Disturbances in neuroendocrine-immune interactions at this stage result in longlasting predisposition to various pathologies in adulthood. The plasticity of physiological systems in the perinatal period allows the environmental factors acting on the mother and fetus to alter the functions of certain organs and tissues, providing for fetal adaptation to adverse conditions. Exposure to stress, adverse environmental factors, etc., as well as mother's improper diet and behavior during pregnancy and breast feeding put the young at risk for autoimmune, allergic, metabolic, psychic, and nervous disorders during adult life. The possibility of using neurohormones for treating immunodeficiencies caused by various adverse factors is discussed. The review also includes recent patents relevant to the problem at issue.