USA 5Department of Microbiology, Immunology, Molecular Genetics and Neurology, Sanders Brown Center on Aging, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, 40536, USA * Corresponding author- tracy.a.nichols@aphis.usda.gov


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the only known transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting free-ranging wildlife. Experimental and epidemiological data indicate that CWD can be transmitted horizontally and via blood and saliva, although the exact mode of natural transmission remains unknown. Substantial evidence suggests that prions can persist in the environment, implicating it as a potential prion reservoir and transmission vehicle. CWD- positive animals can contribute to environmental prion load via biological materials including saliva, blood, urine and feces, shedding several times their body weight in possibly infectious excreta in their lifetime, as well as through decomposing carcasses. Sensitivity limitations of conventional assays hamper evaluation of environmental prion loads in water. Here we show the ability of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) to amplify minute amounts of CWD prions in spiked water samples at a 1:1 x106 , and protease-resistant prions in environmental and municipal-processing water samples from a CWD endemic area. Detection of CWD prions correlated with increased total organic carbon in water runoff from melting winter snowpack. These data suggest prolonged persistence and accumulation of prions in the environment that may promote CWD transmission.


snip...


The data presented here demonstrate that sPMCA can detect low levels of PrPCWD in the environment, corroborate previous biological and experimental data suggesting long term persistence of prions in the environment2,3 and imply that PrPCWD accumulation over time may contribute to transmission of CWD in areas where it has been endemic for decades. This work demonstrates the utility of sPMCA to evaluate other environmental water sources for PrPCWD, including smaller bodies of water such as vernal pools and wallows, where large numbers of cervids congregate and into which prions from infected animals may be shed and concentrated to infectious levels. snip...end...full text at ;












what about rodents there from? 4 American rodents are susceptible to CWD to date. are those double fences going to stop these rodents from escaping these game farms once becoming exposed to CWD?




Chronic Wasting Disease Susceptibility of Four North American Rodents


Chad J. Johnson1*, Jay R. Schneider2, Christopher J. Johnson2, Natalie A. Mickelsen2, Julia A. Langenberg3, Philip N. Bochsler4, Delwyn P. Keane4, Daniel J. Barr4, and Dennis M. Heisey2 1University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Comparative Biosciences, 1656 Linden Drive, Madison WI 53706, USA 2US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison WI 53711, USA 3Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 101 South Webster Street, Madison WI 53703, USA 4Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, 445 Easterday Lane, Madison WI 53706, USA *Corresponding author email: cjohnson@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu


We intracerebrally challenged four species of native North American rodents that inhabit locations undergoing cervid chronic wasting disease (CWD) epidemics. The species were: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), white-footed mice (P. leucopus), meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), and red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi). The inocula were prepared from the brains of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer from Wisconsin that tested positive for CWD. Meadow voles proved to be most susceptible, with a median incubation period of 272 days. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of PrPd in the brains of all challenged meadow voles. Subsequent passages in meadow voles lead to a significant reduction in incubation period. The disease progression in red-backed voles, which are very closely related to the European bank vole (M. glareolus) which have been demonstrated to be sensitive to a number of TSEs, was slower than in meadow voles with a median incubation period of 351 days. We sequenced the meadow vole and red-backed vole Prnp genes and found three amino acid (AA) differences outside of the signal and GPI anchor sequences. Of these differences (T56-, G90S, S170N; read-backed vole:meadow vole), S170N is particularly intriguing due its postulated involvement in "rigid loop" structure and CWD susceptibility. Deer mice did not exhibit disease signs until nearly 1.5 years post-inoculation, but appear to be exhibiting a high degree of disease penetrance. White-footed mice have an even longer incubation period but are also showing high penetrance. Second passage experiments show significant shortening of incubation periods. Meadow voles in particular appear to be interesting lab models for CWD. These rodents scavenge carrion, and are an important food source for many predator species. Furthermore, these rodents enter human and domestic livestock food chains by accidental inclusion in grain and forage. Further investigation of these species as potential hosts, bridge species, and reservoirs of CWD is required.








please see ;








Oral.29: Susceptibility of Domestic Cats to CWD Infection



Amy Nalls, Nicholas J. Haley, Jeanette Hayes-Klug, Kelly Anderson, Davis M. Seelig, Dan S. Bucy, Susan L. Kraft, Edward A. Hoover and Candace K. Mathiason† Colorado State University; Fort Collins, CO USA†Presenting author; Email: ckm@lamar.colostate.edu



Domestic and non-domestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to one prion disease, feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), thought to be transmitted through consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated meat. Because domestic and free ranging felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in CWD affected areas, we evaluated the susceptibility of domestic cats to CWD infection experimentally. Groups of n = 5 cats each were inoculated either intracerebrally (IC) or orally (PO) with CWD deer brain homogenate. Between 40–43 months following IC inoculation, two cats developed mild but progressive symptoms including weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors and ataxia—ultimately mandating euthanasia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the brain of one of these animals (vs. two age-matched controls) performed just before euthanasia revealed increased ventricular system volume, more prominent sulci, and T2 hyperintensity deep in the white matter of the frontal hemisphere and in cortical grey distributed through the brain, likely representing inflammation or gliosis. PrPRES and widely distributed peri-neuronal vacuoles were demonstrated in the brains of both animals by immunodetection assays. No clinical signs of TSE have been detected in the remaining primary passage cats after 80 months pi. Feline-adapted CWD was sub-passaged into groups (n=4 or 5) of cats by IC, PO, and IP/SQ routes. Currently, at 22 months pi, all five IC inoculated cats are demonstrating abnormal behavior including increasing aggressiveness, pacing, and hyper responsiveness. Two of these cats have developed rear limb ataxia. Although the limited data from this ongoing study must be considered preliminary, they raise the potential for cervid-to-feline transmission in nature. www.landesbioscience.com Prion















UPDATED CORRESPONDENCE FROM AUTHORS OF THIS STUDY I.E. COLBY, PRUSINER ET AL, ABOUT MY CONCERNS OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THEIR FIGURES AND MY FIGURES OF THE STUDIES ON CWD TRANSMISSION TO CATTLE ;


----- Original Message -----


From: David Colby


To: flounder9@verizon.net


Cc: stanley@XXXXXXXX


Sent: Tuesday, March 01, 2011 8:25 AM


Subject: Re: FW: re-Prions David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2 + Author Affiliations


Dear Terry Singeltary,


Thank you for your correspondence regarding the review article Stanley Prusiner and I recently wrote for Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives. Dr. Prusiner asked that I reply to your message due to his busy schedule. We agree that the transmission of CWD prions to beef livestock would be a troubling development and assessing that risk is important. In our article, we cite a peer-reviewed publication reporting confirmed cases of laboratory transmission based on stringent criteria. The less stringent criteria for transmission described in the abstract you refer to lead to the discrepancy between your numbers and ours and thus the interpretation of the transmission rate. We stand by our assessment of the literature--namely that the transmission rate of CWD to bovines appears relatively low, but we recognize that even a low transmission rate could have important implications for public health and we thank you for bringing attention to this matter.


Warm Regards, David Colby


--


David Colby, PhDAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Delaware




====================END...TSS==============




SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;










UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN


Wednesday, September 08, 2010


CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010








Monday, January 16, 2012


9 GAME FARMS IN WISCONSIN TEST POSITIVE FOR CWD








Sunday, January 22, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD cervids interspecies transmission







Friday, November 09, 2012


*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species









Thursday, February 17, 2011


Environmental Sources of Scrapie Prions














Friday, December 14, 2012


IOWA Second Deer Positive for CWD at Davis County Hunting Preserve Captive Shooting Pen






Friday, September 21, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD raises concerns about deer farms in Iowa






Tuesday, September 11, 2012


Agreement Reached with Owner to De-Populate CWD Deer at Davis County Hunting Preserve Iowa






Wednesday, September 05, 2012


Additional Facility in Pottawatamie County Iowa Under Quarantine for CWD after 5 deer test positive






Friday, July 20, 2012


CWD found for first time in Iowa at hunting preserve






Tuesday, December 11, 2012


PENNSYLVANIA PURPLE 4 ESCAPED CAPTIVE FOUND FREE OF CWD, what about the deer in Louisiana ?






Sunday, December 09, 2012


Pennsylvania Sportsmen upset with agriculture’s lack of transparency on CWD






Thursday, December 06, 2012


Pennsylvania CWD Not Found in Pink 23 PA captive escapee, but where is Purple 4 and the other escapees ?


News for Immediate Release






Wednesday, December 05, 2012


Senator Casey Urges USDA To Take Smart Steps to Implement New Measure That Could Help Combat Chronic Wasting Disease Among Deer


From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.


Sent: Wednesday, December 05, 2012 11:50 AM


To: Press_office@casey.senate.gov Cc: ckauffman@yorkdispatch.com ; Terry S. Singeltary Sr.


Subject: Casey Urges USDA To Take Smart Steps to Implement New Measure That Could Help Combat Chronic Wasting Disease Among Deer






Wednesday, November 14, 2012


PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD INVESTIGATION MOVES INTO LOUISIANA and INDIANA






Tuesday, November 13, 2012


PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD






Wednesday, November 07, 2012 PENNSYLVANIA


Second Adams County Deer Tests Positive for Chronic Wasting Disease






Friday, October 26, 2012


***CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD PENNSYLVANIA GAME FARMS, URINE ATTRACTANT PRODUCTS, BAITING, AND MINERAL LICKS






Tuesday, October 23, 2012


PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free






Pennsylvania CWD number of deer exposed and farms there from much greater than first thought


Published: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 10:44 PM Updated: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 11:33 PM






Tuesday, December 11, 2012


Wisconsin Receives Federal Approval for CWD Herd Certification Program for Farm-raised Deer






2010 WISCONSIN CAPTIVE DEER ESCAPES


There were 26 reported escape incidents so far this year, this amounted to 20 actual confirmed escape incidents because 3 were previously reported, 2 were confirmed as wild deer, and 1 incident was not confirmed. ...


snip...


C. & D. Captive Cervid and Law Enforcement Update (11:10 AM)- Warden Pete Dunn gave the captive cervid farm update. There were 26 reported escape incidents so far this year, this amounted to 20 actual confirmed escape incidents because 3 were previously reported, 2 were confirmed as wild deer, and 1 incident was not confirmed. Approximately 30% of these escapes were caused by gates being left open and the other 70% resulted from bad fencing or fence related issues. The 20 actual confirmed escape incidents amounted to 77 total animals. 50 of the escaped animals were recovered or killed and 27 were not recovered and remain unaccounted for. Last year the CWD Committee passed a resolution to require double gates, but this has not gone into effect yet. Questions were raised by the committee about double fencing requirements? Pete responded that double fencing has not been practical or accepted by the industry. The DNR has the authority to do fence inspections. ?If a fence fails to pass the inspection the fencing certificate can be revoked and the farmer can be issued a citation. This year three citations and one warning have been issued for escapes. Pete reviewed the reporting requirements for escape incidents that these must be reported within 24 hours. The farmer then has 72 hours to recover the animals or else it will affect the farm’s herd status and ability to move animals. Davin proposed in the 15 year CWD Plan that the DNR take total control and regulatory authority over all deer farm fencing. Larry Gohlke asked Pete about the reliability for reporting escapes? Pete said that the majority of escapes were reported by the farmer, but it is very difficult to determine when an escape actually occurred. Pete said that they are more concerned that an escape is reported and not that it is reported at the exact time that it happened.




THE states are going to have to regulate how many farms that are allowed, or every state in the USA will wind up being just one big private fenced in game farm. kind of like they did with the shrimping industry in the bays, when there got to be too many shrimp boats, you stop issuing permits, and then lower the exist number of permits, by not renewing them, due to reduced permits issued. how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ?? 11,000 game farms X $465,000., do all these game farms have insurance to pay for this risk of infected the wild cervid herds, in each state ??


Tuesday, December 20, 2011
 
 
CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN
 
 
Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update
 
 
 
DECEMBER 2011
 
 
 
 
The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.
 
 
 
RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.
 
 
 
Form 1100-001 (R 2/11) NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD AGENDA ITEM SUBJECT: Information Item:
 
 
Almond Deer Farm Update FOR: DECEMBER 2011 BOARD MEETING TUESDAY TO BE PRESENTED BY TITLE: Tami Ryan, Wildlife Health Section Chief


SUMMARY:








Monday, January 16, 2012 9


GAME FARMS IN WISCONSIN TEST POSITIVE FOR CWD






see full text and more here ;






Friday, June 01, 2012


*** TEXAS DEER CZAR TO WISCONSIN ASK TO EXPLAIN COMMENTS






Tuesday, December 18, 2012


*** A Growing Threat How deer breeding could put public trust wildlife at risk








PLEASE NOTE, with BSE, going by OIE standards, an adequate number for sample survey for any Country going by OIE BSE guidelines for 40,000,000 cattle, was 433 cattle.


how did that work out for us? I will tell you, most every Country that went by those OIE guidelines went down with BSE, including the USA. just saying, you never can test enough. ...TSS




----- Original Message -----


From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."


To: BSE-L


Sent: Saturday, June 04, 2005 8:07 AM


Subject: BSE OIE CHAPTER 2.3.13 (The Weakening of a already terribly flawwed BSE/TSE surveillance system)


##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################






Saturday, August 4, 2012


Final Feed Investigation Summary - California BSE Case - July 2012






Thursday, December 20, 2012


OIE GROUP RECOMMENDS THAT SCRAPE PRION DISEASE BE DELISTED AND SAME OLD BSe WITH BOVINE MAD COW DISEASE






Monday, December 1, 2008


When Atypical Scrapie cross species barriers






Thursday, March 29, 2012


atypical Nor-98 Scrapie has spread from coast to coast in the USA 2012


NIAA Annual Conference April 11-14, 2011San Antonio, Texas






Monday, November 30, 2009


USDA AND OIE COLLABORATE TO EXCLUDE ATYPICAL SCRAPIE NOR-98 ANIMAL HEALTH CODE






Monday, April 25, 2011


Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep


Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011






why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $


snip...


5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.


snip...


R. BRADLEY






Friday, February 11, 2011


Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues






Wednesday, February 16, 2011


IN CONFIDENCE


SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION TO CHIMPANZEES


IN CONFIDENCE






Sunday, April 18, 2010


SCRAPIE AND ATYPICAL SCRAPIE TRANSMISSION STUDIES A REVIEW 2010






Monday, April 25, 2011


Experimental Oral Transmission of Atypical Scrapie to Sheep


Volume 17, Number 5-May 2011






Wednesday, January 18, 2012


Selection of Distinct Strain Phenotypes in Mice Infected by Ovine Natural Scrapie Isolates Similar to CH1641 Experimental Scrapie


Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology:


February 2012 - Volume 71 - Issue 2 - p 140–147




snip...see more on scrapie and atypical scrapie here ;




Thursday, December 13, 2012


Eradication Program: Animal Identification and Recordkeeping Guide for Sheep and Goats Veterinary Services December 2012


Veterinary Services December 2012






Saturday, December 15, 2012


Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: the effect of oral exposure dose on attack rate and incubation period in cattle -- an update 5 December 2012






Wednesday, March 28, 2012


VARIABLY PROTEASE-SENSITVE PRIONOPATHY IS TRANSMISSIBLE, price of prion poker goes up again $






Tuesday, December 25, 2012


CREUTZFELDT JAKOB TSE PRION DISEASE HUMANS END OF YEAR REVIEW DECEMBER 25, 2012






Tuesday, December 18, 2012


Bioassay Studies Support the Potential for Iatrogenic Transmission of Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease through Dental Procedures






Wednesday, May 16, 2012


Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ?


Proposal ID: 29403




































we’re just kidding ourselves $$$


stupid is, as stupid does, and some times, you just can’t fix stupid $$$


RIP MOM 12/14/97 confirmed hvCJD...never forget...TSS...December 25, 2012




layperson


Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518 flounder9@verizon.net


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