A study to describe the mechanisms ofanteriorcruciateligamentinjury inbasketballbased on videos of injury situations showed the following:
There was contact at the assumed time of injury in 11 of the 39 cases (5 male and 6 female players). Four of these cases were direct blows to the knee, all in men. Eleven of the 22 female cases were collisions, or the player was pushed by an opponent before the time of injury. The estimated time of injury, based on the group median, ranged from 17 to 50 milliseconds after initial ground contact.
The mean knee flexion angle was higher in female than in male players, both at initial contact (15 degrees vs 9 degrees , P = .034) and at 50 milliseconds later (27 degrees vs 19 degrees , P = .042). Valgus knee collapse occurred more frequently in female players than in male players (relative risk, 5.3; P = .002).
It was found that female players landed with significantly more knee and hip flexion and had a 5.3 times higher relative risk of sustaining a valgus collapse than did male players. Movement patterns were frequently perturbed by opponents.
Preventive programs to enhance knee control should focus on avoiding valgus motion and include distractions resembling those seen in match situations. (Krosshaug T, Nakamae A, Boden BP, Engebretsen L, Smith G, Slauterbeck JR, Hewett TE, Bahr R: Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in basketball: video analysis of 39 cases. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 35(3):359-67, 2007).