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Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013

Posted May 28 2013 9:38pm
Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013



6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.




Greetings everyone concerned,


I finally got an official update from Louisiana about the deer moved to Louisiana from the Pennsylvania CWD index herd.


The Louisiana Department of Agriculture & Forestry has finally passed along an update on this very important matter. I will give a rundown first of the history on this. If you remember correctly, back on ;




Wednesday, November 14, 2012


PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD INVESTIGATION MOVES INTO LOUISIANA AND INDIANA


Got a private email.


snip...as follows ;


I would pass along a story. Nothing official has come out, but I have inside sources with multiple federal and state agencies in LA. But a deer or multiple deer, not sure which, from a CWD positive pen in PA was moved to a pen somewhere around Lake Charles, LA. The deer may have been moved to at least one other pen in LA, and possible one in MS as well, but no one really knows. There are supposedly 150 deer at the pen in Lake Charles that were quarentined and killed and they are now trying to figure out how and where to dispose of the carcasses. Everything is very sketchy and grey right now, but it is now possible that CWD could have spread to 1 or 2 more states. We shall see in the next few weeks if any kind of official press release comes out...end









so, I gave the Pa dept of ag a call. this is the kind reply I got. ...tss


From: xxxxxxxxx xxxxxx Sent: Wednesday, November 14, 2012 4:03 PM To: 'Flounder9@verizon.net' Subject: Deer information Terry - The animal moved on a certificate of veterinary inspection prior to the discovery of the positive CWD herd in Pennsylvania. Louisiana animal health authorities are investigating the movement of this deer that was epidemiologically linked to the index Pennsylvania herd, into their state. We are awaiting their response. Since the announcement of CWD positives in Pennsylvania there are no states permitting the movement of imported Pennsylvania deer and the Department of Agriculture is not permitting the movement of any deer into the commonwealth. -xxxxxx


snip...


Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture | Press Office 2301 North Cameron Street | Hbg PA 17110 Phone: 717.787.5085 | Fax: 717.787.1039 www.agriculture.state.pa.us



====================



I thank the Dept of Penn Ag for that kind reply and information. I pray that CWD has not been transported to Louisiana from Pennsylvania, via the great escape of CWD 2012 into Pennsylvania from captive game farming. ...tss




Tuesday, November 13, 2012 PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD






P.S. UPDATE NOVEMBER 17, 2012 SATURDAY




AFTER posting this, i got an email, from the Son of the Father that owns said game farm in Louisiana that is now under quarantine. sadly, the day before the farm was quarantined, his Father fell out of a tree and was killed in a hunting accident. my condolences goes out to the family at this difficult time. but this nightmare just keeps getting worse. here is what the Son told me, i cannot confirm any of the following, other than the Son told me this over the phone. Louisiana refuses to comment publically about this mess $$$ ;





spoke with Donald Hodge Jr. today on his Dads farm. his Dad just passed recently (see below).





it seems that several deer from Pennsylvania CWD exposed herd, or cohorts, were brought to Louisiana via Donald Hodge Sr. 6 deer were transported from PA to LA by Mr. Elmer Fisher, and the truck driver was Dustin Miller. here is where the story gets a bit tricky. seems there are NO records of the deer actually ever arriving at Donald Hodge Sr.’s Farm. seems that they were suppose to go to Lafayette Louisiana, but, seems he had a silent partner, a Jarrod somebody? the son was not sure. the son said that from his fathers notes (that’s all they had to go by), these 6 deer from PA never reached his farm, even though his Dad signed for them. the 6 deer were never logged into inventory, there were no tags, no micro chips from them found. the Dept. of Ag took soil samples. to date, the son said everything at his Dad’s farm is negative. now here is where the story gets even more fishy. the location changed from Lafayette Louisiana , to a location of an unregistered hunting club, or shooting pen, as he called it, and there was some attempted deal between the silent partner, and the delivery driver, to bring the 6 deer to this shooting pen in the area of Slidell Louisiana instead. the driver was offered $1,000. to take the deer there. but he refused, so evidently, the silent partner set up a meeting place, where another trailer was brought in, and the deer were then boxed up, and sent to this shooting pen up around Slidell Louisiana, somewhere along the Mississippi border. that is where the trail runs cold for these 6 deer from PA. the Donald Hodge Farm in LA, has about 160 cervids. NONE have been slaughtered or tested to date, and are being fed, and they are under quarantine. seems in Louisiana, there are no requirements for IN STATE movement of cervids, from what Jr. told me. Donald Jr. told me the Dept. of Ag says there are two options if these 6 deer are not located.






1. kill the whole herd




2. Quarantine for 5 years.




Donald Jr. told me he could not afford to quarantine for 5 years.




seems right now, everything is in a holding pattern by the Dept of Ag, until they can locate the 6 deer from PA.




the Son told me that he was told there is NO indemnity program if they slaughter the deer.




It’s really a sad situation. Donald Hodge Sr., died Oct. 16 in a hunting accident, and Oct. 17 his farm was quarantined, and the family is beside themselves to say the least, as you can understand.




===========




UPDATE LOUISIANA NOVEMBER 20, 2012





i have been trying to find out about the Louisiana investigation into the PA deer, where they are at, and how many. from the letter below from the Dept. of ag in Pa, there is an investigation into this ongoing in PA, but they will not speak about the Louisiana deer, the Louisiana dept of ag, are the ones that can only speak about that part of this issue. so, i called them, finally got ahold of a Mr. walter, i had been trying all day to speak with Dr. Brent Robins, but when i called back at the time i was suppose to call back and speak with Dr. Robins, he had apparently left the office, after I was told to call him back at at a specific time. so i had to talk with a Mr. Walter, or a Mr. Walters or a Walter somebody, that was chief of something there at Animal Health & Food Safety in Baton Rouge, LA - (225) 925-3962 Office Telephone No: (225) 925-3962. bottom line, the investigation is ‘ongoing’, and it’s an ‘open’ investigation, and they refuse to talk anymore about it. told me they would release a report when and if the investigation is over with. so, apparently, we still have from 1 to 6 deer loose in Louisiana from PA CWD positive index herd, and nobody from Louisiana is talking about it. all PA dept of ag says is Louisiana has them, but they can’t talk about them, and all Louisiana dept. of ag will say, is it’s an open ongoing investigation. he would not even confirm, or not, if they have located said deer or how many were in the investigation. from what I got from the Son (see below), they have no clue where they are. so, we will see if any report is made in the future, or not. ...




==============================




more on Great Escape of CWD from Pennsylvania 2012 coming out of Indiana




A farm in Pennsylvania, where chronic wasting disease was detected, has sold 10 animals to farms in Indiana over the past three years. DNR spokesman Phil Bloom said two were sold to farms in Noble and Whitley counties; the rest went to two facilities in Jackson County, one of which is the site of the escape.














snip...








DNR officials are concerned because a Pennsylvania farm -- where chronic wasting disease was detected -- sold 10 animals to farms in Indiana over the past three years. Bloom said two does were sold to farms in Noble and Whitley counties; the rest went to a farm in Jackson County.




Some of the Jackson County deer were moved to a fourth facility in Jackson County, where the escape happened.




Shawn Hanley, president of the Indiana Deer and Elk Farmers' Association, said a storm caused a tree to fall on the farm's fence. A Pennsylvania buck remains on the loose.




"We have been in contact with the DNR and with the (Indiana Board of Animal Health), and will cooperate fully with attempts to recover the lost animal," Hanley said in an email.




Citing the ongoing investigation, Bloom declined to release the name of the farms. So did Douglas Metcalf, chief of staff for the Board of Animal Health.










Tuesday, October 23, 2012




PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free










> Ag is one of the agencies cooperating in the response plan because it has responsibility for regulating captive deer and deer farms, of which there are estimated to be more 23,000 on 1,100 Pennsylvania properties.






Tuesday, November 06, 2012


PA Department of Agriculture investigating possible 2nd case of chronic wasting disease








Thursday, November 01, 2012


PA GAME COMMISSION TO HOLD PUBLIC MEETING TO DISCUSS CWD Release #128-12








Friday, October 26, 2012


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD PENNSYLVANIA GAME FARMS, URINE ATTRACTANT PRODUCTS, BAITING, AND MINERAL LICKS








Tuesday, October 23, 2012


PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free








Monday, October 15, 2012


PENNSYLVANIA GAME COMMISSION AND AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT TO HOLD PUBLIC MEETING TO DISCUSS CWD MONITORING EFFORTS FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: October 15, 2012 Release #124-12








Commissioner Strain Sir, I believe you can see the history here, where the state of Pennsylvania DNR forum banned me for speaking about CWD back in 2005 ;





Thursday, October 11, 2012


Pennsylvania Confirms First Case CWD Adams County Captive Deer Tests Positive








Pennsylvania CWD number of deer exposed and farms there from much greater than first thought


Published: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 10:44 PM Updated: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 11:33 PM








snip...see full history of this with references here ;






Wednesday, November 14, 2012


PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD INVESTIGATION MOVES INTO LOUISIANA and INDIANA








Chronic Wasting Disease CWD quarantine Louisiana via CWD index herd Pennsylvania Update May 28, 2013




6 doe from Pennsylvania CWD index herd still on the loose in Louisiana, quarantine began on October 18, 2012, still ongoing, Lake Charles premises.







From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Sent: Friday, May 24, 2013 12:45 PM
Subject: Hello Mr. John Walther question please...CWD via index herd from PA to LA

Hello Mr. Walther,
I have been trying to find out any further information on the imported deer to LA, from the CWD index herd in PA, and was told you might be able to help me out.
any new information ?

have they been located ?
was it just one cervid, or multiple cervids ? (I heard it was more than one).

will there be a final report on this incident ?



thank you,
kind regards,



terry



p.s. update cwd, that you might find interest in...as follows ;
snip...end...tss




From: Mosgrove, Veronica



Sent: Tuesday, May 28, 2013 3:21 PM






Subject: Response to questions




Mr. Singletary,




I am writing in response to your questions:





Any new information?




We continue to quarantine the Lake Charles premises. That quarantine began on October 18, 2012. We have collected samples from all naturally occurring deaths and all have been CWD negative to date. The importation of CWD susceptible cervidae into Louisiana was suspended on November 19, 2012. The suspension is still in effect.





Have they been located?





The trace-out deer from Pennsylvania have not been located.





Was it just one cervid, or multiple cervids? (I heard it was more than one).





There were six doe deer reported shipped to Louisiana by the Pennsylvania Dept. of Agriculture that were in contact with the exposed farm in Pennsylvania.





Will there be a final report on this incident?





This case is ongoing and may not be finalized until the full term of the quarantine.








Sincerely,







Veronica Mosgrove


Press Secretary


Louisiana Department of Agriculture & Forestry


225-922-1256


vmosgrove@ldaf.la.gov








I thank the Louisiana Department of Agriculture & Forestry for confirming this incident. ... TSS





bottom line, these cervids (six doe), moved from Pennsylvania to Louisiana from the CWD index herd in PA, have not been located to date. ...



with kind regards, terry






Sunday, January 22, 2012


Chronic Wasting Disease CWD cervids interspecies transmission









Friday, November 09, 2012


*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species









Friday, November 09, 2012


*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species









Sunday, November 11, 2012


*** Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012









Friday, December 14, 2012


Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012









Saturday, March 09, 2013


Chronic Wasting Disease in Bank Voles: Characterisation of the Shortest Incubation Time Model for Prion Diseases









Saturday, May 25, 2013


Wyoming Game and Fish Commission Alkali Creek Feedground #39126 Singeltary comment submission










pens, pens, PENS ??




*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.






now, decades later ;





2012


PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer


Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA


Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of these experiments was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD) to scrapie and to compare the resultant clinical signs, lesions, and molecular profiles of PrPSc to those of chronic wasting disease (CWD). We inoculated WTD intracranially (IC; n = 5) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal (IN); n = 5) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer were inoculated with a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate from sheep with scrapie (1ml IC, 1 ml IN, 30 ml oral). All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation. PrPSc was detected in lymphoid tissues as early as 7 months-post-inoculation (PI) and a single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months had widespread distribution of PrPSc highlighting that PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues prior to the onset of clinical signs. IC inoculated deer necropsied after 20 months PI (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in WTD after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile similar to CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for PrPSc by IHC and WB. Similar to IC inoculated deer, samples from these deer exhibited two different molecular profiles: samples from obex resembled CWD whereas those from cerebrum were similar to the original scrapie inoculum. On further examination by WB using a panel of antibodies, the tissues from deer with scrapie exhibit properties differing from tissues either from sheep with scrapie or WTD with CWD. Samples from WTD with CWD or sheep with scrapie are strongly immunoreactive when probed with mAb P4, however, samples from WTD with scrapie are only weakly immunoreactive. In contrast, when probed with mAb’s 6H4 or SAF 84, samples from sheep with scrapie and WTD with CWD are weakly immunoreactive and samples from WTD with scrapie are strongly positive. This work demonstrates that WTD are highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is differentiable from CWD.










2011


*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.








Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)


Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA provided a presentation on scrapie and CWD in inoculated deer. Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. We inoculated white-tailed deer intracranially (IC) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal inoculation) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation and those necropsied after 20 months post-inoculation (PI) (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. A single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months PI did not have clinical signs, but had widespread distribution of PrPSc. This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues and 2) currently used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in white-tailed deer after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.


Committee Business:


The Committee discussed and approved three resolutions regarding CWD. They can be found in the report of the Reswolutions Committee. Essentially the resolutions urged USDA-APHIS-VS to:


Continue to provide funding for CWD testing of captive cervids


Finalize and publish the national CWD rule for Herd Certification and Interstate Movement


Evaluate live animal test, including rectal mucosal biopsy, for CWD in cervids









2011 Annual Report



Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit



2011 Annual Report


In Objective 1, Assess cross-species transmissibility of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in livestock and wildlife, numerous experiments assessing the susceptibility of various TSEs in different host species were conducted. Most notable is deer inoculated with scrapie, which exhibits similarities to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer suggestive of sheep scrapie as an origin of CWD.


snip...


4.Accomplishments 1. Deer inoculated with domestic isolates of sheep scrapie. Scrapie-affected deer exhibit 2 different patterns of disease associated prion protein. In some regions of the brain the pattern is much like that observed for scrapie, while in others it is more like chronic wasting disease (CWD), the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy typically associated with deer. This work conducted by ARS scientists at the National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA suggests that an interspecies transmission of sheep scrapie to deer may have been the origin of CWD. This is important for husbandry practices with both captive deer, elk and sheep for farmers and ranchers attempting to keep their herds and flocks free of CWD and scrapie.








White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection


Jodi D. Smith, Justin J. Greenlee, and Robert A. Kunkle; Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS


Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after a natural route of exposure. Deer (n=5) were inoculated by concurrent oral (30 ml) and intranasal (1 ml) instillation of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. Non-inoculated deer were maintained as negative controls. All deer were observed daily for clinical signs. Deer were euthanized and necropsied when neurologic disease was evident, and tissues were examined for abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot (WB). One animal was euthanized 15 months post-inoculation (MPI) due to an injury. At that time, examination of obex and lymphoid tissues by IHC was positive, but WB of obex and colliculus were negative. Remaining deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 MPI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.



see full text ;










how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ??


howmany (?) game farms in a state X $465,000., do all these game farms have insurance to pay for this risk of infected the wild cervid herds, in each state ??


how many game farms, are too many game farms ?


when you have states handing out shooting pen permits like candy on halloween, just to advance their coffers, then other states wanting to do the same thing, with most all of them ignoring the science on shooting pens and cwd, what do you expect is going to happen.


when is enough, enough ?





Tuesday, December 20, 2011


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011


The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.


RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.


Form 1100-001


(R 2/11)


NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD AGENDA ITEM


SUBJECT: Information Item: Almond Deer Farm Update


FOR: DECEMBER 2011 BOARD MEETING


TUESDAY


TO BE PRESENTED BY TITLE: Tami Ryan, Wildlife Health Section Chief




SUMMARY:










SEE MORE USAHA REPORTS HERE, 2012 NOT PUBLISHED YET...TSS















Friday, December 14, 2012



DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012



snip...



In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.


Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:


1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and


2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.


Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.


The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.


Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.


There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.



snip...



36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011). The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.



snip...



The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).



snip...



In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.



snip...



In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.



snip...



Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.



snip...







SNIP...SEE ;




Friday, December 14, 2012


DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012









Tuesday, April 16, 2013


Cervid Industry Unites To Set Direction for CWD Reform and seem to ignore their ignorance and denial in their role in spreading Chronic Wasting Disease









Wednesday, May 15, 2013


Intranasal Inoculation of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Lyophilized Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Particulate Complexed to Montmorillonite Clay


Research Article











Tuesday, December 20, 2011


CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011


















*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.










Tuesday, May 28, 2013


Late-in-life surgery associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a methodological outline for evidence-based guidance











TSS
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