These injuries occur when the muscles are weak and/or tight and made to contract in an abnormal position.Either the ligament is stretched excessively or partially torn (sprained) or the muscle or tendon is stretched or partially torn (strained).
In both situations, there will be pain, swelling, tenderness but if the pain and swelling is significant with excessive tenderness and bruising, fracture needs to be ruled out and x-rays of the involved joint will be necessary.Always have a physician check condition for the line of treatment needed.
General treatments involve resting, icing, compression and elevation of the involved limb.Support of the joint may be needed with a light brace or cast.However, movements and partial weight-bearing should begin by the second day.Remember that healing may be take 6 weeks.
Rehabilitation will involve stretching and strengthening exercises of muscles around the joint as well as total body conditioning. The best way to exercise these muscles is to be able to twitch exercise them individually which performs neuromuscular reeducation for proper contraction patterns of these muscles as well as to provide circulation to the injured muscle(s) . Prevention of recurrent injuries is the goal.