Health knowledge made personal
Join this community!
› Share page:
Go
Search posts:

Chronic Wasting Disease Found In A White-Tailed Deer In Maryland

Posted Feb 10 2011 9:27pm
Chronic Wasting Disease Found In A White-Tailed Deer In Maryland




Annapolis, Md. (February 10, 2011) — The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) received laboratory confirmation on February 10, 2011 that a white-tailed deer harvested in Maryland tested positive for chronic wasting disease (CWD). This is the first confirmed case of CWD in Maryland. A hunter in Allegany County reported taking the deer on November 27, 2010 in Green Ridge State Forest. Maryland is now one of 20 other states and Canadian provinces with CWD documented in deer, elk or moose.



"Our team of wildlife professionals has been preparing for this result for some time so we are well-informed and ready to limit the impact of this event,” said Paul Peditto, Director of DNR’s Wildlife and Heritage Service. “We have sampled intensively for this disease since 2002 and see this as an unfortunate but somewhat inevitable outcome. The good news is that our preparation and planning ensure a sound scientific foundation for our response to this single positive test result. With the continued cooperation of hunters, farmers, deer processors and landowners who have supported our monitoring effort, we will manage this deer disease consistent with the best available science and with minimal impact on our deer population and the people who enjoy these great animals.”



“Concerns over CWD should not stop anyone from enjoying venison,” added Peditto, who explained that only four species of the deer family are known to be susceptible to CWD: elk, mule deer, moose and white-tailed deer. Of these, only the white-tailed deer occurs in the wild in Maryland and there are no reported cases of transmission to humans or other animals.



As always, hunters are advised to exercise caution and never consume the meat of sick animals. Hunters are also advised to avoid contact with the brain, spinal column or lymph nodes of deer — all of which are normally removed during the butchering process.



This is the first positive sample out of nearly 6,800 deer tested in Maryland since 1999. From 2002 until 2009 that sampling occurred statewide. In 2010, sampling efforts were focused on Allegany and western Washington counties due to the presence of positive cases in nearby West Virginia and Virginia. West Virginia first detected CWD in Hampshire County in 2005 and it was found in Frederick County, Virginia in early 2010.



“Maryland will continue to work closely with the wildlife professionals in our adjacent states to share information and coordinate response efforts. However, our primary goal is to ensure the public is fully-informed and knows what we know when we know it. We want to be certain that every interested Marylander understands this disease and recognizes that there is no risk to people, pets or domestic livestock. As in every other state with CWD, we will respond appropriately while ultimately learning to live with this disease with little impact to our wildlife or citizens,” Peditto concluded.



For more information on CWD in Maryland and the DNR Response Plan, please visit the DNR



Website at



http://www.dnr.maryland.gov/wildlife/Hunt_Trap/deer/disease/cwdinformation.asp .





--------------------------------------------------------------------------------



February 10, 2011 Contact: Josh Davidsburg 410-260-8002 office I 410-507-7526 cell jdavidsburg@dnr.state.md.us



http://www.dnr.state.md.us/dnrnews/pressrelease2011/021011a.asp





something of disturbing interest from long ago i just ran across in my files again. please take it with how ever many grains of salt you wish ;



THEY KNEW THERE WAS A HIGH RISK FACTOR ALMOST 2 DECADES AGO ;



CJD9/10022



October 1994



Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ



Dear Mr Elmhirst,



CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT



Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.



The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.



The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.



The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.



I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.



http://web.archive.org/web/20030511010117/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1994/10/00003001.pdf





CONSUMPTION OF VEAL AND VENISON AND SIGNIFICANT INCREASE CJD



Sat Apr 28, 2007 07:10 68.238.100.254



greetings,



i have been working on something for a while 'the big lie', the following data to be added in, but i thought due to what i think the importance of this is, i thought i would go ahead and put this out now for those that might be interested. ........tss



CHANGING SCIENCE TO FIT YOUR INDUSTRY NEEDS COVER-UP IN FULL MODE NOW



POLICY - RESTRICTED



CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE: 3RD ANNUAL REPORT OF THE UK SURVEILLANCE UNIT



1. This submission, which has been agreed with colleagues in HEF(M). alerts PS(L) to the contents of the forthcoming annual report of the CJD Surveillance Unit and presents options for publication. It also highlights concern over the presentation of results which could be misrepresented by the media and others as evidence of a lilnk between CJD and the consumption of veal. ...



RECOMMENDATION



2. PS(L) is invited to agree the recommendation at para 13.



PROBLEM



7. The main findings in the case-control study were STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN CONSUMPTION OF VEAL OR VENISON AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF CJD (INCREASED RISKS OF 2-13x). There was also evidence of a dose-response relationship between dietary exposure and development of the disease. (Last year's findings showed an apparent association between eating black pudding and risk of CJD which was neither statistically significant nor biologically plausible - interestingly, this has not been (replicated was marked out with something i cannot read), and then this complete sentence was marked through to be replaced ;



THIS YEAR'S FINDINGS SHOW A NUMBER OF ASSOCIATIONS BUT THE STRONGEST IS FOR VEAL.



IP PS(L) wishes to probe this further we think it best to explain the matter VERBALLY. The problem is how to present the findings in this year's annual report in a way which avoids unnecessary public alarm and limits the scope for media scare stores. (or the facts...TSS)



This is of considerable concern given recent development. In particular Ministers will be particularly concerned about the European dimension given the recent troubles with the Germans.



9. DH doctors advise - and we understand Dr Wills agrees - that the association the study found between the developments of CJD and veal consumption cannot be regarded as demonstrating a causal relationship or give any reason to change the advice that eating beef and veal is safe. IF PS(L) wishes to probe this further we think it best to explain the matter verbally. The problem is how to present the findings in this year's annual report in a way which avoids unnecessary public alarm and limits the scope for media scare stories.



Next steps ...



snip... full text ;



http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20080103020408/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1994/07/00001001.pdf





PROBLEM



7. The main findings in the case-control study were STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN CONSUMPTION OF VEAL OR VENISON AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF CJD (INCREASED RISKS OF 2-13x). There was also evidence of a dose-response relationship between dietary exposure and development of the disease. (Last year's findings showed an apparent association between eating black pudding and risk of CJD which was neither statistically significant nor biologically plausible - interestingly, this has not been (replicated was marked out with something i cannot read), and then this complete sentence was marked through to be replaced ;



see watered down report here ;



http://web.archive.org/web/20030511211625/http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1994/10/00004001.pdf





UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN



Wednesday, September 08, 2010



CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2010/09/cwd-prion-2010.html





Tuesday, January 25, 2011



Generation of a new form of human PrPSc in vitro by inter-species transmission from cervids prions



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2011/01/generation-of-new-form-of-human-prpsc.html






Journal of Virology, September 2009, p. 9608-9610, Vol. 83, No. 18 0022-538X/09/$08.00+0 doi:10.1128/JVI.01127-09 Copyright © 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.



Prion Infectivity in Fat of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease



Brent Race,# Kimberly Meade-White,# Richard Race, and Bruce Chesebro* Rocky Mountain Laboratories, 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, Montana 59840



Received 2 June 2009/ Accepted 24 June 2009



ABSTRACT Top ABSTRACT TEXT REFERENCES



Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a neurodegenerative prion disease of cervids. Some animal prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, can infect humans; however, human susceptibility to CWD is unknown. In ruminants, prion infectivity is found in central nervous system and lymphoid tissues, with smaller amounts in intestine and muscle. In mice, prion infectivity was recently detected in fat. Since ruminant fat is consumed by humans and fed to animals, we determined infectivity titers in fat from two CWD-infected deer. Deer fat devoid of muscle contained low levels of CWD infectivity and might be a risk factor for prion infection of other species.



snip...



The highest risk of human contact with CWD might be through exposure to high-titer CNS tissue through accidental skin cuts or corneal contact at the time of harvest and butchering. However, the likelihood of a human consuming fat infected with a low titer of the CWD agent is much higher. It is impossible to remove all the fat present within muscle tissue, and fat consumption is inevitable when eating meat. Of additional concern is the fact that meat from an individual deer harvested by a hunter is typically consumed over multiple meals by the same group of people. These individuals would thus have multiple exposures to the CWD agent over time, which might increase the chance for transfer of infection.



In the Rocky Mountain region of North America, wild deer are subject to predation by wolves, coyotes, bears, and mountain lions. Although canines such as wolves and coyotes are not known to be susceptible to prion diseases, felines definitely are susceptible to BSE (9) and might also be infected by the CWD agent. Deer infected with the CWD agent are more likely to be killed by predators such as mountain lions (11). Peripheral tissues, including lymph nodes, muscle, and fat, which harbor prion infectivity are more accessible for consumption than CNS tissue, which has the highest level of infectivity late in disease. Therefore, infectivity in these peripheral tissues may be important in potential cross-species CWD transmissions in the wild.



The present finding of CWD infectivity in deer fat tissue raises the possibility that prion infectivity might also be found in fat tissue of other infected ruminants, such as sheep and cattle, whose fat and muscle tissues are more widely distributed in both the human and domestic-animal food chains. Although the infectivity in fat tissues is low compared to that in the CNS, there may be significant differences among species and between prion strains. Two fat samples from BSE agent-infected cattle were reported to be negative by bioassay in nontransgenic RIII mice (3, 6). However, RIII mice are 10,000-fold-less sensitive to BSE agent infection than transgenic mice expressing bovine PrP (4). It would be prudent to carry out additional infectivity assays on fat from BSE agent-infected cattle and scrapie agent-infected sheep using appropriate transgenic mice or homologous species to determine the risk from these sources.



http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/full/83/18/9608





Our results have far-reaching implications for human health, since they indicate that cervid PrPSc can trigger the conversion of human PrPC into PrPSc, suggesting that CWD might be infectious to humans. Interestingly our findings suggest that unstable strains from CWD affected animals might not be a problem for humans, but upon strain stabilization by successive passages in the wild, this disease might become progressively more transmissible to man.



Reference List



snip...



please see full text and many thanks to the Professor Soto and the other Authors of this study AND to The Journal Of Biological Chemistry for the free full text !!!



http://www.jbc.org/content/early/2011/01/04/jbc.M110.198465.long





PLEASE NOTE ;



there are now two documented strains of CWD, and science is showing that indeed CWD could transmit to humans via transmission studies ;



P35



ADAPTATION OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) INTO HAMSTERS, EVIDENCE OF A WISCONSIN STRAIN OF CWD



Chad Johnson1, Judd Aiken2,3,4 and Debbie McKenzie4,5 1 Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI, USA 53706 2 Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutritional Sciences, 3 Alberta Veterinary Research Institute, 4.Center for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases, 5 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada T6G 2P5



The identification and characterization of prion strains is increasingly important for the diagnosis and biological definition of these infectious pathogens. Although well-established in scrapie and, more recently, in BSE, comparatively little is known about the possibility of prion strains in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a disease affecting free ranging and captive cervids, primarily in North America. We have identified prion protein variants in the white-tailed deer population and demonstrated that Prnp genotype affects the susceptibility/disease progression of white-tailed deer to CWD agent. The existence of cervid prion protein variants raises the likelihood of distinct CWD strains. Small rodent models are a useful means of identifying prion strains. We intracerebrally inoculated hamsters with brain homogenates and phosphotungstate concentrated preparations from CWD positive hunter-harvested (Wisconsin CWD endemic area) and experimentally infected deer of known Prnp genotypes. These transmission studies resulted in clinical presentation in primary passage of concentrated CWD prions. Subclinical infection was established with the other primary passages based on the detection of PrPCWD in the brains of hamsters and the successful disease transmission upon second passage. Second and third passage data, when compared to transmission studies using different CWD inocula (Raymond et al., 2007) indicate that the CWD agent present in the Wisconsin white-tailed deer population is different than the strain(s) present in elk, mule-deer and white-tailed deer from the western United States endemic region.



http://www.istitutoveneto.it/prion_09/Abstracts_09.pdf





PPo3-7


Prion Transmission from Cervids to Humans is Strain-dependent



Qingzhong Kong, Shenghai Huang,*Fusong Chen, Michael Payne, Pierluigi Gambetti and Liuting Qing Department of Pathology; Case western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA *Current address: Nursing Informatics; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; New York, NY USA



Key words: CWD, strain, human transmission



Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread prion disease in cervids (deer and elk) in North America where significant human exposure to CWD is likely and zoonotic transmission of CWD is a concern. Current evidence indicates a strong barrier for transmission of the classical CWD strain to humans with the PrP-129MM genotype. A few recent reports suggest the presence of two or more CWD strains. What remain unknown is whether individuals with the PrP-129VV/MV genotypes are also resistant to the classical CWD strain and whether humans are resistant to all natural or adapted cervid prion strains. Here we report that a human prion strain that had adopted the cervid prion protein (PrP) sequence through passage in cervidized transgenic mice efficiently infected transgenic mice expressing human PrP, indicating that the species barrier from cervid to humans is prion strain-dependent and humans can be vulnerable to novel cervid prion strains. Preliminary results on CWD transmission in transgenic mice expressing human PrP-129V will also be discussed.



Acknowledgement Supported by NINDS NS052319 and NIA AG14359.



PPo2-27


Generation of a Novel form of Human PrPSc by Inter-species Transmission of Cervid Prions



Marcelo A. Barria,1 Glenn C. Telling,2 Pierluigi Gambetti,3 James A. Mastrianni4 and Claudio Soto1 1Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's disease and related Brain disorders; Dept of Neurology; University of Texas Houston Medical School; Houston, TX USA; 2Dept of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics and Neurology; Sanders Brown Center on Aging; University of Kentucky Medical Center; Lexington, KY USA; 3Institute of Pathology; Case western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA; 4Dept of Neurology; University of Chicago; Chicago, IL USA



Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and animals that result from the conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) into the misfolded and infectious prion (PrPSc). Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids is a prion disorder of increasing prevalence within the United States that affects a large population of wild and captive deer and elk. CWD is highly contagious and its origin, mechanism of transmission and exact prevalence are currently unclear. The risk of transmission of CWD to humans is unknown. Defining that risk is of utmost importance, considering that people have been infected by animal prions, resulting in new fatal diseases. To study the possibility that human PrPC can be converted into the infectious form by CWD PrPSc we performed experiments using the Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) technique, which mimic in vitro the process of prion replication. Our results show that cervid PrPSc can induce the pathological conversion of human PrPC, but only after the CWD prion strain has been stabilized by successive passages in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, this newly generated human PrPSc exhibits a distinct biochemical pattern that differs from any of the currently known forms of human PrPSc, indicating that it corresponds to a novel human prion strain. Our findings suggest that CWD prions have the capability to infect humans, and that this ability depends on CWD strain adaptation, implying that the risk for human health progressively increases with the spread of CWD among cervids.



PPo2-7


Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of Different CWD Isolates



Martin L. Daus and Michael Beekes Robert Koch Institute; Berlin, Germany



Key words: CWD, strains, FT-IR, AFM



Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is one of three naturally occurring forms of prion disease. The other two are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and scrapie in sheep. CWD is contagious and affects captive as well as free ranging cervids. As long as there is no definite answer of whether CWD can breach the species barrier to humans precautionary measures especially for the protection of consumers need to be considered. In principle, different strains of CWD may be associated with different risks of transmission to humans. Sophisticated strain differentiation as accomplished for other prion diseases has not yet been established for CWD. However, several different findings indicate that there exists more than one strain of CWD agent in cervids. We have analysed a set of CWD isolates from white-tailed deer and could detect at least two biochemically different forms of disease-associated prion protein PrPTSE. Limited proteolysis with different concentrations of proteinase K and/or after exposure of PrPTSE to different pH-values or concentrations of Guanidinium hydrochloride resulted in distinct isolate-specific digestion patterns. Our CWD isolates were also examined in protein misfolding cyclic amplification studies. This showed different conversion activities for those isolates that had displayed significantly different sensitivities to limited proteolysis by PK in the biochemical experiments described above. We further applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in combination with atomic force microscopy. This confirmed structural differences in the PrPTSE of at least two disinct CWD isolates. The data presented here substantiate and expand previous reports on the existence of different CWD strains.



http://www.prion2010.org/bilder/prion_2010_program_latest_w_posters_4_.pdf?139&PHPSESSID=a30a38202cfec579000b77af81be3099





UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN



Wednesday, September 08, 2010



CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2010/09/cwd-prion-2010.html





From: TSS (216-119-163-189.ipset45.wt.net)



Subject: CWD aka MAD DEER/ELK TO HUMANS ??



Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST



From: "Belay, Ermias"



To


Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"



Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM



Subject: RE: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS



Dear Sir/Madam, In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.



That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.



Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention



-----Original Message-----



From


Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM



To: [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]; [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]; [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]



Subject: TO CDC AND NIH - PUB MED- 3 MORE DEATHS - CWD - YOUNG HUNTERS



Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS



snip...



full text ;



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/02/exotic-meats-usa-announces-urgent.html





FDA is not recalling this CWD positive elk meat for the well being of the dead elk ;



Wednesday, March 18, 2009



Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/03/noahs-ark-holding-llc-dawson-mn-recall.html





see full text ;



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/04/cwd-update-infection-studies-in-two.html





Wednesday, December 29, 2010



CWD Update 99 December 13, 2010



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2010/12/cwd-update-99-december-13-2010.html





Prions in Skeletal Muscles of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease



Rachel C. Angers1,*, Shawn R. Browning1,*†, Tanya S. Seward2, Christina J. Sigurdson4,‡, Michael W. Miller5, Edward A. Hoover4 and Glenn C. Telling1,2,3,§ + Author Affiliations



Abstract



The emergence of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk in an increasingly wide geographic area, as well as the interspecies transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to humans in the form of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, have raised concerns about the zoonotic potential of CWD. Because meat consumption is the most likely means of exposure, it is important to determine whether skeletal muscle of diseased cervids contains prion infectivity. Here bioassays in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein revealed the presence of infectious prions in skeletal muscles of CWD-infected deer, demonstrating that humans consuming or handling meat from CWD-infected deer are at risk to prion exposure.



Received for publication 21 November 2005. Accepted for publication 13 January 2006.



http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;311/5764/1117




Thursday, August 28, 2008



CWD TISSUE INFECTIVITY brain, lymph node, blood, urine, feces, antler velvet and muscle



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2008/08/cwd-tissue-infectivity-brain-lymph-node.html





Sunday, April 12, 2009



CWD UPDATE Infection Studies in Two Species of Non-Human Primates and one Environmental reservoir infectivity study and evidence of two strains



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/04/cwd-update-infection-studies-in-two.html





http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/09/experimental-oral-transmission-of.html





Sunday, December 06, 2009



Detection of Sub-Clinical CWD Infection in Conventional Test-Negative Deer Long after Oral Exposure to Urine and Feces from CWD+ Deer



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/12/detection-of-sub-clinical-cwd-infection.html





Wednesday, March 18, 2009



Detection of CWD Prions in Urine and Saliva of Deer by Transgenic Mouse Bioassay



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/03/detection-of-cwd-prions-in-urine-and.html





Tuesday, June 16, 2009



Infectious Prions in Pre-Clinical Deer and Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease Solely by Environmental Exposure



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/06/infectious-prions-in-pre-clinical-deer.html





Wednesday, October 14, 2009



Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/10/detection-of-protease-resistant-cervid.html





AS THE CROW FLIES, SO DOES CWD



Sunday, November 01, 2009



American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and potential spreading of CWD through feces of digested infectious carcases



http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/2009/11/american-crows-corvus-brachyrhynchos.html





http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspot.com/




Saturday, January 29, 2011



Atypical L-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (L-BSE) Transmission to Cynomolgus Macaques, a Non-Human Primate



Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 64 (1), 81-84, 2011



http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/2011/01/atypical-l-type-bovine-spongiform.html





Friday, February 04, 2011



NMLB and USDA allow scrapie prion infected mutton to enter food chain on the Navajo Reservation in New Mexico



----- Original Message -----



From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.



To: President.BenShelly



Cc: sroanhorse ; opvp.nelson ; alaughing; georgehardeen; pressoffice



Sent: Thursday, February 03, 2011 12:15 PM



Subject: NMLB and USDA allow scrapie prion infected mutton to enter food chain on the Navajo Reservation in New Mexico



Greetings Honorable People of the Great Navajo Nation, and the Honorable President Ben Shelly,



I send this to you with great concern. ...



http://scrapie-usa.blogspot.com/2011/02/nmlb-and-usda-allow-scrapie-prion.html





http://transmissiblespongiformencephalopathy.blogspot.com/




Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518



kind regards, terry
Post a comment
Write a comment: