Hip stiffness in athletes is associated with later development of chronicgroininjury and as such may be a risk factor for this condition. "Sports hernia," pubic bone edema, and entrapment neuropathies-are potential causes of chronicgroinpain in assessing athletes.
Groininjury is among the most common citedinjuriesin the sports of ice hockey, soccer, Australian Rules football, calisthenics and cricket. There are very few prospective studies examining risk factors forgroinstrain injury in sport. There is support for an association of previous injury and greater abductor to adductor strength ratios as well as sport specificity of training and pre-season sport-specific training, as individual risk factors ingroinstrain injury in athletes. Core muscle weakness or delayed onset of transversus abdominal muscle recruitment may increase the risk ofgroinstrain injury. Debate exists in the literature regarding the role of adductor strength and length as well as age and/or sport experience as risk factors forgroininjury. There is no strong evidence to support a causal association for any of these risk factors andgroininjury.(Maffey L. Emery C.What are the risk factors forgroinstrain injury in sport? A systematic review of the literature.Sports Medicine. 37(10):881-94, 2007).
MR imaging studies in 141 patients (134 male patients, seven female patients; mean age, 30.1 years; range, 17-71 years) who had been referred to a subspecialist because ofgroinpain showed MR imaging to have more sensitive and specific for rectus abdominis tendon injury and for adductor tendon injury. Injury in each of these structures was significantly more common in the patient group than in the control group. Only two patients had hernias at surgery. (Zoga AC. Kavanagh EC. Omar IM. Morrison WB. Koulouris G. Lopez H. Chaabra A. Domesek J. Meyers WC.Athleticpubalgia and the "sports hernia": MR imaging findings.Radiology. 247(3):797-807, 2008).
Adductor dysfunction is a condition that can causegroinpain in competitive athletes. A single pubic cleft injection of local anesthetic and steroid into the adductor enthesis (tendon thickening) had been used.This single injection gave at least one year of relief of adductor-relatedgroinpain in a competitive athlete with normal findings on a magnetic resonance imaging scan; however, it should be employed only as a diagnostic test or short-term treatment for a competitive athlete with evidence of adductor longus tendon thickening (enthesopathy) on magnetic resonance imaging.(Schilders E. Bismil Q. Robinson P. O'Connor PJ. Gibbon WW. Talbot JC.Adductor-relatedgroinpain in competitive athletes. Role of adductor enthesis, magnetic resonance imaging, and entheseal pubic cleft injections.Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume. 89(10):2173-8, 2007).
eToims has been useful in the treatment of groin pain related to adductor dysfunction since it can be used repeatedly and regularly without side-effects.Treatments have to be directed to all hip muscles supplied by multiple nerve roots as well as to muscles segments supplied by spinal nerve rootsabove and below the hip joint.