Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are a common co-morbidity in patients with a history of accident-related chronicpain and depression. This study assessed for pain experience, depressive symptoms, anxiety, PTSD symptoms, pain disability, and relevant demographic variables.
It was found that PTSD symptoms have a direct influence on severity of depressive symptoms, whereas depressive symptoms have a direct influence on pain intensity and an indirect impact on pain intensity by way of their effect on disability.The results suggest that pain rehabilitation programs provide directed interventions for PTSD symptoms among this population to improve pain treatment outcomes. Roth RS. Geisser ME. Bates R. The relation of post-traumatic stress symptoms to depression and pain in patients with accident-related chronicpain. Journal of Pain. 9(7):588-96, 2008
This following study examines the role of self-reported pain, pain diagnosis, age, gender, depression, and the personality trait of self-criticism (defined as individuals' tendency to set unrealistically high self-standards and to adopt a punitive stance toward one's self), in determining physicians' view of expected prognosis in response to chronicpain management.
Before the first visit to a tertiary chronicpain clinic, patients provided information regarding their perceived pain, depression, and self-criticism. Immediately subsequent to the visit, physicians' evaluated expected prognosis. Participating physicians were blinded to the patient's psychosocial variables collected. Sixty-four patients with chronicpain (34 women and 30 men) with various diagnoses were included.
Patients' age, gender, pain diagnosis, self-reported pain, and depression did not significantly correlate with physician's estimation of expected prognosis. In contrast, patients' self-criticism emerged as an independent predictor of physicians' pessimism regarding outcome. Thus, in the chronicpain clinic setting, patients' personality, rather than self-reported pain experience, determines doctor's clinical judgment of expected prognosis. Rudich Z. Lerman SF. Gurevich B. Weksler N. Shahar G. Patients' self-criticism is a stronger predictor of physician's evaluation of prognosis than pain diagnosis or severity in chronicpain patients. Journal of Pain. 9(3):210-6, 2008 Mar.