A recent study in Pediatric Diabetes examined the neurocognitive functioning of 68 preschool children, 36 with Type 1 diabetes and 32 without any chronic illness. The two groups were administered a number of tools to assess cognitive, language and fine motor skills. The results indicated that the children in both groups performed similarly with skills in the average range. The children with Type 1 diabetes with poor glycemic control scored lower on cognitive skills and receptive language and had slower fine motor speed.
Reference: Patiño-Fernández AM et al. Neurocognitive functioning in preschool-age children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Diabetes. 2010 Sep;11(6):424-30. Epub 2010 Apr 23