cwd, feeding, and baiting piles
A. ORAL TRANSMISSION to deer and elk is a very efficient mode for transmission. HIGH PROTEIN FEED will transmit CWD. high protein feed have been fed to deer and elk, especially in game farms.
B. COMMINGLING OF DISEASED ANIMALS AROUND BAIT PILE. chance of the environment in the surrounding areas becoming infected, from feces, urine, shedding, becoming a hot bed for animals to feed, congregate, and become exposed, and there is still very much the possibility of lateral transmission, especially with the CWD TSE, in deer and elk.
WHY ignore sound science -
IT's the same with pouring a bottle of 100% deer urine scent formulas all over you and the environment, this is a proven mode of transmission. SO WHY DO IT?
leave your egos, and testosterone at the door, and look at the transmission studies, this is NOT rocket science. ...TSS
Oral transmission and early lymphoid tropism of chronic wasting disease PrPres in mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus ) Christina J. Sigurdson1, Elizabeth S. Williams2, Michael W. Miller3, Terry R. Spraker1,4, Katherine I. O'Rourke5 and Edward A. Hoover1
Mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus) were inoculated orally with a brain homogenate prepared from mule deer with naturally occurring chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion-induced transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Fawns were necropsied and examined for PrP res, the abnormal prion protein isoform, at 10, 42, 53, 77, 78 and 80 days post-inoculation (p.i.) using an immunohistochemistry assay modified to enhance sensitivity. PrPres was detected in alimentary-tract-associated lymphoid tissues (one or more of the following: retropharyngeal lymph node, tonsil, Peyer's patch and ileocaecal lymph node) as early as 42 days p.i. and in all fawns examined thereafter (53 to 80 days p.i.). No PrPres staining was detected in lymphoid tissue of three control fawns receiving a control brain inoculum, nor was PrPres detectable in neural tissue of any fawn. PrPres-specific staining was markedly enhanced by sequential tissue treatment with formic acid, proteinase K and hydrated autoclaving prior to immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody F89/160.1.5. These results indicate that CWD PrP res can be detected in lymphoid tissues draining the alimentary tract within a few weeks after oral exposure to infectious prions and may reflect the initial pathway of CWD infection in deer. The rapid infection of deer fawns following exposure by the most plausible natural route is consistent with the efficient horizontal transmission of CWD in nature and enables accelerated studies of transmission and pathogenesis in the native species.
These results indicate that mule deer fawns develop detectable PrP res after oral exposure to an inoculum containing CWD prions. In the earliest post-exposure period, CWD PrPres was traced to the lymphoid tissues draining the oral and intestinal mucosa (i.e. the retropharyngeal lymph nodes, tonsil, ileal Peyer's patches and ileocaecal lymph nodes), which probably received the highest initial exposure to the inoculum. Hadlow et al. (1982) demonstrated scrapie agent in the tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, ileum and spleen in a 10-month-old naturally infected lamb by mouse bioassay. Eight of nine sheep had infectivity in the retropharyngeal lymph node. He concluded that the tissue distribution suggested primary infection via the gastrointestinal tract. The tissue distribution of PrPres in the early stages of infection in the fawns is strikingly similar to that seen in naturally infected sheep with scrapie. These findings support oral exposure as a natural route of CWD infection in deer and support oral inoculation as a reasonable exposure route for experimental studies of CWD.
Subject: MAD DEER/ELK DISEASE AND POTENTIAL SOURCES Date: Sat, 25 May 2002 18:41:46 -0700 From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." Reply-To: BSE-L To: BSE-L
8420-20.5% Antler Developer For Deer and Game in the wild Guaranteed Analysis Ingredients / Products Feeding Directions
BODE'S GAME FEED SUPPLEMENT #400 A RATION FOR DEER NET WEIGHT 50 POUNDS 22.6 KG.
__Animal Protein Products__,
MORE ANIMAL PROTEIN PRODUCTS FOR DEER
Bode's #1 Game Pellets A RATION FOR DEER F3153
GUARANTEED ANALYSIS Crude Protein (Min) 16% Crude Fat (Min) 2.0% Crude Fiber (Max) 19% Calcium (Ca) (Min) 1.25% Calcium (Ca) (Max) 1.75% Phosphorus (P) (Min) 1.0% Salt (Min) .30% Salt (Max) .70%
__Animal Protein Products__,
FEEDING DIRECTIONS Feed as Creep Feed with Normal Diet
__Animal Protein Products__,
DIRECTIONS FOR USE
Deer Builder Pellets is designed to be fed to deer under range conditions or deer that require higher levels of protein. Feed to deer during gestation, fawning, lactation, antler growth and pre-rut, all phases which require a higher level of nutrition. Provide adequate amounts of good quality roughage and fresh water at all times.
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION
April 9, 2001 WARNING LETTER
01-PHI-12 CERTIFIED MAIL RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED
Brian J. Raymond, Owner Sandy Lake Mills 26 Mill Street P.O. Box 117 Sandy Lake, PA 16145 PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT
Dear Mr. Raymond:
Food and Drug Administration Investigator Gregory E. Beichner conducted an inspection of your animal feed manufacturing operation, located in Sandy Lake, Pennsylvania, on March 23, 2001, and determined that your firm manufactures animal feeds including feeds containing prohibited materials. The inspection found significant deviations from the requirements set forth in Title 21, code of Federal Regulations, part 589.2000 - Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed. The regulation is intended to prevent the establishment and amplification of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) . Such deviations cause products being manufactured at this facility to be misbranded within the meaning of Section 403(f), of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act).
Our investigation found failure to label your swine feed with the required cautionary statement "Do Not Feed to cattle or other Ruminants" The FDA suggests that the statement be distinguished by different type-size or color or other means of highlighting the statement so that it is easily noticed by a purchaser.
In addition, we note that you are using approximately 140 pounds of cracked corn to flush your mixer used in the manufacture of animal feeds containing prohibited material. This flushed material is fed to wild game including deer, a ruminant animal. Feed material which may potentially contain prohibited material should not be fed to ruminant animals which may become part of the food chain.
The above is not intended to be an all-inclusive list of deviations from the regulations. As a manufacturer of materials intended for animal feed use, you are responsible for assuring that your overall operation and the products you manufacture and distribute are in compliance with the law. We have enclosed a copy of FDA's Small Entity Compliance Guide to assist you with complying with the regulation... blah, blah, blah...
12/10/76 AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTE ON SCRAPIE Office Note CHAIRMAN: PROFESSOR PETER WILDY
Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)" The problem is emphasized by the finding that some strains of scrapie produce lesions identical to the once which characterize the human dementias"
Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the scrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer grievously.
1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8
Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.
Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.
Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.
EVIDENCE OF SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AS A RESULT OF FOOD BORNE EXPOSURE
This is provided by the statistically significant increase in the incidence of sheep scrape from 1985, as determined from analyses of the submissions made to VI Centres, and from individual case and flock incident studies. ........
Experimental BSE Infection of Non-human Primates: Efficacy of the Oral Route
Holznagel, E1; Yutzy, B1; Deslys, J-P2; Lasmézas, C2; Pocchiari, M3; Ingrosso, L3; Bierke, P4; Schulz-Schaeffer, W5; Motzkus, D6; Hunsmann, G6; Löwer, J1 1Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Germany; 2Commissariat à l´Energie Atomique, France; 3Instituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy; 4Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease control, Sweden; 5Georg August University, Germany; 6German Primate Center, Germany
In 2001, a study was initiated in primates to assess the risk for humans to contract BSE through contaminated food. For this purpose, BSE brain was titrated in cynomolgus monkeys.
The primary objective is the determination of the minimal infectious dose (MID50) for oral exposure to BSE in a simian model, and, by in doing this, to assess the risk for humans. Secondly, we aimed at examining the course of the disease to identify possible biomarkers.
Groups with six monkeys each were orally dosed with lowering amounts of BSE brain: 16g, 5g, 0.5g, 0.05g, and 0.005g. In a second titration study, animals were intracerebrally (i.c.) dosed (50, 5, 0.5, 0.05, and 0.005 mg).
In an ongoing study, a considerable number of high-dosed macaques already developed simian vCJD upon oral or intracerebral exposure or are at the onset of the clinical phase. However, there are differences in the clinical course between orally and intracerebrally infected animals that may influence the detection of biomarkers.
Simian vCJD can be easily triggered in cynomolgus monkeys on the oral route using less than 5 g BSE brain homogenate. The difference in the incubation period between 5 g oral and 5 mg i.c. is only 1 year (5 years versus 4 years). However, there are rapid progressors among orally dosed monkeys that develop simian v CJD as fast as intracerebrally inoculated animals.
The work referenced was performed in partial fulfillment of the study “BSE in primates“ supported by the EU (QLK1-2002-01096).
look at the table and you'll see that as little as 1 mg (or 0.001 gm) caused 7% (1 of 14) of the cows to come down with BSE;
Risk of oral infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in primates
Corinne Ida Lasmézas, Emmanuel Comoy, Stephen Hawkins, Christian Herzog, Franck Mouthon, Timm Konold, Frédéric Auvré, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nicole Salès, Gerald Wells, Paul Brown, Jean-Philippe Deslys Summary The uncertain extent of human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)--which can lead to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)--is compounded by incomplete knowledge about the efficiency of oral infection and the magnitude of any bovine-to-human biological barrier to transmission. We therefore investigated oral transmission of BSE to non-human primates. We gave two macaques a 5 g oral dose of brain homogenate from a BSE-infected cow. One macaque developed vCJD-like neurological disease 60 months after exposure, whereas the other remained free of disease at 76 months. On the basis of these findings and data from other studies, we made a preliminary estimate of the food exposure risk for man, which provides additional assurance that existing public health measures can prevent transmission of BSE to man.
BSE bovine brain inoculum
100 g 10 g 5 g 1 g 100 mg 10 mg 1 mg 0·1 mg 0·01 mg
Primate (oral route)* 1/2 (50%)
Cattle (oral route)* 10/10 (100%) 7/9 (78%) 7/10 (70%) 3/15 (20%) 1/15 (7%) 1/15 (7%)
RIII mice (ic ip route)* 17/18 (94%) 15/17 (88%) 1/14 (7%)
PrPres biochemical detection
The comparison is made on the basis of calibration of the bovine inoculum used in our study with primates against a bovine brain inoculum with a similar PrPres concentration that was
inoculated into mice and cattle.8 *Data are number of animals positive/number of animals surviving at the time of clinical onset of disease in the first positive animal (%). The accuracy of
bioassays is generally judged to be about plus or minus 1 log. ic ip=intracerebral and intraperitoneal.
Table 1: Comparison of transmission rates in primates and cattle infected orally with similar BSE brain inocula
Published online January 27, 2005
It is clear that the designing scientists must
also have shared Mr Bradley's surprise at the results because all the dose
levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.
6. It also appears to me that Mr Bradley's answer (that it would take less than say 100 grams) was probably given with the benefit of hindsight; particularly if one considers that later in the same answer Mr Bradley expresses his surprise that it could take as little of 1 gram of brain to cause BSE by the oral route within the same species. This information did not become available until the "attack rate" experiment had been completed in 1995/96. This was a titration experiment designed to ascertain the infective dose. A range of dosages was used to ensure that the actual result was within both a lower and an upper limit within the study and the designing scientists would not have expected all the dose levels to trigger infection. The dose ranges chosen by the most informed scientists at that time ranged from 1 gram to three times one hundred grams. It is clear that the designing scientists must have also shared Mr Bradley's surprise at the results because all the dose levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.
FDA has determined that each animal could have consumed, at most and in total, five-and-one-half grams - approximately a quarter ounce -- of prohibited material. These animals weigh approximately 600 pounds.
Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME. Since previous incidences of TME were associated with common or shared feeding practices, we obtained a careful history of feed ingredients used over the past 12-18 months. The rancher was a "dead stock" feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle and a few horses. Sheep had never been fed.
Estimation of the basic reproduction number of BSE: the intensity of transmission in British cattle Issue Volume 266, Number 1414/January 7, 1999 Pages 23-32 DOI 10.1098/rspb.1999.0599 Add to marked items Add to saved items Recommend this article
PDF (222.8 KB) Authors N. M. Ferguson, C. A. Donnelly, M. E. J. Woolhouse, R. M. Anderson
Abstract The basic reproduction number, R0, of an infectious agent is a key factor determining the rate of spread and the proportion of the host population affected. We formulate a general mathematical framework to describe the transmission dynamics of long incubation period diseases with complex pathogenesis. This is used to derive expressions for R0 of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in British cattle, and backcalculation methods are used to estimate R0 throughout the time-course of the BSE epidemic. We show that the 1988 meat and bonemeal ban was effective in rapidly reducing R0 below 1, and demonstrate that this indicates that BSE will be unable to become endemic in the UK cattle population even when case clustering is taken into account. The analysis provides some insight into absolute infectiousness for bovine-to-bovine transmission, indicating maximally infectious animals may have infected up to 400 animals each. The relationship between R0 and the early stages of the BSE epidemic and the requirements for additional research are also discussed.
and look at all the exotics in zoos that died from a TSE, these animals were fed split beef heads from BSE infected cattle for Pete's sake.
The 82 zoo animals with BSE:
Id TSE Genus Species Subsp Birth Origin Death Place of Death
654 x Microcebus murinus - 1997 U.Montpellier 1998 U.Montpellier
656 x Microcebus murinus - 1997 U.Montpellier 1998 U.Montpellier
481 + Eulemur fulvus mayottensis 1974 Madagascar 1992 Montpellier zoo
474 + Eulemur fulvus mayottensis 1974 Madagascar 1990 Montpellier zoo
584 - Eulemur fulvus mayottensis 1984 Montpellier 1991 Montpellier zoo
455 + Eulemur fulvus mayottensis 1983 Montpellier 1989 Montpellier zoo
- + Eulemur fulvus mayottensis 1988 Montpellier 1992 Montpellier zoo
- + Eulemur fulvus mayottensis 1995 Montpellier 1996 Montpellier zoo
- + Eulemur fulvus albifrons 1988 Paris 1992 Montpellier zoo
- + Eulemur fulvus albifrons 1988 Paris 1990 Montpellier zoo
- + Eulemur fulvus albifrons 1988 Paris 1992 Montpellier zoo
456 + Eulemur fulvus albifrons 1988 Paris 1990 Montpellier zoo
586 + Eulemur mongoz - 1979 Madagascar 1998 Montpellier zoo
- p Eulemur mongoz - 1989 Mulhouse 1991 Montpellier zoo
- p Eulemur mongoz - 1989 Mulhouse 1990 Montpellier zoo
- p Eulemur macaco - 1986 Montpellier 1996 Montpellier zoo
- p Lemur catta - 1976 Montpellier 1994 Montpellier zoo
- p Varecia variegata variegata 1985 Mulhouse 1990 Montpellier zoo
- p Varecia variegata variegata 1993 xxx 1994 Montpellier zoo
455 + Macaca mulatta - 1986 Ravensden UK 1992 Montpellier zoo
- p Macaca mulatta - 1986 Ravensden UK 1993 Montpellier zoo
- p Macaca mulatta - 1988 Ravensden UK 1991 Montpellier zoo
- p Saimiri sciureus - 1987 Frejus France 1990 Frejus zoo
700 pc eulemur hybrid - - Besancon zoo 1998 Besancon zoo
701 pc eulemur hybrid - - Besancon zoo 1998 Besancon zoo
702 pc eulemur hybrid - - Besancon zoo 1998 Besancon zoo
703 pc eulemur hybrid - - Besancon zoo 1998 Besancon zoo
704 pc eulemur hybrid - - Besancon zoo 1998 Besancon zoo
705 pc eulemur hybrid - - Besancon zoo 1998 Besancon zoo
706 pc eulemur hybrid - - Strasbourg zoo 1998 Strasbourg zoo
707 pc eulemur hybrid - - Strasbourg zoo 1998 Strasbourg zoo
708 pc eulemur hybrid - - Strasbourg zoo 1998 Strasbourg zoo
709 pc eulemur hybrid - - Strasbourg zoo 1998 Strasbourg zoo
710 pc eulemur hybrid - - Strasbourg zoo 1998 Strasbourg zoo
711 pc eulemur hybrid - - Strasbourg zoo 1998 Strasbourg zoo
712 pc eulemur hybrid - - Strasbourg zoo 1998 Strasbourg zoo
713 pc eulemur hybrid - - Strasbourg zoo 1998 Strasbourg zoo
714 pc eulemur hybrid - - Strasbourg zoo 1998 Strasbourg zoo
715 pc eulemur hybrid - - Strasbourg zoo 1998 Strasbourg zoo
716 pc eulemur hybrid - - Strasbourg zoo 1998 Strasbourg zoo
717 pc eulemur hybrid - - Strasbourg zoo 1998 Strasbourg zoo
x p genus species - - Lille zoo 1996 Lille zoo
y p genus species - - Lille zoo 1996 Lille zoo
z p genus species - - Lille zoo 1996 Lille zoo
1 + Actinonyx jubatus cheetah 1986 Marwell zoo 1991 Pearle Coast AU
Duke + Actinonyx jubatus cheetah 1984 Marwell zoo 1992 Colchester zoo? UK
Saki + Actinonyx jubatus cheetah 1986 Marwell zoo 1993 unknown UK
Mich + Actinonyx jubatus cheetah 1986 Whipsnade 1993 Whipsnade UK
Fr1 + Actinonyx jubatus cheetah 1987 Whipsnade 1997 Safari de Peaugres FR
Fr2 + Actinonyx jubatus cheetah 1991 Marwell zoo 1997 Safari de Peaugres Fr
xx + Actinonyx jubatus cheetah 19xx xxx zoo 199x Fota zoo IR
yy + Actinonyx jubatus cheetah 19xx yyy zoo 1996+ yyyy zoo UK
zz + Actinonyx jubatus cheetah 19xx zzz zoo 1996+ yyyy zoo UK
aaa + Felis concolor puma 1986 Chester zoo 1991 Chester zoo UK
yy + Felis concolor puma 1980 yyy zoo 1995 yyyy zoo UK
zz + Felis concolor puma 1978 zzz zoo 1995 zzzz zoo UK
xxx + Felis pardalis ocelot 1987 xxx 1994 Chester zoo UK
zzz + Felis pardalis ocelot 1980 zzz 1995 zzzz zoo UK
85 + Felis catus cat 1990+ various 1999+ various UK LI NO
19 + Canis familia. dog 1992+ various 1999+ various UK
Fota + Panthera tigris tiger 1981 xxx zoo 1995 xxxx zoo UK
yy + Panthera tigris tiger 1983 yyy zoo 1998 yyyy zoo UK
Lump + Panthera leo lion 1986 Woburn SP 1998 Edinburgh zoo UK [since 1994]
1 + Taurotragus oryx eland 1987 Port Lympne 1989 Port Lympne zoo UK
Moll + Taurotragus oryx eland 1989 xx UK 1991 not Port Lympne UK
Nedd + Taurotragus oryx eland 1989 xx UK 1991 not Port Lympne UK
Elec + Taurotragus oryx eland 1990 xx UK 1992 not Port Lympne Uk
Daph p Taurotragus oryx eland 1988 xx UK 1990 not Port Lympne UK
zzz + Taurotragus oryx eland 1991 zz UK 1994 zzz UK
yyy + Taurotragus oryx eland 1993 yy UK 1995 yyy UK
Fran p Tragelaphus strepsi. kudu 1985 London zoo 1987 London zoo UK
Lind + Tragelaphus strepsi. kudu 1987 London zoo 1989 London zoo UK
Karl + Tragelaphus strepsi. kudu 1988 London zoo 1990 London zoo UK
Kaz + Tragelaphus strepsi. kudu 1988 London zoo 1991 London zoo UK
Bamb pc Tragelaphus strepsi. kudu 1988 London zoo 1991 London zoo UK
Step - Tragelaphus strepsi. kudu 1984 London zoo 1991 London zoo UK
346 pc Tragelaphus strepsi. kudu 1990 London zoo 1992 London zoo UK
324 + Tragelaphus strepsi. kudu 1989 Marwell zoo 1992 London zoo UK
xxx + Tragelaphus angasi nyala 1983 Marwell zoo 1986 Marwell zoo UK
yy + Oryx gazella gemsbok 1983 Marwell zoo 1986 Marwell zoo UK
zz + Oryx gazella gemsbok 1994+ zzz zoo 1996+ zzzz zoo UK
xx + Oryx dammah scim oryx 1990 xxxx zoo 1993 Chester zoo UK
yy + Oryx leucoryx arab oryx 1986 Zurich zoo 1991 London zoo UK
yy + Bos taurus ankole cow 1987 yyy zoo 1995 yyyy zoo UK
zz + Bos taurus ankole cow 1986 zzz zoo 1991 zzzz zoo UK
xx + Bison bison Eu bison 1989 xxx zoo 1996 xxxx zoo UK
How many TSE deaths these zoos have had, how many are silently incubating the disease, and whether BSE in exported primates transmits horizontally as efficiently as CWD are the questions of the hour. A close reading of the PNAS study gives support to a truly catastrophic scenario.
Number of primates by zoo for 8/56 genera
67 La Palmyr
42 Lille Zo
31 Paris Zoo
14 Lisieux Z
13 La Plaine
12 Paris Jp
48 London Rp
9 So Lakes
Breakdown by number of animals by country for each genus and zoo
snip...see full text ;
The BSE Inquiry / Statement No 324
Dr James Kirkwood
(not scheduled to give oral evidence)
Statement to the BSE Inquiry
James K Kirkwood BVSc PhD FIBiol MRCVS
[This witness has not been asked to give oral evidence in Phase 1 of the Inquiry]
1. I became involved in the field of TSEs through my work as Head of the Veterinary
Science Group at the Zoological Society of London’s Institute of Zoology. I held this post from
November 1984 until June 1996, when I took up my present post at UFAW. During this time,
concurrent with the BSE epidemic, cases of scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathies occurred
in animals at the Zoological Society of London’s collections at Regent’s Park and Whipsnade
and in other zoos. It was appropriate to investigate the epidemiology of these cases in order to try
to determine the possible impact on zoo animals and breeding programmes, and to consider how
the disease in zoo animals might be controlled.
2. Throughout the period from 1985 to March 1996, I worked at the Institute of Zoology
(IoZ). I was Head of the Veterinary Science Group of the IoZ and Senior Veterinary Officer of
the Zoological Society of London (ZSL). I was responsible for the provision of the veterinary
service for the ZSL collections.
3. During the period from 1985 to March 1996, scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathies
were diagnosed in the following animals which died, or were euthanased, at London Zoo and
Animal Sex Date of Death Age (mos)
Arabian Oryx Oryx leucoryx F 24.3.89 38
Greater kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros (Linda) F 18.8.89 30
Greater kudu (Karla) F 13.11.90 19
Greater kudu (Kaz) M 6.6.91 37
Greater kudu (Bambi) M 24.10.91 36
Greater kudu (346/90) M 26.2.92 18
Greater kudu (324/90) F 22.11.92 38
Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus (Michelle) F 22.12.93 91
All these cases were described in papers published in the scientific literature (as cited below).
10. The case of SE in a cheetah that occurred during the period, involved a 7 year-old female which had been born and lived all her life at Whipsnade (except for the final stages when she was moved to the Animal Hospital at Regent’s Park for diagnosis and treatment). This animal, which died in December 1993, had been fed on cuts of meat and bone from carcases of cattle unfit for human consumption and it was thought likely that she had been exposed to spinal cord (Kirkwood, J.K., Cunningham, A.A., Flach, E.J., Thornton, S.M. & Wells, G.A.H. (1995) Spongiform encephalopathy in another captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): evidence for variation in susceptibility or incubation periods between species. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 26, 577-582: J/ZWM/26/577).
11. During the period we also collated information on cases of SE that occurred in wild animals at or from other zoos in the British Isles. The total number of cases of which I was aware in June 1996, when I presented a review on occurrence of spongiform encephalopathies in zoo animals (at the Royal College of Pathologists’ Symposium on Transmitting prions: BSE, CJD, and other TSEs, The Royal Society, London, 4th July 1996), was 25, involving 10 species. The animals involved were all from the families Bovidae and Felidae, and comprised: 1 Nyala Tragelaphus angasi, 5 Eland Taurotragus oryx, 6 greater kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, 1 Gemsbok Oryx gazella, 1 Arabian oryx Oryx leucoryx, 1 Scimitar-horned oryx Oryx dammah, 4 Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 3 Puma Felis concolor 2 Ocelot Felis pardalis, and 1 Tiger Panthera tigris. (A spongiform encephalopathy, which was thought probably to have a different aetiology, had also been reported in 3 ostriches Struthio camelus in Germany). This list did not include cases of BSE in domesticated species in zoos (ie BSE in Ankole or other cattle, or SEs, assumed to be scrapie, in mouflon sheep Ovis musimon).
12. Since the time the above statistics were published, a few further cases have occurred in animals at or from zoos in the British Isles. The total number of cases in cheetah that have now been documented has, as far as I am aware, risen to seven (Vitaud, C., Flach, E.J., Thornton, S.M. & Capello, R. (1998) Clinical observations on four cases of feline spongiform encephalopathy in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Proceedings of the European Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians, Chester, UK, 21st-24th May 1998. Pp 133-138). There has also been a case in a bison.
13. Epidemiological aspects of the majority of these cases (those diagnosed up to the end of 1993) were considered in paper published in 1994 (Kirkwood, J.K. & Cunningham, A.A. (1994) Epidemiological observations on spongiform encephalopathies in captive wild animals in the British Isles. Veterinary Record 135, 296-303:J/VR/135/296.) This paper was based on a paper presented at the Consultation on BSE with the Scientific Veterinary Committee of the Commission of the European Communities held in Brussels, 14-15th September 1993 (Kirkwood, J.K. & Cunningham, A.A. (1993) Spongiform encephalopathy in captive wild animals in Britain: epidemiological observations. In R. Bradley & B Marchant (Eds) Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Proceedings of a Consultation on BSE with the Scientific Veterinary Committee of the Commission of the European Communities, 14-15 September 1993, Brussels. European Commission. Pp 29-47:M9 tab 46). It was thought likely that at least some, and probably all, of the cases in zoo animals were caused by the BSE agent. Strong support for this hypothesis came from the findings of Bruce and others (1994) ( Bruce, M.E., Chree, A., McConnell, I., Foster, J., Pearson, G. & Fraser, H. (1994) Transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie to mice: strain variation and species barrier. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 343, 405-411: J/PTRSL/343/405), who demonstrated that the pattern of variation in incubation period and lesion profile in six strains of mice inoculated with brain homogenates from an affected kudu and the nyala, was similar to that seen when this panel of mouse strains was inoculated with brain from cattle with BSE. The affected zoo bovids were all from herds that were exposed to feeds that were likely to have contained contaminated ruminant-derived protein and the zoo felids had been exposed, if only occasionally in some cases, to tissues from cattle unfit for human consumption.
14. Among the affected bovids were others (including scimitar horned oryx and eland) which, like some of the kudu, were born some considerable time after the July 1988 ban on inclusion of RDP in ruminant feeds (Kirkwood, J.K. & Cunningham, A.A. (1994) Epidemiological observations on spongiform encephalopathies in captive wild animals in the British Isles. Veterinary Record 135, 296-303:J/VR/135/296). The source of infection to these animals was puzzling. However, as it emerged that many cases of BSE were continuing to occur in domestic cattle born after the July 1988 ban on inclusion of RDP in ruminant feeds, it was clear that the ban had not been immediately effective, and it was therefore possible (or, at least, impossible to rule out) that the late cases in zoo ungulates were also due to exposure to contaminated feeds.
15. We drew attention to the fact that, from a taxonomic perspective, the incidence of cases was strikingly patchy (Kirkwood, J.K. & Cunningham, A.A. (1994) Epidemiological observations on spongiform encephalopathies in captive wild animals in the British Isles. Veterinary Record 135, 296-303. Also Kirkwood, J.K., Cunningham, A.A., Flach, E.J., Thornton, S.M. & Wells, G.A.H. (1995) Spongiform encephalopathy in another captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): evidence for variation in susceptibility or incubation periods between species? Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 26, 577-582) Compared with many other species of exotic ruminants, few kudu were present in the UK but there had been 6 cases of SE among them. The picture seemed similar in the felids. Compared with other species of exotic felids (eg lions in which no cases had occurred), there were relatively small numbers of puma and cheetah in the UK but (at that time) there had been 3 and 4 cases among these respectively. Almost certainly a wider range of species were exposed to contaminated feeds than those in which cases have occurred or been detected. However, we were cautious about drawing firm conclusions about variation in susceptibility between species because (i) incubation periods vary between species and we thought other cases may emerge and (ii) because the variation might be related to differences in intensity of exposure.
16. The number of cases of SE each year in zoo hoofed-stock reached a peak around 1991 and has declined since as shown in the figure below (this and the subsequent figure are updates of those I showed at the Royal College of Pathologist’s Meeting on TSEs at the Royal Society on 4th July 1996). This pattern suggests that the ban on including RDP in ruminant feeds has been an important factor in the control of the disease in zoo bovids.
Since it was considered from all the evidence available, to be very unlikely that the feed offered to the animals from 1988 onwards could contain RDP, the pattern of incidence in the group between 1989 and 1992 suggested that transmission between animals might have occurred. However, in 1995, it became clear from further discussions with the manufacturers that the possibility that the pelleted feed could have contained RDP for some years after the July 1988 ban, could not be entirely ruled out.
TSEs in Exotic Ruminants
TSEs have been detected in exotic ruminants in UK zoos since 1986. These include antelopes (Eland, Gemsbok, Arabian and Scimitar oryx, Nyala and Kudu), Ankole cattle and Bison. With hindsight the 1986 case in a Nyala was diagnosed before the first case of BSE was identified. The TSE cases in exotic ruminants had a younger onset age and a shorter clinical duration compared to that in cattle with BSE. All the cases appear to be linked to the BSE epidemic via the consumption of feed contaminated with the BSE agent. The epidemic has declined as a result of tight controls on feeding mammalian meat and bone meal to susceptible animals, particularly from August 1996.
Jeffrey, M. and Wells, G.A.H, (1988) Spongiform encephalopathy in a nyala (Tragelaphus angasi). Vet.Path. 25. 398-399
Kirkwood, J.K. et al (1990) Spongiform encephalopathy in an Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and a Greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) Veterinary Record 127. 418-429.
Kirkwood, J.K. (1993) Spongiform encephalopathy in a herd of Greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros): epidemiological observations. Veterinary Record 133. 360-364
Kirkwood, J. K. and Cunningham, A.A. (1994) Epidemiological observations on spongiform encephalopathies in captive wild animals in the British Isles. Veterinary Record. 135. 296-303.
Food and Agriculture Organisation (1998) Manual on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.
Page last modified: 15 August, 2008
Page last reviewed: 15 August, 2008
worse still, there is serious risk the media could get
to hear of such a meeting...
Crushed heads (which inevitably involve brain and spinal cord material)
are used to a limited extent but will also form one of the constituent
raw materials of meat and bone meal, which is used extensively in
pet food manufacturer...
2. The Parliamentary Secretary said that he was concerned
about the possibility that countries in which BSE had not
yet been detected could be exporting raw meat materials
(in particular crushed heads) contaminated with the disease
to the UK for use in petfood manufacture...
YOU explained that imported crushed heads were extensively used in the
In particular I do not believe one can say that the levels of
the scrapie agent in pet food are so low that domestic animals are
some 100+ _documented_ TSE cats of all types later...tss
on occassions, materials obtained from slaughterhouses
will be derived from sheep affected with scrapie or
cattle that may be incubating BSE for use in petfood manufacture...
Meldrum's notes on pet foods and materials used
IN CONFIDENCE CJD TO CATS...
Confidential BSE and __________________
1st case natural FSE
FSE and pharmaceuticals
confidential cats/dogs and unsatisfactory posture
MAFFs failure to assure key research
and when you have the feed industry itself banning together thick as thieves, to continue to use all the tainted feed in commerce ;
STRICTLY PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL 25, AUGUST 1995
To minimise the risk of farmers' claims for compensation from feed compounders.
To minimise the potential damage to compound feed markets through adverse publicity.
To maximise freedom of action for feed compounders, notably by maintaining the availability of meat and bone meal as a raw material in animal feeds, and ensuring time is available to make any changes which may be required.
MAFF remains under pressure in Brussels and is not skilled at handling potentially explosive issues.
5. Tests _may_ show that ruminant feeds have been sold which contain illegal traces of ruminant protein. More likely, a few positive test results will turn up but proof that a particular feed mill knowingly supplied it to a particular farm will be difficult if not impossible.
6. The threat remains real and it will be some years before feed compounders are free of it. The longer we can avoid any direct linkage between feed milling _practices_ and actual BSE cases, the more likely it is that serious damage can be avoided. ...
SEE full text ;
THIS is what happens when you have the industry run the government.
It's a very deadly, leathal mix $$$
i don't know how the law reads in Michigan, but a corn plot, or any feeding plot, where it brings animals in to feed, will create a spot for these deer and or elk to commingle, thus, you have created a hot spot for CWD, for other animals to come and feed, become exposed, by methods not _natural_. you would 'enhance' the spreading by means not natural. i am sure there are natural feed plots this will happen anyway, but why enhance it? may make your hunt a little more challenging, but again, why enhance it? then then these animals leave these feed plots, some may not, but they then go on to expose other areas. believe me, i don't pretend to have all the answers, but science tells us now that this a very real problem. i suppose my main question i would like answered is, why when so many have been exposed, only some become clinical and die. with CWD, it seems that this is the most efficiently transmitted TSE to date. is it a genetic thing, an environmental thing, metals, what, to make some more susceptible to clinical disease and death, than others? i am not a big fan of the OPs, and or metals theory, to many folks think they are the _cause_. transmission studies have clearly proven this wrong. and until a metal or OP can transmit disease, more than once, and by second passage, it is not a TSE, and does not _cause_ them. Bastian et al believe it's the spiroplasma thing, others theories a virus thing Manuelidis et al, but we must not ignore what we do know by TSE transmission studies to date.
laws, bans, etc., were all made to be broken, some easier than others. as a hunter, the question is, what kind of hunter are you. do you have a moral obligation to do everything possible to stop the spread of CWD, or do you just throw up your arms and say 'Please don't get carried away with this CWD thing' because it's an inconvenient thing to do $$$
as hunters, it's your choice, and many difficult decisions lay ahead. i don't pretend to have all the answers, but i can tell you this, do not flounder with this CWD, TSE agent.