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Cervid Industry Unites To Set Direction for CWD Reform and seem to ignore their ignorance and denial in their role in spreading

Posted Apr 16 2013 4:49pm
 
Cervid Industry Unites To Set Direction for CWD Reform and seem to ignore their ignorance and denial in their role in spreading Chronic Wasting Disease 




April 10, 2013




Cervid Industry Unites To Set Direction for CWD Reform




Unanimous Vote Defines Negotiating Process




This week American Cervid Alliance Council members convened to review the latest progress of the CWD Standards Working Group and determine the next steps in the process. The three cervid industry representatives – Eric Molhman, Shawn Shafer and Charly Seale, all agreed to allow the negotiating process continue until the Standards Working Group has concluded.




The CWD Standards Working Group was created last fall by an approved resolution at the United States Animal Health Commission Association’s (USAHA) Annual Conference. The charge of the Standards Working Group is to review the current draft of the Federal Program Standards document and suggest changes. These changes apply to the standards, not the rule. The Working Group is represented by the three industry representatives, several state veterinarians, wildlife officials, and the United States Department of Agriculture. The three national cervid associations each have seat- Shawn Shafer of the North American Deer Farmers Association, Eric Molhman of the North American Elk Breeders Association, and Charly Seale of the Exotic Wildlife Association.




As of last night, over two dozen state and national cervid associations registered to become voting members of the American Cervid Alliance to bring their membership’s voice to the leadership council. After the vote, several more associations registered to sign on.




Shawn Shafer, Eric Molhman, and Charly Seale each agreed during the meeting that the industry must be on the same page about the process. The agreed process is to allow the Standards Working Group to play out and stand united as they voice concerns next week in Washington DC. They would not recommend advancing the standards document forward to public comment if there are still detrimental requirements in the final draft. Eric Molhman stated, “We are willing to negotiate as long as we are making progress and I believe Shawn and Charly agree on this.”




Travis Lowe of the Kansas Cervid Breeders Association stated there was a lot of confusion among people in the industry of what exactly is the process and where associations stand. Lowe said, “Tonight we need to unite as an industry and send a clear message to everyone that this is the process and we will make a determination later this month when we have the final document.” Lowe offered a motion to ask every councilman to agree to the process. The motion carried 24-0.




By the end of April there should be a clear picture if the Working Group is making progress.




Please visit www.americancervidalliance.org to learn more about the American Cervid Alliance.










Current Issues Impacting the Cervid Industry The leadership council of the American Cervid Alliance is charged with reviewing industry issues, examine options and executing solutions. The advantage of this council connecting with three dozen associations multiplies the number of total breeders that can be reached which gives more opportunity to educate and inform the cervid industry. The ACA is closely monitoring several ongoing threats and seeking obtainable solutions.




Communication between associations is essential to keep members abreast of industry issues and share insight between leaders. It is clear in this increasingly hostile regulatory environment that breeders and associations must stand united to prevent the eventual elimination of our rights to breed deer and elk.




A few of the ongoing issues closely monitored include regulatory and legislative issues as well as ensuring that the information going to the public regarding CWD is based on scientific evidence.




Regulatory Issues Federal CWD Rule - As everyone is probably aware, the federal CWD rule came out last summer and did very little to help our industry operate financially viable farming operations. The cervid industry waited a decade for the rule and was less than satisfied with the results. There is no longer money for indemnification, no testing relief for farms with over a dozen years of monitoring, no relief for slaughter testing, and a new requirement of mandatory testing of animals over twelve months old instead of the usual sixteen months. There is also a requirement for 100% testing of all harvested animals from trophy ranches that are part of the monitoring program.




The proposed rule was open for public comment for sixty days. The industry rallied over two hundred comments of suggested changes. Very little if any changes recommended by the cervid industry were implemented.




In October 2012, at the United States Animal Health Association (USAHA) Annual Conference the Federal CWD Rule was a topic of major discussion. The North American Elk Breeders Association Executive Director Eric Mohlman, Exotic Wildlife Association Executive Director Charly Seale and Minnesota's Board of Animal Health official Dr. Paul Anderson offered a resolution that was adopted to create a task force to review and recommend changes to the federal standards before it is permanently implemented. The working group was created that would include three industry seats along with representatives from the USDA, US Fish and Wildlife, and state agriculture officials. The cervid industry representatives on the task force are Eric Mohlman of NAEBA, Charly Seale of EWA and Shawn Schafer of NADeFA. The group was given 90 days to go through the standards and agree on recommendations.




As almost everyone in industry agrees, there are elements in the standards that are unacceptable to the industry and hopefully the USDA will make several changes to create a good business environment for breeders. The product of this working group will be sent to USDA as recommendations and then be subject to further scrutiny and be available for public comments. Unfortunately some breeders are being made to believe that the working groups' decisions are being implemented as positive changes and accomplishments. We hope there are positive changes made because the standards, as it is now written, are still unacceptable.




The ACA leaders are reviewing the progress to determine if the standards of the federal rule are acceptable to the industry. The industry waited over a decade for this rule and it is essential the standards and the rule reflect the input industry has given along the way but unfortunately most has been ignored to this point. Unless we have a rule and standards that allow free trade and encourage commerce we as an industry shouldn't be supporting it or its passage.




State Issues Iowa: On July 26, 2012, Iowa breeders Tom & Rhonda Brakke were notified of a positive case of CWD from an animal taken during their harvest season in December 2011. Their herd was CWD monitored for ten years and remained a closed herd for more than ten years. The Iowa Department of Agriculture quarantined their breeding herd of 450 animals and their 330 acre hunting preserve for a minimum of five years. The Brakke's entered into an agreement with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources for the 330 acre hunting facility to allow them to accommodate the hunters that had made arrangements to hunt with them during the 2012 hunting season. In this agreement, the Brakke's purchased a reefer trailer, paid for 50% of the electric standoff fence surrounding the preserve, and paid for 100% of the CWD testing for all animals harvested. They were allowed to purchase animals from other breeders and harvest those that were already on the property. All animals are to be harvested on the preserve property no later than January 31, 2013. To date, 170 of animals from the preserve have been tested and they have found two positives, both bucks.




Effective January 1, 2012, the USDA has dropped all CWD indemnity and declared their lack of understanding and scientific knowledge for CWD. The Brakke's have raised whitetail deer for twenty years with more than $2.5 million invested in the industry.




The Brakke's met with the IA Department of Agriculture and the Iowa Department of Natural Resources on several occasions in hopes of developing a plan to depopulate their breeding herd and were unsuccessful. It was their intent to obtain indemnity for their herd through their hunting preserve with control factors to mitigate the risk of spreading the disease. The IA Department of Agriculture will not accept live rectal biopsy testing, as the test is not approved by the USDA and the Iowa DNR hunting preserve regulations include language that all deer must come from CWD free herds. It is their belief that the Brakke's should pay to destroy their own herd, pay for the testing and clean-up, which includes removing 2" of top soil on the entire property. The Brakke's are currently spending $3,000 per week to feed their animals and are quarantined for five years. Because they were not able to come to an agreement, the Brakke's recently entered into litigation with the state of Iowa for compensation for the breeding herd. The suit should reach the courts in Summer 2013.




Pennsylvania: After CWD is found on a deer farm in Pennsylvania, two deer escaped into the wild while the animals were being worked causing a media frenzy. Negative media speculated the two escaped deer could be infected themselves and spreading it to the wild population. During this fall's hunting season both deer were found and tested for CWD. Both tested negative.




On March 1 Pennsylvania was notified of their first wild cases of CWD. Three cases were found in the wild from last fall's hunt. This again has led to a media frenzy with threats of closing borders, quarantines, and trace outs affecting breeders' statuses in other states. The three positive wild deer were not in a county where the positive captive deer were raised, but that message has been lost to the media.




New York: After CWD was found on the PA farm, New York closed their borders until they could assess the situation. They continued to keep their borders closed well into the fall and caused extreme hardship on both the breeding operations and the hunt preserves. Some of the restrictions have relaxed but free trade hasn't been allowed to exist. The New York Deer and Elk Farmers Association have negotiated with the state agencies but they have also hired an attorney that is assisting them in the language that is being drafted by the state to solve the limitations to movement.




Minnesota: Minnesota is again under attack by the Department of Natural Resources. The DNR is now asking legislators to be compensated by cervid farmers for recovery costs when there are escaped animals that aren't recovered by the producer in a timely fashion. Under a heavy email campaign by members to legislators, the DNR removed language from the bill.




The Minnesota application for approval for the Federal Rule has been denied three times. The Board of Health is getting very frustrated with the approval process. Hopefully number four is a winner.




Missouri: Due to recent CWD findings in whitetail deer in Missouri, the Missouri Department of Conservation implemented a temporary moratorium of new deer breeders and new trophy ranches with cervids. Missouri state cervid association leaders, assisted by national leaders, testified at several meetings and offered discussion and public comments. After several months, with a lack of scientific standing to keep the moratorium, the MDC allowed the proposed amendment to establish a moratorium on new captive cervid facilities to expire on January 29th, 2013.




Legislative Issues Iowa: In the 2013 legislative session Senate File 59 was introduce by the Senate Natural Resources Committee Chairman. The bill would devastate the Iowa cervid industry. The bill calls for double fencing with ten foot fencing requirements and suggests $5,000 annual permit fees. It would also require a $100,000 bond to raise cervids. The bill is portrayed in the media to protect the wild deer herds of CWD from captive herds. Of course, scientific evidence would show this is a misrepresentation of the truth. The bill has received no action at the present time and is stalled in committee.




Illinois: Rep. Kelly Burke, D-Evergreen Park recently introduced House Bill 3118. HB 3118 would place a moratorium on any new captive hunt facilities for native mammals from opening in the state. These types of bills have been attempted in several states to end captive hunting. There are many false references and so-called facts that distort the truth by proponents of the bill.




CWD Policy Negative Media: In the news it seems there is constantly an editorial or news article insinuating that CWD is fatal disease caused by domestic deer breeding that will completely wipe out the wild deer population. As our industry knows, nothing is further from the truth. If someone sets a Google news alert for "CWD" nine out of ten articles that come across the news are negative portrayals that attempt to show domestic breeding and captive hunting as the catalyst. If the public only hears one side without opposition it will become accepted.




ACA Goals Exact goals and support will be decided by the ACA leadership council or an appointed committee.




A few suggested goals of ACA involvement. CWD Science -The ACA has been working with two very reputable epidemiologist that are willing to provide their opinion and give scientific testimony during state agency hearings and to provide producers with sound scientific advice in these matters.




Research - The ACA will look for research possibilities that could bring benefit to the cervid industry, whether through CWD live testing methods, genetic resistance testing or other research projects that could positively impact the farmed cervid industry. The ACA will continually be looking for additional ways to improve the cervid industry through science based research.




Iowa Support - The ACA has been very involved with the Brakke family in Iowa and working with the Iowa Whitetail Deer Breeders Association and the Iowa Elk Breeders Association. The Brakke's have been forced to pursue litigation in order to recover indemnity due to the state implementing quarantines prohibiting their business activity and the federal government's unfunded mandates. A portion of the funds generated at the 2013 Midwest Select have already been sent to Iowa to assist their legal fees.




Federal Rule - The ACA has sought professional legal advice in the event the federal rule product still has elements detrimental to the industry. The final product of the rule and its companion standards document should be known by this spring.




Proactive Truth in CWD News - Nine out of ten news articles regarding CWD has extremely negative biases that distort the truth and either implies or flat out lies that domestic deer breeding and conservation hunt are the catalysts and are leading to the decimation of wild deer herds. The industry knows better but the public does not. If the public hears one side without hearing another then the one side becomes accepted by the public. We must work to get more proactive news explaining the real facts of CWD.










Cervid Industry & State Vets Could Rewrite CWD Rule




March 29, 2013




Good News From the ACA!




The American Cervid Alliance (ACA) received word today that the National Assembly of State Veterinarians, during their regularly scheduled meeting, gave support to industry in possibly eliminating the Federal CWD program consisting of the current Federal Rule and Federal Program Standards. The supporting assembly members are in favor of doing away with these arduous rules designed to put the cervid industry out of business and starting over with a new set of rules written by industry and state animal health officials.




The three national cervid associations, North American Deer Farmers Association (NADeFA), Exotic Wildlife Association (EWA), and North American Elk Breeders Association (NAEBA), along with several members of the National Assembly of State Veterinarians, if approved by a majority vote of the ACA on April 9th *, will work to rewrite rules that will be acceptable to not only the cervid breeders but also the nation's state animal health agencies. This would be the cervid industry's program that would govern all interstate movement of CWD susceptible species. Also if approved by the ACA, wildlife agencies will not be included in this new rule making process.




Dr. John Clifford, head of USDA/ APHIS, is supportive of the cervid industry and has indicated that he would support this effort to develop our own program. This is a golden opportunity to reduce the federal CWD regulations and it is imperative that we stand united.




*Don’t forget to send in your association’s ACA representative so that your vote will be counted on April 9th .










The American Cervid Alliance (ACA) is a leadership council comprised of representatives from state and national elk, deer, and exotic associations. The leaders of these associations meet regularly to assess the latest attacks on our industry from over-regulation, harmful legislation and threats to our right to raise cervids... The ACA essentially functions as the United Nations of the cervid industry. Much like the UN has member nations, the ACA will have member associations.




The ACA has not been created to nor will it replace any association and individual producers will not become members of the ACA.




What is the mission of the ACA?




The mission of the American Cervid Alliance is to protect and promote the private property rights of individual members of our participating cervid industry associations. The American Cervid Alliance will explore all avenues through education, negotiations, research, lobbying or legal challenges to preserve the rights of our members to explore private business ventures that include breeding, raising, harvesting, marketing and legal movement of farm raised cervids.




snip...










April 2, 2013




Dear Fellow Producer:




Re-CWD Regulations and Standards










Dear Fellow Hunters, Sportsman, livestock producers and their clients, politicians and their corporate lobbyist,





do these owners of these shooting pens then have insurance to cover the cost of each one of these game farms that come up positive for CWD, and the cost there after for 5 or 10 years for one cwd infected farm ?



if not, why not ?



how many states have $465,000., and can quarantine and purchase there from, each cwd said infected farm, but how many states can afford this for all the cwd infected cervid game ranch type farms ?



(how many?) game farms in a state X $465,000., do all these game farms have insurance to pay for this risk of infected the wild cervid herds, in each state ?






Tuesday, December 20, 2011



CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CWD WISCONSIN Almond Deer (Buckhorn Flats) Farm Update DECEMBER 2011



The CWD infection rate was nearly 80%, the highest ever in a North American captive herd.



RECOMMENDATION: That the Board approve the purchase of 80 acres of land for $465,000 for the Statewide Wildlife Habitat Program in Portage County and approve the restrictions on public use of the site.



Form 1100-001



(R 2/11)



NATURAL RESOURCES BOARD AGENDA ITEM



SUBJECT: Information Item: Almond Deer Farm Update



FOR: DECEMBER 2011 BOARD MEETING



TUESDAY



TO BE PRESENTED BY TITLE: Tami Ryan, Wildlife Health Section Chief




SUMMARY:














NOW, what about the OTHER SIDE OF THE STORY ON SHOOTING PENS GAME FARMS, livestock there from, AND CWD. ...









2012 CDC REPORT ON CWD




Volume 18, Number 3—March 2012 Synopsis Occurrence, Transmission, and Zoonotic Potential of Chronic Wasting Disease




snip...




Prevalence and Surveillance


Originally recognized only in southeastern Wyoming and northeastern Colorado, USA, CWD was reported in Canada in 1996 and Wisconsin in 2001 and continues to be identified in new geographic locations (Figure 1, panel A). CWD has been identified in free-ranging cervids in 15 US states and 2 Canadian provinces and in ≈100 captive herds in 15 states and provinces and in South Korea (Figure 1, panel B).




snip...




CWD surveillance programs are now in place in almost all US states and Canadian provinces (Figure 2, panel A). More than 1,060,000 free-ranging cervids have reportedly been tested for CWD (Figure 2, panel B) and ≈6,000 cases have been identified (Figure 2, panel C) according to data from state and provincial wildlife agencies.




snip...




Testing of captive cervids is routine in most states and provinces, but varies considerably in scope from mandatory testing of all dead animals to voluntary herd certification programs or mandatory testing of only animals suspected of dying of CWD.




snip...




Long-term effects of CWD on cervid populations and ecosystems remain unclear as the disease continues to spread and prevalence increases. In captive herds, CWD might persist at high levels and lead to complete herd destruction in the absence of human culling. Epidemiologic modeling suggests the disease could have severe effects on free-ranging deer populations, depending on hunting policies and environmental persistence (8,9). CWD has been associated with large decreases in free-ranging mule deer populations in an area of high CWD prevalence (Boulder, Colorado, USA) (5). In addition, CWD-infected deer are selectively preyed upon by mountain lions (5), and may also be more vulnerable to vehicle collisions (10). Long-term effects of the disease may vary considerably geographically, not only because of local hunting policies, predator populations, and human density (e.g., vehicular collisions) but also because of local environmental factors such as soil type (11) and local cervid population factors, such as genetics and movement patterns (S.E. Saunders, unpub. data).




snip...




Controlling the spread of CWD, especially by human action, is a more attainable goal than eradication. Human movement of cervids has likely led to spread of CWD in facilities for captive animals, which has most likely contributed to establishment of new disease foci in free-ranging populations (Figure 1, panel A). Thus, restrictions on human movement of cervids from disease-endemic areas or herds continue to be warranted. Anthropogenic factors that increase cervid congregation such as baiting and feeding should also be restricted to reduce CWD transmission. Appropriate disposal of carcasses of animals with suspected CWD is necessary to limit environmental contamination (20), and attractive onsite disposal options such as composting and burial require further investigation to determine contamination risks. The best options for lowering the risk for recurrence in facilities for captive animals with outbreaks are complete depopulation, stringent exclusion of free-ranging cervids, and disinfection of all exposed surfaces. However, even the most extensive decontamination measures may not be sufficient to eliminate the risk for disease recurrence (20; S.E. Saunders et al. unpub. data)


















Wednesday, January 02, 2013


Iowa Third Deer Positive CWD at Davis County Hunting Preserve Captive Shooting Pen







Tuesday, March 26, 2013


CWD Missouri remains confined to Linn-Macon-County Core Area with four new cases






Tuesday, November 13, 2012


ILLINOIS CWD UPDATE NOVEMBER 2012






Wednesday, January 16, 2013


Illinois DuPage county deer found with Chronic Wasting Disease CWD






Saturday, April 13, 2013


Tennessee Launches CWD Herd Certification Program in the wake of legislation for game farms






Wednesday, November 14, 2012


PENNSYLVANIA 2012 THE GREAT ESCAPE OF CWD INVESTIGATION MOVES INTO LOUISIANA and INDIANA






Pennsylvania CWD number of deer exposed and farms there from much greater than first thought


Published: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 10:44 PM Updated: Wednesday, October 17, 2012, 11:33 PM






Tuesday, October 23, 2012


PA Captive deer from CWD-positive farm roaming free






HERE, we see why these shooting pen owners some much like the USDA oversight of these game farms ;




USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”


problem solved $$$...TSS


Sunday, January 06, 2013


USDA TO PGC ONCE CAPTIVES ESCAPE "it‘s no longer its business.”






what happened to the PA deer from the CWD index heard that went to Louisiana ??


or Indiana ??




Monday, April 15, 2013


Deer farmers in the state of Louisiana are under a quarantine due to Chronic Wasting Disease CWD






Monday, June 11, 2012


OHIO Captive deer escapees and non-reporting






pens, PENS, PENS ??




*** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.







now, decades later ;




2012



PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer



Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA


Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of these experiments was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer (WTD) to scrapie and to compare the resultant clinical signs, lesions, and molecular profiles of PrPSc to those of chronic wasting disease (CWD). We inoculated WTD intracranially (IC; n = 5) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal (IN); n = 5) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer were inoculated with a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate from sheep with scrapie (1ml IC, 1 ml IN, 30 ml oral). All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation. PrPSc was detected in lymphoid tissues as early as 7 months-post-inoculation (PI) and a single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months had widespread distribution of PrPSc highlighting that PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues prior to the onset of clinical signs. IC inoculated deer necropsied after 20 months PI (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in WTD after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile similar to CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for PrPSc by IHC and WB. Similar to IC inoculated deer, samples from these deer exhibited two different molecular profiles: samples from obex resembled CWD whereas those from cerebrum were similar to the original scrapie inoculum. On further examination by WB using a panel of antibodies, the tissues from deer with scrapie exhibit properties differing from tissues either from sheep with scrapie or WTD with CWD. Samples from WTD with CWD or sheep with scrapie are strongly immunoreactive when probed with mAb P4, however, samples from WTD with scrapie are only weakly immunoreactive. In contrast, when probed with mAb’s 6H4 or SAF 84, samples from sheep with scrapie and WTD with CWD are weakly immunoreactive and samples from WTD with scrapie are strongly positive. This work demonstrates that WTD are highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is differentiable from CWD.









2011


*** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.







Scrapie in Deer: Comparisons and Contrasts to Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)


Justin J. Greenlee of the Virus and Prion Diseases Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA provided a presentation on scrapie and CWD in inoculated deer. Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. We inoculated white-tailed deer intracranially (IC) and by a natural route of exposure (concurrent oral and intranasal inoculation) with a US scrapie isolate. All deer inoculated by the intracranial route had evidence of PrPSc accumulation and those necropsied after 20 months post-inoculation (PI) (3/5) had clinical signs, spongiform encephalopathy, and widespread distribution of PrPSc in neural and lymphoid tissues. A single deer that was necropsied at 15.6 months PI did not have clinical signs, but had widespread distribution of PrPSc. This highlights the facts that 1) prior to the onset of clinical signs PrPSc is widely distributed in the CNS and lymphoid tissues and 2) currently used diagnostic methods are sufficient to detect PrPSc prior to the onset of clinical signs. The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in white-tailed deer after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile consistent with CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like. After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie. Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. While two WB patterns have been detected in brain regions of deer inoculated by the natural route, unlike the IC inoculated deer, the pattern similar to the scrapie inoculum predominates.



Committee Business:


The Committee discussed and approved three resolutions regarding CWD. They can be found in the report of the Reswolutions Committee. Essentially the resolutions urged USDA-APHIS-VS to:


Continue to provide funding for CWD testing of captive cervids


Finalize and publish the national CWD rule for Herd Certification and Interstate Movement


Evaluate live animal test, including rectal mucosal biopsy, for CWD in cervids








2011 Annual Report


Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit


2011 Annual Report


In Objective 1, Assess cross-species transmissibility of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in livestock and wildlife, numerous experiments assessing the susceptibility of various TSEs in different host species were conducted. Most notable is deer inoculated with scrapie, which exhibits similarities to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer suggestive of sheep scrapie as an origin of CWD.


snip...


4.Accomplishments 1. Deer inoculated with domestic isolates of sheep scrapie. Scrapie-affected deer exhibit 2 different patterns of disease associated prion protein. In some regions of the brain the pattern is much like that observed for scrapie, while in others it is more like chronic wasting disease (CWD), the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy typically associated with deer. This work conducted by ARS scientists at the National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA suggests that an interspecies transmission of sheep scrapie to deer may have been the origin of CWD. This is important for husbandry practices with both captive deer, elk and sheep for farmers and ranchers attempting to keep their herds and flocks free of CWD and scrapie.








White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection


Jodi D. Smith, Justin J. Greenlee, and Robert A. Kunkle; Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, USDA-ARS


Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. Previous experiments demonstrated that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep-derived scrapie by intracranial inoculation. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie after a natural route of exposure. Deer (n=5) were inoculated by concurrent oral (30 ml) and intranasal (1 ml) instillation of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. Non-inoculated deer were maintained as negative controls. All deer were observed daily for clinical signs. Deer were euthanized and necropsied when neurologic disease was evident, and tissues were examined for abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot (WB). One animal was euthanized 15 months post-inoculation (MPI) due to an injury. At that time, examination of obex and lymphoid tissues by IHC was positive, but WB of obex and colliculus were negative. Remaining deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 MPI. Tissues from these deer were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Tissues with PrPSc immunoreactivity included brain, tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, hemal node, Peyer’s patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by potential natural routes of inoculation. In-depth analysis of tissues will be done to determine similarities between scrapie in deer after intracranial and oral/intranasal inoculation and chronic wasting disease resulting from similar routes of inoculation.



see full text ;








*** NEED TO KNOW ***





i have included in this report, SOME HISTORY ON CAPTIVE SHOOTING PENS IN NORTH AMERICA, AND CWD THERE FROM...





Elk & game farming in other states Utah Fish and Game Dept




The state of Utah has little experience with big game farming. In an effort to understand elk and game farming, the Division has contacted other states that allow elk farming. The following are some of the problems other states associate with elk farming reported to the Division:



MONTANA Karen Zachiem with Montana Parks and Wildlife reported that Montana allows game farming. Initial regulations were inadequate to protect the state's wildlife resources. The state has tried to tighten up regulations related to game farming, resulting in a series of lawsuits against the state from elk ranchers. Zachiem reported that the tightening of regulations was in response to the discovery of TB in wildlife (elk, deer, and coyotes) surrounding a TB infected game farm. TB has been found on several game farms in Montana. Also, they have had problems with wildlife entering game farms as well as game farm animals escaping the farms. Finally, there has been a growth in shooting ranches in Montana. Game farmers allow hunters to come into enclosures to kill trophy game farm animals, raising the issues of fair chase and hunting ethics.



WASHINGTON Rolph Johnson with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, reported that Washington allows game farming, but it is strictly regulated to safeguard wildlife. Washington opposed the law when first proposed for the following reasons: introduction of disease and parasites; hybridization of wildlife species; habitat loss; health risks to humans, wildlife, and livestock; and state responsibility to recover or destroy escaped elk. Game farming is not cost effective due to the restrictions needed to prevent these problems.



NEW MEXICO Jerry Macacchini, with New Mexico Game and Fish, reported that New Mexico has problems with game farming and a moratorium on elk and game farming has been imposed by the state at the request of its citizens. Problems identified in the moratorium were: escaped game farm animals; theft of native elk herds; and disease.



OREGON Dan Edwards, with Oregon Fish and Wildlife, reported that Oregon has very little elk farming and is now prohibited by regulation. The elk farms that are in operation existed prior to the adoption of game farm regulations. Individuals who want to elk farm, must buy out an existing elk farm owner. Elk farms are no longer permitted due to, "...current and imminent threats to Oregon's native deer and elk herds and social and economic values.'' Oregon has documented numerous game farm animals that have escapeed from private game farms. Concerns about elk farming arose during public elk management meetings. The impacts of privately held cervids on publicly owned wildlife were a recurring issue throughout the elk management process. Key issues included: disease and parasites; escape and interbreeding of domestic animals with native wildlife; illegal kills for meat; and theft of public wildlife.



WYOMING Harry Harju, assistant wildlife chief with Wyoming Fish and Game, reported that elk or game farming is now prohibited in Wyoming. Only one game ranch exists in Wyoming, which was operating before the passage of the law. The state of Wyoming was sued by several game breeders associations for not allowing elk farming. The game breeders lost their suit in the United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit. The court maintained that the state had authority to regulate commerce and protect wildlife. Wyoming has had problems with big game farming originating in surrounding states. Wyoming has documented the harvest of red deer and their hybrids during elk hunts on the Snowy Mountain range that borders Colorado. Wyoming speculates that the red deer were escapees from Colorado game farms. Hybridization is viewed as threat to the genetic integrity of Wyoming's wild elk population. In a public hearing, the public voted against game farms in the state of Wyoming. Wyoming's Cattlemen's Association and Department of Agriculture opposed elk and big game farms, as well, particularly due to disease risks. Brucellosis is a major problem for wildlife and livestock in the Yellowstone Basin.




NEVADA Nevada reports that big game farms are allowed in Nevada. Nevada has not had any problems as a result of big game farms. However, Nevada has only one big game farm in the entire state and it is a reindeer farm. IDAHO Wildlife Chief Tom Rienecker reported that Idaho Fish and Game once regulated elk farming in their state, but lost jurisdiction of elk farming to the Department of Agriculture as a result of pressure from elk farmers. Idaho has 20-30 big game ranches. Idaho has had problems with escapes and several law enforcement cases have been filed against suspects who have taken calves out of the wild for elk farming purposes. Disease has not been a problem for Idaho.



COLORADO John Seidel, with Colorado Division of Wildlife, reported that the Division used to regulate big game farming until the big game breeders association petitioned for the Department of Agriculture to assume authority over big game farming because too many citations were issued to elk farms for violations. Colorado experienced numerous poaching incidents with elk calves from the wild and theft of whole herds of wild elk captured in private farms. Seidel reported that some of the larger "elk shooting ranches" have been investigated and charged with capturing wild herds of elk within the shooting preserve fences. Seidel reported that there have been documented problems with disease (TB); escaped hybrids and exotics; intrusion of rutting wild elk into game farms; massive recapture efforts for escapees and intruders; and loss of huge tracts of land fenced for shooting preserves/ranches. Based on their experiences, the Colorado Division of Wildlife wishes they did not have big game farms in Colorado. Seidel believes that CEBA would fight hard to open Utah to elk farming to provide a market for breeding stock in Utah ($3,000 & up for a bull and $8,000 & up for a breeding cow).



ARIZONA The Arizona Game and Fish Department reports that elk farming is legal in Arizona but the agency would not allow it if they had to do it all over again. Arizona reported the loss of huge blocks of land to fencing and some disease problems. ALBERTA, CANADA Alberta has allowed elk farming for a number of years. To date, Alberta has spent $10,000,000 and destroyed 2,000 elk in an unsuccessful attempt to control the spread of tuberculosis. Based upon the game farming experiences of these states, their recommendation to Utah was not to allow elk farming.



OTHER The Division has contacted several state and federal veterinarians. The opinions of some agricultural veterinarians differed from wildlife veterinarians. Some veterinarians endorsed elk farming with the right regulatory safeguards. Other veterinarians opposed elk farming due to the risks to wildlife and livestock. This issue needs a more comprehensive review. The Division also contacted a Special Agent with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service who conducted a covert investigation in Colorado to gather intelligence on elk farming and detect poaching activity of wild elk. Although poaching was not detected, the agent described his experience with pyramid schemes in elk sales; lack of a meat market; falsification of veterinarian records for farmed elk; escapes and intrusions between wild and captive elk; inadequate inspections by brand inspectors; transportation of TB infected elk; and the temperament of the elk themselves. The Colorado Elk Breeders Association (CEBA) told the Division that CEBA did not approve of elk poaching and has turned in fellow elk farmers for poaching live elk calves from the wild.




CEBA told Utah legislators that the Colorado Division of Wildlife did not like elk ranching at first, but has come to see that elk farming is not as bad as they originally thought it would be. The Colorado Division of Wildlife disagreed with CEBA's perception of their relationship.




Keep 'em wild: Montana should ban canned hunts. Whitefish elk farm draws fire from hunters, biologists By STEVE THOMPSON Missoula Independent, also the Whitefish Pilot 13 Sep 1998 Ph: 406/862-3795 Fax: 406/862-5344




snip...







snip...



see more here;








CWD policies in various states SCWDS BRIEFS April 1998 Issue State Fish & Game Departments: all 50 states



Nebraska Dept of Agriculture and Game and Parks


On April 9, 1998, chronic wasting disease (CWD) was diagnosed in a captive elk in Nebraska.� This discovery follows the confirmation of CWD in two captive elk herds in South Dakota earlier this year.� The Nebraska elk was a 4 1/2-year old male that was among a privately owned herd of approximately 150 elk.� The health of the animal had deteriorated for about 2 months before it died.� Confirmation of CWD was made by the USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratories in Ames, Iowa. The case history revealed that the affected elk was born on a farm on the Western Slope of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, but it was on two additional Colorado farms before it arrived in Nebraska at 2 to 2 1/2 years of age.� One of the Colorado premises was in the known CWD-endemic region along the Eastern Slope of the Rocky Mountains in northcentral Colorado.




snip...






CWD News:
Under-diagnosis in elk: 10/17 prove positive with better method
21 Jan 99 -- Utah hunter: CWD blood recall?
20 Dec 98 -- Bad news on game farm elk CWD
12 Nov 98 --Colorado CJD tragedy and CWD concerns
11 Oct 98 -- Nevada testing deer and elk for CWD
23 Jun 98 -- Elk CWD spreading on game farms
19 Mar 98 -- BSE Inquiry: Day 6 -- Mink and CWD misinformation
19 Mar 98 -- CWD: spreading it around
19 Mar 98 -- CWD: failed eradication attempts
19 Mar 98 -- CWD in Estes Park: what goes on at Lexington Lane?
19 Mar 98 -- 14 facilities where CWD has been found
19 Mar 98 -- How did CWD get started and spread?
19 Mar 98 -- Elk growers ask for surveillance in N. Dakota
19 Mar 98 -- Ban on elk antlers in human food rejected
19 Mar 98 -- CWD in High Country News
19 Mar 98 -- CWD Web Resources
14 Feb 98 -- Colorado's dementia experiment in humans
24 Feb 98 -- Feds need to take control over Colorado CWD
14 Feb 98 -- Surveillance for chronic wasting disease in Colorado
14 Feb 98 -- CWD by river drainage
14 Feb 98 -- Some early history of CWD
10 Jul 97 -- Chronic Wasting Disease in Canada 23 Jul 98 -- Saskatchewan elk disease waning?
14 Feb 98 -- More chronic wasting disease news: 1 , 2
14 Feb 98 -- Welcome to Stetsonville
07 Feb 98 -- Deer in three Wyoming counties infected with chronic wasting disease
07 Feb 98 -- Chronic wasting disease: deer-to-cattle shown
07 Feb 98 -- Worry over CWD hazards
05 Feb 98 -- Canada reports CWD in mule deer on game farms
07 Feb 98 -- Dr. Steven Dealler on CWD risks
27 Jan 98 -- Concerned rancher writes in about deer feeding habits
03 Feb 98 -- To eat or not to eat is the hunter's question
01 Mar 97 -- CWD and hunters square off in Colorado
01 Apr 97 -- CWD: lab progress is slow
01 Mar 97 -- Mystery of CWD in US deer, elk explained?
Chronic wasting disease update
CWD Science:



snip...see ;










Thursday, February 09, 2012


50 GAME FARMS IN USA INFECTED WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE








Friday, February 03, 2012


Wisconsin Farm-Raised Deer Farms and CWD there from 2012 report Singeltary et al









These findings demonstrate that when CWD is directly inoculated into the brain of cattle, 86% of inoculated cattle develop clinical signs of the disease.









UPDATED CORRESPONDENCE FROM AUTHORS OF THIS STUDY I.E. COLBY, PRUSINER ET AL, ABOUT MY CONCERNS OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN THEIR FIGURES AND MY FIGURES OF THE STUDIES ON CWD TRANSMISSION TO CATTLE ;



----- Original Message -----


From: David Colby


To: flounder9@verizon.net


Cc: stanley@XXXXXXXX


Sent: Tuesday, March 01, 2011 8:25 AM


Subject: Re: FW: re-Prions David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2 + Author Affiliations



Dear Terry Singeltary,



Thank you for your correspondence regarding the review article Stanley Prusiner and I recently wrote for Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives. Dr. Prusiner asked that I reply to your message due to his busy schedule. We agree that the transmission of CWD prions to beef livestock would be a troubling development and assessing that risk is important. In our article, we cite a peer-reviewed publication reporting confirmed cases of laboratory transmission based on stringent criteria. The less stringent criteria for transmission described in the abstract you refer to lead to the discrepancy between your numbers and ours and thus the interpretation of the transmission rate. We stand by our assessment of the literature--namely that the transmission rate of CWD to bovines appears relatively low, but we recognize that even a low transmission rate could have important implications for public health and we thank you for bringing attention to this matter.


Warm Regards, David Colby


--


David Colby, PhDAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Delaware



====================END...TSS==============



SNIP...SEE FULL TEXT ;








UPDATED DATA ON 2ND CWD STRAIN



Wednesday, September 08, 2010


CWD PRION CONGRESS SEPTEMBER 8-11 2010








Monday, February 14, 2011


THE ROLE OF PREDATION IN DISEASE CONTROL: A COMPARISON OF SELECTIVE AND NONSELECTIVE REMOVAL ON PRION DISEASE DYNAMICS IN DEER


NO, NO, NOT NO, BUT HELL NO !


Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 47(1), 2011, pp. 78-93 © Wildlife Disease Association 2011










Monday, January 05, 2009


CWD, GAME FARMS, BAITING, AND POLITICS











Saturday, March 10, 2012


*** CWD, GAME FARMS, urine, feces, soil, lichens, and banned mad cow protein feed CUSTOM MADE for deer and elk







the captive cervid industry has been helping spreading cwd for decades into the wild, to other farms, and to other countries (Korea), and it's high time to stop it. if you are fortunate enough to have a bunch of land and a bunch of money, that should not give you the right to pen up a bunch of cervids, modify these cervids to look like an alien with it's man made spreads, then put a cow bell on the back of a truck at feeding time, pay an absurd fee to shoot these straw bred bucks, call it livestock, and then go out and shoot it and call it hunting i.e. a sport, and then spread cwd to hail and back. to me, it would be like going out on a big hunt, in the pasture down the street and killing a cow every time i want to eat a steak, mounting the head, hanging it on the wall, and calling it a sport. i just don't see it, but if some folks have to do it, for whatever reason, and it's legal, i think you must have an insurance policy from Loyd's of London or whom ever, that would cover what ever cost to that state you are in, if a case of cwd is detected on your farm, to cover the cost to that state, for ever farm that is confirmed with cwd. that should put a fast track on validated a cwd live test, which they have, to test cervids, and rapidly expedite the validating of the many other cwd/tse/prion test that are in the pipeline. but if you don't test, if you don't test correctly, if you don't test all ages, if you don't test in large enough numbers to find, if you don't test where you know it might be, you probably will not find it. ...





WILD DEER AND ELK


NUMBER OF CWD TESTING WILD DEER AND ELK 2002 - 2012 = 910,136.









VOLUNTARY captive shooting pen farmed deer and elk program


number of CWD testing samples 2002-2012 = 188,624.








this is minus the SSS policy of the dead captive cervids found $ (old mountain lion must have eaten it??), or (that old sickly looking deer that might have CWD, just happened to escape??) ;







THIS SHOULD NEVER HAPPEN!!!



I STRENUOUSLY URGE, Chronic Wasting Disease Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Shenandoah National Park, NOT TO DO AS THE WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK APPEARS TO BE DESTINED TO DO, help spread CWD to hell back with a crazy idea of using a helicopter to scatter cervids from a cwd endemic area, to areas out side this area, to help with the overpopulation.



This plan by the Wind Cave National Park is one of the most ignorant moves by a state or federal agency in regards to the CWD prion disease I have ever seen, and if followed through with as planned, could be a death sentence to wild cervid herds outside of the CWD endemic CWD zone in South Dakota. This plan should be halted immediately, and never followed through with. you will reap what you sow. ...





Tuesday, February 26, 2013


*** Planned elk drive from Wind Cave National Park raises question about spread of disease







Friday, November 16, 2012


Yellowstone elk herds feeding grounds, or future killing grounds from CWD







Friday, February 08, 2013


*** Behavior of Prions in the Environment: Implications for Prion Biology







Tuesday, April 02, 2013


IMPORTANT: Cervid Industry and State Veterinarians on Rewriting Chronic Wasting Disease Rule








Monday, March 18, 2013


PROCEEDINGS ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING of the UNITED STATES ANIMAL HEALTH ASSOCIATION September 29 – October 5, 2011


see updated 2012 RESOLUTIONS











Saturday, February 04, 2012


Wisconsin 16 MONTH age limit on testing dead deer Game Farm CWD Testing Protocol Needs To Be Revised









Tuesday, December 18, 2012


A Growing Threat How deer breeding could put public trust wildlife at risk







Friday, December 14, 2012


DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012


snip...


In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administration’s BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system. However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.


Animals considered at high risk for CWD include:


1) animals from areas declared to be endemic for CWD and/or to be CWD eradication zones and


2) deer and elk that at some time during the 60-month period prior to slaughter were in a captive herd that contained a CWD-positive animal.


Therefore, in the USA, materials from cervids other than CWD positive animals may be used in animal feed and feed ingredients for non-ruminants.


The amount of animal PAP that is of deer and/or elk origin imported from the USA to GB can not be determined, however, as it is not specified in TRACES. It may constitute a small percentage of the 8412 kilos of non-fish origin processed animal proteins that were imported from US into GB in 2011.


Overall, therefore, it is considered there is a __greater than negligible risk___ that (nonruminant) animal feed and pet food containing deer and/or elk protein is imported into GB.


There is uncertainty associated with this estimate given the lack of data on the amount of deer and/or elk protein possibly being imported in these products.


snip...


36% in 2007 (Almberg et al., 2011). In such areas, population declines of deer of up to 30 to 50% have been observed (Almberg et al., 2011). In areas of Colorado, the prevalence can be as high as 30% (EFSA, 2011).


The clinical signs of CWD in affected adults are weight loss and behavioural changes that can span weeks or months (Williams, 2005). In addition, signs might include excessive salivation, behavioural alterations including a fixed stare and changes in interaction with other animals in the herd, and an altered stance (Williams, 2005). These signs are indistinguishable from cervids experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).


Given this, if CWD was to be introduced into countries with BSE such as GB, for example, infected deer populations would need to be tested to differentiate if they were infected with CWD or BSE to minimise the risk of BSE entering the human food-chain via affected venison.


snip...


The rate of transmission of CWD has been reported to be as high as 30% and can approach 100% among captive animals in endemic areas (Safar et al., 2008).


snip...


In summary, in endemic areas, there is a medium probability that the soil and surrounding environment is contaminated with CWD prions and in a bioavailable form. In rural areas where CWD has not been reported and deer are present, there is a greater than negligible risk the soil is contaminated with CWD prion.


snip...


In summary, given the volume of tourists, hunters and servicemen moving between GB and North America, the probability of at least one person travelling to/from a CWD affected area and, in doing so, contaminating their clothing, footwear and/or equipment prior to arriving in GB is greater than negligible. For deer hunters, specifically, the risk is likely to be greater given the increased contact with deer and their environment. However, there is significant uncertainty associated with these estimates.


snip...


Therefore, it is considered that farmed and park deer may have a higher probability of exposure to CWD transferred to the environment than wild deer given the restricted habitat range and higher frequency of contact with tourists and returning GB residents.


snip... see full text report here ;





Friday, December 14, 2012


DEFRA U.K. What is the risk of Chronic Wasting Disease CWD being introduced into Great Britain? A Qualitative Risk Assessment October 2012








Filmed Saturday, March 16th as part of 85th OFAH Annual General Meeting and Fish & Wildlife Conference.


I was to come here and explain federal policy on cwd.


it’s a mad cow type disease, and come to Canada with game farm animals, and spread from game farms to the wild just like the science suggested it would.


and so, with this completely out of control now, and now having gone not just to deer, but found in elk in Canada, and recently found in Alberta in a Moose.


there are no known barriers and we don’t know where the heck is going to end up, but the prognosis is nothing but bad.


so, what is the federal gov. protocol regarding CWD?


couple of problems here, we really don’t have a protocol for CWD. everything is in flux, task force has 10 of the 18 members who’s agenda is not to really solve the problem, they want to perpetuate what brought it here, there agenda is to promote game farming. so we don’t’ have a protocol, and were not going to get one.


game farming fostered a massive epidemic of chronic wasting disease. it was brought here with game farm animals.


this TSE is highly contagious between living animals.


what happens if this jumps to people like mad cow did ?


could be one of the worst pandemics in history.



snip...


please see this very disturbing video speaking on the damage these shooting pens have done to the wild...








Friday, April 12, 2013


Federal Protocol on Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) - Darrel Rowledge, Alliance for Public Wildlife








December 01, 2012


The CDC for wildlife ​National center at forefront of wildlife disease research Posted on November 19, 2012


By R. Scott Nolen








Friday, May 13, 2011



Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) outbreaks and surveillance program in the Republic of Korea



On 28 December 2000, information from the Canadian government showed that a total of 95 elk had been exported from farms with CWD to Korea. These consisted of 23 elk in 1994 originating from the so-called “source farm” in Canada, and 72 elk in 1997, which had been held in pre export quarantine at the “source farm”.Based on export information of CWD suspected elk from Canada to Korea, CWD surveillance program was initiated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) in 2001. All elks imported in 1997 were traced back, however elks imported in 1994 were impossible to identify. CWD control measures included stamping out of all animals in the affected farm, and thorough cleaning and disinfection of the premises.


In addition, nationwide clinical surveillance of Korean native cervids, and improved measures to ensure reporting of CWD suspect cases were implemented. Total of 9 elks were found to be affected. CWD was designated as a notifiable disease under the Act for Prevention of Livestock Epidemics in 2002.


Additional CWD cases - 12 elks and 2 elks - were diagnosed in 2004 and 2005.


Since February of 2005, when slaughtered elks were found to be positive, all slaughtered cervid for human consumption at abattoirs were designated as target of the CWD surveillance program.


Currently, CWD laboratory testing is only conducted by National Reference Laboratory on CWD, which is the Foreign Animal Disease Division (FADD) of National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (NVRQS).


In July 2010, one out of 3 elks from Farm 1 which were slaughtered for the human consumption was confirmed as positive.


Consequently, all cervid – 54 elks, 41 Sika deer and 5 Albino deer – were culled and one elk was found to be positive.


Epidemiological investigations were conducted by Veterinary Epidemiology Division (VED) of NVRQS in collaboration with provincial veterinary services.


Epidemiologically related farms were found as 3 farms and all cervid at these farms were culled and subjected to CWD diagnosis.


Three elks and 5 crossbreeds (Red deer and Sika deer) were confirmed as positive at farm 2. All cervids at Farm 3 and Farm 4 – 15 elks and 47 elks – were culled and confirmed as negative.


Further epidemiological investigations showed that these CWD outbreaks were linked to the importation of elks from Canada in 1994 based on circumstantial evidences.


In December 2010, one elk was confirmed as positive at Farm 5. Consequently, all cervid – 3 elks, 11 Manchurian Sika deer and 20 Sika deer – were culled and one Manchurian Sika deer and seven Sika deer were found to be positive.


This is the first report of CWD in these sub-species of deer. Epidemiological investigations found that the owner of the Farm 2 in CWD outbreaks in July 2010 had co-owned the Farm 5. In addition, it was newly revealed that one positive elk was introduced from Farm 6 of Jinju-si Gyeongsang Namdo. All cervid – 19 elks, 15 crossbreed (species unknown) and 64 Sika deer – of Farm 6 were culled, but all confirmed as negative.


: Corresponding author: Dr. Hyun-Joo Sohn (+82-31-467-1867, E-mail: shonhj@korea.kr)



2011 Pre-congress Workshop: TSEs in animals and their environment 5














Additional Cases of Chronic Wasting Disease in Imported Deer in Korea



*Tae-Yung KIM1) 3), *Hyun-Joo SHON2), *Yi-Seok JOO2), *Un-Kyong MUN2), *Kyung-Sun KANG3), *Yong-Soon LEE3)


1) Animal Health Division, Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry 2) National Veterinary Research & Quarantine Service 3) Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University


Released 2005/09/05 received 2005/01/21 accepted 2005/05/27 Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), horizontal transmission


Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), which had previously occurred only in the U.S.A. and Canada, broke out in a farm at Chungbuk, Korea from imported Canadian deer (Aug. 8, 2001). CWD distribution, through surveillance and epidemiologic investigations, was reported for 93 deer (43 from the CWD originating farm and 50 imported with the CWD originating farm's deer) out of 144 deer (72 from the CWD originating farm and 72 imported with the CWD originating farm's deer) that were breeding at 30 different farms. On Oct. 4 and Oct. 8, 2001, additional cases of CWD were investigated. As a result of slaughtering cohabitating deer, it was verified that other imported deer from Canada were also infected with CWD. Since it was thought that this might cause horizontal transmission, 93 deer imported from Canada in 1997 and 130 cohabitating Korean deer were slaughtered and examined. There were no infected Korean deer, but CWD re-occurred on Nov. 20, 2004 and is still under investigation.














Our findings demonstrate that cervid PrPSc, upon strain adaptation by serial passages in vitro or in cervid transgenic mice, is capable of converting human PrPC to produce PrPSc with unique biochemical properties, likely representing a new human prion strain. The newly generated CWD-huPrPSc material has been inoculated into transgenic mice expressing human PrP to study infectivity and disease phenotype and this data will be published elsewhere. ...end








Friday, August 24, 2012


Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America


The overall diagnostic specificity was 99.8%. Selective use of antemortem rectal biopsy sample testing would provide valuable information during disease investigations of CWD-suspect deer herds.








Tuesday, April 09, 2013


EFFICACY OF ANTEMORTEM RECTAL BIOPSIES TO DIAGNOSE AND ESTIMATE PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN FREE-RANGING COW ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSONI)








more concern here ;





Saturday, November 12, 2011


Human Prion Disease and Relative Risk Associated with Chronic Wasting Disease


Fri, 22 Sep 2006 09:05:59 –0500








Monday, June 27, 2011


Zoonotic Potential of CWD: Experimental Transmissions to Non-Human Primates








CJD9/10022


October 1994


Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ


Dear Mr Elmhirst,


CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) SURVEILLANCE UNIT REPORT


Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.


The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.


The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.


The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.


I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.








Tuesday, June 05, 2012


Captive Deer Breeding Legislation Overwhelmingly Defeated During 2012 Legislative Session








Friday, August 31, 2012


COMMITTEE ON CAPTIVE WILDLIFE AND ALTERNATIVE LIVESTOCK and CWD 2009-2012 a review








The chances of a person or domestic animal contracting CWD are “extremely remote,” Richards said. The possibility can’t be ruled out, however. “One could look at it like a game of chance,” he explained. “The odds (of infection) increase over time because of repeated exposure. That’s one of the downsides of having CWD in free-ranging herds: We’ve got this infectious agent out there that we can never say never to in terms of (infecting) people and domestic livestock.”








*** The potential impact of prion diseases on human health was greatly magnified by the recognition that interspecies transfer of BSE to humans by beef ingestion resulted in vCJD. While changes in animal feed constituents and slaughter practices appear to have curtailed vCJD, there is concern that CWD of free-ranging deer and elk in the U.S. might also cross the species barrier. Thus, consuming venison could be a source of human prion disease. Whether BSE and CWD represent interspecies scrapie transfer or are newly arisen prion diseases is unknown. Therefore, the possibility of transmission of prion disease through other food animals cannot be ruled out. There is evidence that vCJD can be transmitted through blood transfusion. There is likely a pool of unknown size of asymptomatic individuals infected with vCJD, and there may be asymptomatic individuals infected with the CWD equivalent. These circumstances represent a potential threat to blood, blood products, and plasma supplies.








Friday, November 09, 2012


*** Chronic Wasting Disease CWD in cervidae and transmission to other species








Sunday, November 11, 2012


*** Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease November 2012








Friday, December 14, 2012


Susceptibility Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in wild cervids to Humans 2005 - December 14, 2012








Saturday, June 09, 2012


USDA Establishes a Herd Certification Program for Chronic Wasting Disease in the United States


Singeltary Submission;








Friday, October 12, 2012


Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) is Now Accepting Comments on Rule Proposals for “Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)”


TO: comments@tahc.state.tx.us; Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC)


Singeltary Submission;









HARVARD BSE RISK ASSESSMENT AND REASSESSMENT OF SUPPRESSED HARVARD RISK ASSESSMENT THAT WAS SO FLAWED $$$













Thursday, February 14, 2013


The Many Faces of Mad Cow Disease Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE and TSE prion disease








*** atypical Nor-98 Scrapie has spread from coast to coast in the USA 2012


NIAA Annual Conference April 11-14, 2011


San Antonio, Texas


























Wednesday, May 16, 2012


Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ?


Proposal ID: 29403











Letters


JAMA. 2001;285(6):733-734. doi: 10.1001/jama.285.6.733


Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease


Terry S. Singeltary, Sr Bacliff, Tex


Since this article does not have an abstract, we have provided the first 150 words of the full text.


KEYWORDS: creutzfeldt-jakob disease, diagnosis.



To the Editor: In their Research Letter, Dr Gibbons and colleagues1 reported that the annual US death rate due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been stable since 1985. These estimates, however, are based only on reported cases, and do not include misdiagnosed or preclinical cases. It seems to me that misdiagnosis alone would drastically change these figures. An unknown number of persons with a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in fact may have CJD, although only a small number of these patients receive the postmortem examination necessary to make this diagnosis. Furthermore, only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies should be reportable nationwide and internationally.



References 1. Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States: 1979-1998. JAMA. 2000;284:2322-2323.










Published March 26, 2003



RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States



Terry S. Singeltary, retired (medically)



I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?



Published March 26, 2003









THE PATHOLOGICAL PROTEIN



BY Philip Yam Yam Philip Yam News Editor Scientific American www.sciam.com



Answering critics like Terry Singeltary, who feels that the U.S. under- counts CJD, Schonberger conceded that the current surveillance system has errors but stated that most of the errors will be confined to the older population.



CHAPTER 14



Laying Odds



Are prion diseases more prevalent than we thought?



Researchers and government officials badly underestimated the threat that mad cow disease posed when it first appeared in Britain. They didn't think bovine spongiform encephalopathy was a zoonosis-an animal disease that can sicken people. The 1996 news that BSE could infect humans with a new form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease stunned the world. It also got some biomedical researchers wondering whether sporadic CJD may really be a manifestation of a zoonotic sickness. Might it be caused by the ingestion of prions, as variant CJD is?



Revisiting Sporadic CJD



It's not hard to get Terry Singeltary going. "I have my conspiracy theories," admitted the 49-year-old Texan.1 Singeltary is probably the nation's most relentless consumer advocate when it comes to issues in prion diseases. He has helped families learn about the sickness and coordinated efforts with support groups such as CJD Voice and the CJD Foundation. He has also connected with others who are critical of the American way of handling the threat of prion diseases. Such critics include Consumers Union's Michael Hansen, journalist John Stauber, and Thomas Pringle, who used to run the voluminous www.madcow. org Web site. These three lend their expertise to newspaper and magazine stories about prion diseases, and they usually argue that prions represent more of a threat than people realize, and that the government has responded poorly to the dangers because it is more concerned about protecting the beef industry than people's health.



Singeltary has similar inclinations. ...



snip...



THE PATHOLOGICAL PROTEIN



Hardcover, 304 pages plus photos and illustrations. ISBN 0-387-95508-9



June 2003 BY Philip Yam



CHAPTER 14 LAYING ODDS



Answering critics like Terry Singeltary, who feels that the U.S. under- counts CJD, Schonberger conceded that the current surveillance system has errors but stated that most of the errors will be confined to the older population.





















14th ICID International Scientific Exchange Brochure -



Final Abstract Number: ISE.114



Session: International Scientific Exchange



Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009



T. Singeltary



Bacliff, TX, USA



Background:



An update on atypical BSE and other TSE in North America. Please remember, the typical U.K. c-BSE, the atypical l-BSE (BASE), and h-BSE have all been documented in North America, along with the typical scrapie's, and atypical Nor-98 Scrapie, and to date, 2 different strains of CWD, and also TME. All these TSE in different species have been rendered and fed to food producing animals for humans and animals in North America (TSE in cats and dogs ?), and that the trading of these TSEs via animals and products via the USA and Canada has been immense over the years, decades.



Methods:



12 years independent research of available data



Results:



I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2009. With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this old myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i.e. consumption, medical i.e., surgical, blood, dental, endoscopy, optical, nutritional supplements, cosmetics etc.



Conclusion:



I would like to submit a review of past CJD surveillance in the USA, and the urgent need to make all human TSE in the USA a reportable disease, in every state, of every age group, and to make this mandatory immediately without further delay. The ramifications of not doing so will only allow this agent to spread further in the medical, dental, surgical arena's. Restricting the reporting of CJD and or any human TSE is NOT scientific. Iatrogenic CJD knows NO age group, TSE knows no boundaries. I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Gajdusek, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route.








GERMAN DER SPIEGEL MAGAZINE


Die BSE-Angst erreicht Amerika: Trotz strikter Auflagen gelangte in Texas verbotenes Tiermehl ins Rinderfutter - die Kontrollen der Aufsichtsbehörden sind lax.


snip...


"Löcher wie in einem Schweizer Käse" hat auch Terry Singeltary im Regelwerk der FDA ausgemacht. Der Texaner kam auf einem tragischen Umweg zu dem Thema: Nachdem seine Mutter 1997 binnen weniger Wochen an der Creutzfeldt-Jakob-Krankheit gestorben war, versuchte er, die Ursachen der Infektion aufzuspüren. Er klagte auf die Herausgabe von Regierungsdokumenten und arbeitete sich durch Fachliteratur; heute ist er überzeugt, dass seine Mutter durch die stetige Einnahme von angeblich kräftigenden Mitteln erkrankte, in denen - völlig legal - Anteile aus Rinderprodukten enthalten sind.


Von der Fachwelt wurde Singeltary lange als versponnener Außenseiter belächelt. Doch mittlerweile sorgen sich auch Experten, dass ausgerechnet diese verschreibungsfreien Wundercocktails zur Stärkung von Intelligenz, Immunsystem oder Libido von den Importbeschränkungen ausgenommen sind. Dabei enthalten die Pillen und Ampullen, die in Supermärkten verkauft werden, exotische Mixturen aus Rinderaugen; dazu Extrakte von Hypophyse oder Kälberföten, Prostata, Lymphknoten und gefriergetrocknetem Schweinemagen. In die USA hereingelassen werden auch Blut, Fett, Gelatine und Samen. Diese Stoffe tauchen noch immer in US-Produkten auf, inklusive Medizin und Kosmetika.


Selbst in Impfstoffen waren möglicherweise gefährliche Rinderprodukte enthalten. Zwar fordert die FDA schon seit acht Jahren die US-Pharmaindustrie auf, keine Stoffe aus Ländern zu benutzen, in denen die Gefahr einer BSE-Infizierung besteht. Aber erst kürzlich verpflichteten sich fünf Unternehmen, darunter Branchenführer wie GlaxoSmithKline, Aventis und American Home Products, ihre Seren nur noch aus unverdächtigem Material herzustellen.


Angesichts langjähriger Versäumnisse sei die Reaktion der Behörden "beängstigend langsam", rügen Verbraucherschutzgruppen wie das Ärztekomitee für verantwortliche Medizin. Sein Präsident Neal Barnard fordert: "Wir sollten von den Fehlern der Europäer lernen und strikte Vorsichtsregeln verhängen."




snip...








see full text pdf article ;










Views & Reviews



Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States



Ermias D. Belay, MD, Ryan A. Maddox, MPH, Pierluigi Gambetti, MD and Lawrence B. Schonberger, MD + Author Affiliations


From the Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases (Drs. Belay and Schonberger and R.A. Maddox), National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; and National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (Dr. Gambetti), Division of Neuropathology, Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.



Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Ermias D. Belay, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop A-39, Atlanta, GA 30333.








RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States




Terry S. Singeltary, retired (medically) CJD WATCH


I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?









2 January 2000



British Medical Journal



U.S. Scientist should be concerned with a CJD epidemic in the U.S., as well








15 November 1999


British Medical Journal


vCJD in the USA * BSE in U.S.








Saturday, January 2, 2010


Human Prion Diseases in the United States January 1, 2010 ***FINAL***








re-Human Prion Diseases in the United States Posted by flounder on 01 Jan 2010 at 18:11 GMT


I kindly disagree with your synopsis for the following reasons ;








LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL


Volume 3, Number 8 01 August 2003


Newsdesk


Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America


Xavier Bosch


My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem. 49-year-old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). So he decided to gather hundreds of documents on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and realised that if Britons could get variant CJD from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Americans might get a similar disorder from chronic wasting disease (CWD)the relative of mad cow disease seen among deer and elk in the USA. Although his feverish search did not lead him to the smoking gun linking CWD to a similar disease in North American people, it did uncover a largely disappointing situation. Singeltary was greatly demoralised at the few attempts to monitor the occurrence of CJD and CWD in the USA. Only a few states have made CJD reportable. Human and animal TSEs should be reportable nationwide and internationally, he complained in a letter to the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). I hope that the CDC does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source. Until recently, CWD was thought to be confined to the wild in a small region in Colorado. But since early 2002, it has been reported in other areas, including Wisconsin, South Dakota, and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Indeed, the occurrence of CWD in states that were not endemic previously increased concern about a widespread outbreak and possible transmission to people and cattle. To date, experimental studies have proven that the CWD agent can be transmitted to cattle by intracerebral inoculation and that it can cross the mucous membranes of the digestive tract to initiate infection in lymphoid tissue before invasion of the central nervous system. Yet the plausibility of CWD spreading to people has remained elusive. Getting data on TSEs in the USA from the government is like pulling teeth, Singeltary argues. You get it when they want you to have it, and only what they want you to have.



SNIP...FULL TEXT ;








Tuesday, March 05, 2013


A closer look at prion strains Characterization and important implications Prion


7:2, 99–108; March/April 2013; © 2013 Landes Bioscience











Thursday, February 21, 2013


National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined January 16, 2013










16 YEAR OLD SPORADIC FFI ?






Monday, January 14, 2013


Gambetti et al USA Prion Unit change another highly suspect USA mad cow victim to another fake name i.e. sporadic FFI at age 16 CJD Foundation goes along with this BSe









Monday, December 31, 2012


Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease and Human TSE Prion Disease in Washington State, 2006–2011-2012









Tuesday, December 25, 2012


CREUTZFELDT JAKOB TSE PRION DISEASE HUMANS END OF YEAR REVIEW DECEMBER 25, 2012










Tuesday, June 26, 2012


Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Human TSE report update North America, Canada, Mexico, and USDA PRION UNIT as of May 18, 2012


type determination pending Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (tdpCJD), is on the rise in Canada and the USA











Wednesday, June 13, 2012


MEXICO IS UNDER or MIS DIAGNOSING CREUTZFELDT JAKOB DISEASE AND OTHER PRION DISEASE SOME WITH POSSIBLE nvCJD









*** The discovery of previously unrecognized prion diseases in both humans and animals (i.e., Nor98 in small ruminants) demonstrates that the range of prion diseases might be wider than expected and raises crucial questions about the epidemiology and strain properties of these new forms. We are investigating this latter issue by molecular and biological comparison of VPSPr, GSS and Nor98.






VARIABLY PROTEASE-SENSITVE PRIONOPATHY IS TRANSMISSIBLE ...price of prion poker goes up again $



OR-10: Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy is transmissible in bank voles



Romolo Nonno,1 Michele Di Bari,1 Laura Pirisinu,1 Claudia D’Agostino,1 Stefano Marcon,1 Geraldina Riccardi,1 Gabriele Vaccari,1 Piero Parchi,2 Wenquan Zou,3 Pierluigi Gambetti,3 Umberto Agrimi1 1Istituto Superiore di Sanità; Rome, Italy; 2Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Università di Bologna; Bologna, Italy; 3Case Western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA



Background. Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is a recently described “sporadic”neurodegenerative disease involving prion protein aggregation, which has clinical similarities with non-Alzheimer dementias, such as fronto-temporal dementia. Currently, 30 cases of VPSPr have been reported in Europe and USA, of which 19 cases were homozygous for valine at codon 129 of the prion protein (VV), 8 were MV and 3 were MM. A distinctive feature of VPSPr is the electrophoretic pattern of PrPSc after digestion with proteinase K (PK). After PK-treatment, PrP from VPSPr forms a ladder-like electrophoretic pattern similar to that described in GSS cases. The clinical and pathological features of VPSPr raised the question of the correct classification of VPSPr among prion diseases or other forms of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we report preliminary data on the transmissibility and pathological features of VPSPr cases in bank voles.



Materials and Methods. Seven VPSPr cases were inoculated in two genetic lines of bank voles, carrying either methionine or isoleucine at codon 109 of the prion protein (named BvM109 and BvI109, respectively). Among the VPSPr cases selected, 2 were VV at PrP codon 129, 3 were MV and 2 were MM. Clinical diagnosis in voles was confirmed by brain pathological assessment and western blot for PK-resistant PrPSc (PrPres) with mAbs SAF32, SAF84, 12B2 and 9A2.



Results. To date, 2 VPSPr cases (1 MV and 1 MM) gave positive transmission in BvM109. Overall, 3 voles were positive with survival time between 290 and 588 d post inoculation (d.p.i.). All positive voles accumulated PrPres in the form of the typical PrP27–30, which was indistinguishable to that previously observed in BvM109 inoculated with sCJDMM1 cases.



In BvI109, 3 VPSPr cases (2 VV and 1 MM) showed positive transmission until now. Overall, 5 voles were positive with survival time between 281 and 596 d.p.i.. In contrast to what observed in BvM109, all BvI109 showed a GSS-like PrPSc electrophoretic pattern, characterized by low molecular weight PrPres. These PrPres fragments were positive with mAb 9A2 and 12B2, while being negative with SAF32 and SAF84, suggesting that they are cleaved at both the C-terminus and the N-terminus. Second passages are in progress from these first successful transmissions.



Conclusions. Preliminary results from transmission studies in bank voles strongly support the notion that VPSPr is a transmissible prion disease. Interestingly, VPSPr undergoes divergent evolution in the two genetic lines of voles, with sCJD-like features in BvM109 and GSS-like properties in BvI109.



The discovery of previously unrecognized prion diseases in both humans and animals (i.e., Nor98 in small ruminants) demonstrates that the range of prion diseases might be wider than expected and raises crucial questions about the epidemiology and strain properties of these new forms. We are investigating this latter issue by molecular and biological comparison of VPSPr, GSS and Nor98.









Wednesday, March 28, 2012


VARIABLY PROTEASE-SENSITVE PRIONOPATHY IS TRANSMISSIBLE, price of prion poker goes up again $










Tuesday, March 5, 2013


Use of Materials Derived From Cattle in Human Food and Cosmetics; Reopening of the Comment Period FDA-2004-N-0188-0051 (TSS SUBMISSION)


FDA believes current regulation protects the public from BSE but reopens comment period due to new studies










Sunday, March 31, 2013


Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease CJD worlds youngest documented victim, 11 years old, shall we pray










Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ?


Background


Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy disease have both been around a long time, and was discovered in or around the same time frame, early 1900’s. Both diseases are incurable and debilitating brain disease, that are in the end, 100% fatal, with the incubation/clinical period of the Alzheimer’s disease being longer (most of the time) than the TSE prion disease. Symptoms are very similar, and pathology is very similar.


Methods


Through years of research, as a layperson, of peer review journals, transmission studies, and observations of loved ones and friends that have died from both Alzheimer’s and the TSE prion disease i.e. Heidenhain Variant Creutzfelt Jakob Disease CJD.


Results


I propose that Alzheimer’s is a TSE disease of low dose, slow, and long incubation disease, and that Alzheimer’s is Transmissible, and is a threat to the public via the many Iatrogenic routes and sources. It was said long ago that the only thing that disputes this, is Alzheimer’s disease transmissibility, or the lack of. The likelihood of many victims of Alzheimer’s disease from the many different Iatrogenic routes and modes of transmission as with the TSE prion disease.


Conclusions


There should be a Global Congressional Science round table event set up immediately to address these concerns from the many potential routes and sources of the TSE prion disease, including Alzheimer’s disease, and a emergency global doctrine put into effect to help combat the spread of Alzheimer’s disease via the medical, surgical, dental, tissue, and blood arena’s. All human and animal TSE prion disease, including Alzheimer’s should be made reportable in every state, and Internationally, WITH NO age restrictions. Until a proven method of decontamination and autoclaving is proven, and put forth in use universally, in all hospitals and medical, surgical arena’s, or the TSE prion agent will continue to spread. IF we wait until science and corporate politicians wait until politics lets science _prove_ this once and for all, and set forth regulations there from, we will all be exposed to the TSE Prion agents, if that has not happened already.


end...tss





SEE FULL TEXT AND SOURCE REFERENCES ;




Wednesday, May 16, 2012


Alzheimer’s disease and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy prion disease, Iatrogenic, what if ?


Proposal ID: 29403








layperson





Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518 flounder9@verizon.net
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