A chronic pain ful physical condition can be a major cause of sleep disturbances. This study included 18, 958 participants aged 15 years or older from five European countries (the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Portugal and S pain ). A pain ful physical condition was considered chronic when it lasted at least six months. Insomnia symptoms were defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or non-restorative sleep, present at least three nights per week, lasting at least one month, and accompanied by daytime consequences. It was found that a chronic pain ful physical condition plays a major role on insomnia and is associated with a worsening of insomnia on several aspects: (1) a greater number of insomnia symptoms, (2) more severe daytime consequences and (3) more chronic insomnia situation. A chronic pain ful physical condition has a definitive place as major contributive factor for insomnia and is as important as mood disorders. Ohayon MM: Relationship between chronic pain ful physical condition and insomnia. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 39(2):151-9, 2005 Mar.
This following study examined the associations between arthritis and insomnia symptoms and unrefreshing sleep, as well as the role of pain as a mediator of these relationships. Analyses were conducted on the cross-sectional, nationally representative, weighted sample of adults > or =18 years of age (n = 118,336) in the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey. It was found that insomnia symptoms and unrefreshing sleep affect a considerable proportion of individuals with arthritis. Pain mediates a substantial amount of the relationship between arthritis and sleep problems. Better pain management could significantly improve sleep in individuals with arthritis. Power JD. Perruccio AV. Badley EM. Pain as a mediator of sleep problems in arthritis and other chronic conditions.Arthritis & Rheumatism. 53(6):911-9, 2005 Dec 15.
This following UK study investigated the incidence, persistence, and consequences of insomnia and their associations with psychological health and pain. A population based, longitudinal, cohort study using postal questionnaires at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Sleep problems in the past month were assessed using 4 questions: insomnia was defined as having at least 1 of the sleep problems "on most nights." Questions about psychological health, presence of pain at different sites, and demographic details were included in the questionnaire. There were 2662 questionnaires returned out of 4885.
The results showed that insomniais common and often persistent. Older people appear more vulnerable to persistent symptoms. There is evidence that the common problems of insomnia, pain, and psychological distress are intertwined and suggest that combined approaches to treatment may be needed to reduce the onset and persistence of these problems in the community. Morphy H. Dunn KM. Lewis M. Boardman HF. Croft PR. Epidemiology of insomnia: a longitudinal study in a UK population.Sleep. 30(3):274-80, 2007.