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HBOT

Posted Oct 02 2009 3:07pm
~Hyper
~Baric
~Oxygen
~Therapy/Treatment
is the medical use of oxygen at a higher level than atmospheric pressure and is yet another treatment option for symptoms associated withhydranencephaly, I'm told, but have yet to find someone who believes it will make a difference inBrayden...but I have been told that it "could" provide some improvements. Maybe this post will put me into contact with someone who I haven't been before in regards to this, or other treatment options.

Here's a definition ofHBOTfrom thiswebsite:

Hyper" means increased and "baric" relates to pressure.Hyperbaricoxygen therapy (HBOT) thus refers to intermittent treatment of the entire body with 100-percent oxygen at greater than normal atmospheric pressures. The earth's atmosphere normally exerts approximately 15 pounds per square inch of pressure at sea level. That pressure is defined as one atmosphere absolute (abbreviated as 1ATA). In the ambient atmosphere we normally breathe approximately 20 percent oxygen and 80 percent nitrogen. While undergoingHBOT, pressure is increased up to two times (2ATA) in 100% oxygen. In theSechristmonoplacechambers utilized at our facilities, the entire body is totally immersed in 100-percent oxygen. There is no need to wear a mask or hood. This increased pressure, combined with an increase in oxygen to 100 percent, dissolves oxygen in the blood plasma and in all body cells, tissues and fluids at up to 10 times normal concentration—high enough to sustain life with no blood at all (from 20% to 100% oxygen is a 5-fold increase, from 1ATAto 2ATAcan double this again to a 10-fold or 1,000% increase).

While some of the mechanisms of action ofHBOT, as they apply to healing and reversal of symptoms, are yet to be discovered, it is known thatHBOT:

1) greatly increases oxygen concentration in all body tissues, even with reduced or blocked blood flow;

2) stimulates the growth of new blood vessels to locations with reduced circulation, improving blood flow to areas with arterial blockage;

3) causes a rebound arterial dilation afterHBOT, resulting in an increased blood vessel diameter greater than when therapy began, improving blood flow to compromised organs;

4) stimulates an adaptive increase insuperoxidedismutase(SOD), one of the body's principal, internally produced antioxidants and free radical scavengers; and,

5) aids the treatment of infection by enhancing white blood cell action andpotentiatinggerm-killing antibiotics.

While not new,HBOThas only lately begun to gain recognition for treatment of chronic degenerative health problems related to atherosclerosis, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, diabetic ulcers, wound healing, cerebral palsy, brain injury, multiple sclerosis,maculardegeneration, and many other disorders.Wherever blood flow and oxygen delivery to vital organs is reduced, function and healing can potentially be aided withHBOT. When the brain is injured by stroke,CP, or trauma, HBO may wake up stunned parts of the brain to restore function.

One of the world's most experienced authorities onhyperbaricmedicine was Dr. Edgar End, clinical professor of environmental medicine at the Medical College of Wisconsin, who voiced his opinion onHBOT'svalue for the treatment of stroke in this way: "I've seen partially paralyzed people half carried into the (HBOT) chamber, and they walk out after the first treatment. If we got to these people quickly, we could prevent a great deal of damage."

FromWikipedia, here are the uses thatHBOTis approved for in the United States thus far:

In the United States, theUndersea andHyperbaricMedical Society, known asUHMS, approves for reimbursement diagnoses for application ofHBOTin hospitals. The followingindicationsare approved uses ofhyperbaricoxygen therapy as defined by theUHMSHyperbaricOxygen Therapy Committee.

In theUnited States, HBOT is recognized byMedicareas a reimbursable treatment for 14 UHMS "approved" conditions. An HBOT session costs anywhere from $100 to $200 in private clinics, to over $1,000 in hospitals. U.S. physicians may lawfully prescribe HBOT for "off-label" conditions such asLyme Disease,strokeandmigraines.Such patients are treated in outpatient clinics. In theUnited Kingdommost chambers are financed by theNational Health Service, although some, such as those run by Multiple Sclerosis Therapy Centres, are non-profit.

Other reported applications include:

HBOT is controversial and health policy regarding its uses is politically charged. Both sides of the controversy on the effectiveness of HBOT is available in the form ofCochrane Libraryreviews.


"HBOT is controversial"? Seriously, why are treatments that are deemed a miracle cure for so many ailments, found to be so controversial? Another case of lack of knowledge, in my opinion! But I found an article byDr. Cranton, who gives more reasons why it is found to be so controversial:

If Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy is so Good,
Why Is It Not More Widely Accepted?

By Elmer M. Cranton, M.D.

Copyright © 2001 Elmer M. Cranton, M.D.

Doctors are rarely taught about hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in medical school and therefore most do not know about it. Only about 20 medical schools, less than 15 percent, have actual hyperbaric oxygen facilities, while perhaps another 20 have access to HBOT facilities. If physicians don't know about a therapy, they obviously won't prescribe it. If they don't prescribe HBOT, there is no incentive for more hyperbaric treatment facilities to be established. Therefore, there exist very few hyperbaric chambers, compared with potential need and benefit that could otherwise be achieved—only about 400 chambers in the entire U.S.A. Many of those are dedicated to diving accidents (bends) and are not available for other medical conditions. And, many are located in hospitals that restrict HBOT to a small number of medical conditions reimbursed by Medicare.

Hyperbaric facilities are very expensive to establish and outfit. It costs in the neighborhood of $150,000 to equip a small facility with a single monoplace chamber. Larger facilities and those with multi-place chambers can cost millions of dollars. Because only a few of the many medical conditions that might be helped by HBOT are reimbursed by health care insurance, patients must commonly pay the cost out of their own pockets. Fees for HBOT can range from $150 per hour to almost $1,000 per hour. This denial of insurance reimbursement discourages the creation of new facilities and many patients cannot afford the cost of HBOT when refused medical insurance coverage.

It is not uncommon to require 50 to 100 of the hour-long treatments for full benefit.

Advertisements and marketing claims for hyperbaric oxygen therapy is regulated like a drug by the government's Food and Drug administration (FDA). It costs tens of millions of dollars to conduct medical research that meets FDA standards to allow claims for successful treatment of a specific illness. Medical insurance companies commonly take the position that if the FDA has not issued a formal approval, then the therapy is experimental and they refuse to pay. Because oxygen cannot be patented, profits on sales of oxygen are too small to pay for studies that meet FDA requirements.

Psychological defense mechanisms also come into play. If a doctor is not taught about HBOT in medical school (and most are not), and if a doctor therefore does not routinely use or prescribe HBOT for patients, then one of two things must be true in their minds: 1) either that doctor's medical education was deficient and he or she is not providing the best of care for patients; or, 2) other doctors routinely using and prescribing HBOT for conditions that are not FDA-approved (off-label) must be "quacks" who exploit desperate patients. Which do you think their choice will be?

It's apparently difficult for many medical doctors to shed an attitude of God-like omniscience and admit that they simply do not know everything there is to know.

The medical profession is becoming polarized concerning HBOT. A large and powerful majority of medical doctors believe that HBOT should be restricted to treatment of those rare conditions with prior FDA approval. That majority now criticizes and even attacks the growing number of physicians who have become familiar with more than 30,000 published scientific papers the subject, and who advocate or use HBOT to treat patients with so-called off-label (non-FDA-approved) conditions. Opponents of such expanded utilization of HBOT should admit that they are remiss in their care of patients, they should open their minds, educate themselves further, and change their ways.

The medical community eagerly accepts scientific research buttressing a therapy it already approves. Somewhat more reluctantly, it examines and debates entirely novel approaches. But what it really hates is reappraising a treatment once rejected—getting the egg off their collective faces. Medicine, after all, is made up of people—people trailing MDs after their names—who, like the rest of us, do not enjoy admitting error.

Someday when HBOT therapy is an established part of standard medical care, historians of twentieth century medicine will wonder how so much supportive research on its benefits could have been published by skillful medical researchers and even more scrupulously ignored by the guardians of our health. By that time, most of the individuals who attempted to keep HBOT on the fringe will probably not be alive to blush, sparing them extensive embarrassment.

The amount of positive research is certainly formidable. And some studies that purport to demonstrate that HBOT doesn't work actually show the opposite. For example, a recent Canadian study of cerebral palsy showed significant benefit. Under political pressure from parents, the study was reluctantly designed and conducted by Canadian physicians who were inexperienced in the use of HBOT. Both the treatment and placebo groups were pressurized and both groups benefited. The published conclusion in that study mistakenly stated that HBOT did nothing. It's easy for opponents to design flawed studies and interpret the results to support their biased positions.

In a sense, we're attempting to set the record straight and to tell people—especially physicians—to become familiar with thepublished scientific evidence. Mainstream medical journals engage in unconscionable editorial censorship. They refuse to publish positive research studies on alternative therapies, and are quick to print editorial criticism and anecdotal letters to the editor that are biased against such treatments. They have also been quick to uncritically print flawed studies that erroneously allege to disprove a controversial therapy.


I still think that a large majority of the controversy comes from lack of knowledge, or the quick spread of misinformation. Here's some facts about HBOT, again fromWikipedia:

Structure

Traditional

The traditional type ofhyperbaric chamberused for HBOT is ahard shelledpressure vessel. Such chambers can be run at absolute pressures up to 600kilopascalsor 85PSI (lbf/in²), nearly sixatmospheres.

Navies, diving organizations and hospitals typically operate these. They range in size from those which are portable and capable of treating just one patient to those which are fixed, very heavy and capable of treating eight or more patients.

The chamber may consist of:

  • a pressure vessel that is generally made ofsteelandaluminiumwith the view ports (windows) or hull made ofacrylic.
  • one or more human entry hatches—these could be small and circular or wheel-in type hatches for patients on trolleys
  • anairlockallowing human entry—a separate chamber with two hatches, one to the outside world and one to the main chamber, which can be independently pressurized to allow patients to enter or exit the main chamber while it is still pressurized
  • an airlock allowing medicines, instruments and food to enter the main chamber
  • glass ports or closed-circuit television allowing the technicians and medical staff outside the chamber to monitor the inside of the chamber
  • anintercomallowing two-way communications inside and outside the chamber
  • acarbon dioxidescrubber—consisting of a fan that passes the gas inside the chamber through asoda limecanister
  • a control panel outside the chamber is used to open and closevalvesallowingairto enter or leave the chamber and oxygen to be supplied to oxygen helmets or masks


Oxygen breathing

In today's larger "multiplace" chambers, both patients and medical staff inside the chamber breathe from "oxygen helmets", flexible, transparent soft plastic helmets with a seal around the neck similar to a spacesuithelmet, or tightly fitting aviatorsoxygen masks, which supply pure oxygen and remove the exhaled gas from the chamber. During treatment patients breathe 100% oxygen most of the time but have periodic air breaks to minimize the risk ofoxygen toxicity. The exhaled gas must be removed from the chamber to prevent the build up of oxygen, which could provoke a fire. Medical staff may also breathe oxygen to reduce the risk ofdecompression sickness. Administration of 100% breathing oxygen maximizes the patient's treatment. The pressure inside the chamber is increased by opening valves allowing high-pressure air to enter from storage cylinders, similar todiving cylinders. Agas compressoris used to fill these cylinders.

Smaller "monoplace" chambers can only accommodate the patient. No medical staff can enter. The chamber is flooded with pure oxygen or compressed air. The cost of using pure oxygen in a monoplace chamber is much higher than using compressed air. If pure oxygen is used no oxygen breathing mask or helmet is needed. If compressed air is used then an oxygen mask or helmet is needed as in a multiplace chamber. In monoplace chambers that are compressed with pure oxygen a mask is available to provide the patient with "air breaks," periods of breathing normal air, in order to reduce the risk of hyperoxic seizures.


Effects of Pressure

Patients inside the chamber will notice discomfort inside theirearsas a pressure difference develops between their middle ear and the chamber atmosphere. This can be relieved by theValsalva maneuveror by "jaw wiggling". As the pressure increases further,mistmay form in the air inside the chamber and the air may become warm. When the patient speaks, thepitchof thevoicemay increase to the level that they sound likecartooncharacters.

To reduce the pressure, a valve is opened to allow gas out of the chamber. As the pressure falls, the patient’s ears may "squeak" as the pressure inside the ear equalizes with the chamber. The temperature in the chamber will fall.


Home treatment
s

There are portable HBOT chambers, which are used for home treatment. These are usually referred to as "mild chambers", which is a reference to the lower pressure of soft-sided chambers. Those commercially available in the USA go up to 4 PSI (1.27 ATA 8.92 FSW). There are new FDA approved chambers out that go to the full 1.3 ATA which is 4.4 PSI. International portable chambers can go to 7.35 psi (1.5 ATA 16.38 FSW) or higher. These chambers are operated with oxygen concentrators (typically 85-95% oxygen) or with 100% oxygen as the breathing gas. Physiologically, the human body cannot tell the difference between 80% and 100% Oxygen. (The difference is clinically insignificant and with less risk using an oxygen concentrator.)Total concentration of oxygen in the chamber should not exceed 25% as this can increase the risk of fire. 10 lpm of oxygen input into a mild chamber equals about 24-25% oxygen depending on the size of the chamber. The oxygen concentrator used for HBOT should include an on-board oxygen purity monitor and should have at least 15 psi outflow pressure. An audible alarm will sound if the purity ever drops below 80%. A standard concentrator used by respiratory patients is not recommended due to low total output and poor delivery pressures.

These chambers are often used in a clinical setting, but are also used in homes. Mild hyperbaric chambers use standard 120 volt outlets and can also be configured for 220 volt use. Ranging in size from 21" up to 40" in diameter these chambers measure between 84" to 120" in length. New vertical chambers are coming on the market which are up to 5' in diameter allowing for treatments sitting up or standing instead of lying down.

The soft chambers are only approved by the FDA for the treatment of altitude sickness, but are commonly used for other "off-label" purposes. Although research into mild chambers is young, one double-blind controlled trial showed improvement in 80% of the treatment group of children with Autism.


Treatments

Initially, HBOT was developed as a treatment fordiving disordersinvolving bubbles of gas in the tissues, such as decompression sickness and gas embolism. The chamber cures decompression sickness and gas embolism by increasing pressure, reducing the size of the gas bubbles and improving the transport ofbloodto downstream tissues. The high concentrations of oxygen in the tissues are beneficial in keeping oxygen-starved tissues alive, and have the effect of removing thenitrogenfrom the bubble, making it smaller until it consists only of oxygen which is then re-absorbed into the body. After elimination of bubbles, the pressure is gradually reduced back to atmospheric levels.


Protocol

Theslangterm for a cycle of pressurization inside the HBOT chamber is "a dive". An HBOT treatment for longer-term conditions is often a series of 20 to 40 dives.

Emergency HBOT for diving disorders typically follows one of two forms. For most cases, a shallow "dive" to a pressure the equivalent of 18 meters / 60 feet of water for 3 to 4.5 hours with the casualty breathing pure oxygen with air breaks every 20 minutes to reduce oxygen toxicity. For extremely serious cases, a deeper "dive" to a pressure the equivalent of 37 meters / 122 feet of water for 4.5 hours with the casualty breathing air.

InCanadaand the United States, theU.S. NavyDive Charts are used to determine the duration, pressure andbreathing gasof the therapy. The most frequently used tables are Table 5 and Table 6. In the UK theRoyal Navy62 and 67 tables are used.

TheUndersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society(UHMS) publishes a report which compiles the latest research findings and contains information regarding the recommended duration and pressure of the longer-term conditions.


Possible complications

There are risks associated with HBOT, similar to some diving disorders. Pressure changes can cause a "squeeze" orbarotraumain the tissues surrounding trapped air inside the body, such as thelungs, behind theeardrum, insideparanasal sinuses, or trapped underneathdental fillings. Breathing high-pressure oxygen for long periods can causeoxygen toxicity. Temporarily blurred vision can be caused by swelling of thelens, which usually resolves in two to four weeks.

There are reports that cataract may progress following HBOT.Also a rare side effect has been blindness secondary to optic neuritis (inflammation of the optic nerve).


Contraindications

The only absolutecontraindicationto hyperbaric oxygen therapy is untreatedpneumothorax.Also, the treatment may raise the issue ofOccupational safety and health(OHS), which has been encountered by the therapist.

Patients should not undergo HBO therapy if they are taking or have recently taken the following drugs:

  • Doxorubicin(Adriamycin) - A chemotherapeutic drug.
  • Disulfiram(Antabuse) - Used in the treatment of alcoholism.
  • Cis-platinum - A cancer drug.
  • Mafenide acetate(Sulfamylon) - Suppresses bacterial infections in burn wounds

The following are relative contraindications:

  • Upper respiratory infections - These conditions can make it difficult for the patient to clear their ears, which can result in what is termed sinus squeeze.
  • High fevers - In most cases the fever should be lowered before HBO treatment begins.
  • Emphysema with CO2 retention - This condition can lead to pneumothorax during HBO treatment.
  • History of thoracic (chest) surgery - This is rarely a problem and usually not considered a contraindication. However, there is concern that air may be trapped in lesions that were created by surgical scarring. These conditions need to be evaluated prior to considering HBO therapy.
  • Malignant disease: Since cancers both thrive in blood rich environments and may be suppressed in high oxygen environments, cancer and HBO poses a dilemma since HBO both increases blood flow via angiogenesis and also raises oxygen levels. Taking an anti-angiogenic supplement may provide a solution to this problem.
  • Middle ear barotrauma (MEBT) is always a consideration in treating both children and adults in a hyperbaric environment, but most children currently being treated with HBOT are being pressurized to 1.3 ATA which reduces the risks of potential side effects.

And now some more information on how hyperbarics may specifically help some problems surrounding a hydranencephaly diagnosis & other similar conditions...such as those oftentimes associated with cerebral palsy.


Neuro-rehabilitation

The Collet (Quebec) trial that was published in the Lancet in 2001 was the largest randomized trial of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) for children withcerebral palsy(CP); it followed the McGill pilot study on the same subject.

The evidence showed both groups of children treated with two very different hyperbaric treatment dosages improved significantly. The motor improvements that were seen and measured with thegross motor function measurewere greater, more generalized, and were obtained in a shorter period of time than most of the changes found in any other studies of recognized conventional therapies in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy. The children in both groups improved an average of ten times more during the two months of HBOT (whilst all other therapies and medication were stopped) than during the three months follow-up (when medication and all the ancillary treatments were restarted). This impressive change in the rate of improvements clearly indicates the probable effectiveness of hyperbaric treatment. Both the Lancet commentary and the tech report by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) concluded that the hypothesis of both treatments being equally effective should be retained.

Since the Quebec study of HBOT for children with CP, many reports have been made on the possible efficacy of a low pressure hyperbaric treatment and all the trials conducted with HBOT in CP have demonstrated positive results.

An editorial on CP published by theUndersea and Hyperbaric Medical Societyin 2007 called for further research that will include "basic science research to determine a reasonable mechanism of action" for hyperbaric oxygenation as well as "clinical studies of the highest possible methodological rigor".

Some medical practitioners recommend the use of HBOT for the treatment of acutetinnitusbut this treatment has not been verified by independent evidence and the treatment was withdrawn from support by the German health insurance. There is evidence that the therapeutic effects could be greatly due to psychological mechanisms triggered by the patients attitude towards therapy prior to the treatment.

The earliest randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study onmultiple sclerosispatients treated with HBOT suggested the therapy could improve balance and bladder function. However, by 2004 aCochrane reviewassessing ten trials and 21 analyses "found no consistent evidence to confirm a beneficial effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and do not believe routine use is justified".


Here is anarticlegiving detailed example of a clinical trial involving children with severe brain injuries...and the hope that HBOT has provided these children with recovery.


HBOT is proven in controlled study to benefit CP
and similar brain injuries in children

Damian McNamara, Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Helps Children Who Have Chronic Brain Injury. Family Practice News, Volume 36, Issue 19, Page 49 (01 October 2006)

FORT LAUDERDALE, FLA. — Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive and social function in children with chronic brain injury, according to a study presented at a symposium on hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Daily living, socialization, communication, and motor skills significantly improved for 21 children treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), compared with 21 brain-injured patients who received standard therapy. Researchers included a third group of 21 healthy children to control for normal growth and development, reported Dr. Charles J. Golden at the symposium sponsored by the Ocean Hyperbaric Neurologic Center.

Participants were assessed more than 1 year after onset of their brain injury. The majority had cerebral palsy. The average age was 4.5 years (range, 12 months to 18 years), said Dr. Golden, professor of psychology and director, Neuropsychology Assessment Center, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Fla.

Average functioning level was close to two standard deviations below average—“so this was a very low functioning group,” he added.

Mild changes in some areas but no changes in the cerebellum were noted after 35 HBOT sessions, compared with baseline, Dr. Golden said. “This is not unexpected. These children had injuries high up in the brain.”

“Interestingly, you can predict reasonably well who will be a responder based on response over the first 35 treatments,” he said. “Some people are just nonresponders—you can give them 200 treatments, and they will not respond. Others are marvelous responders who respond well and right away.”

After a second round of 35 HBOT treatments, “there was a much greater effect on blood flow—so it seems to be a time-based effect,” Dr. Golden said.

The HBOT group made major changes in all areas that were greater than either the normal or standard therapy control groups.

“This is a group who is at the end—they have failed multiple therapies. And still we have about 70% who respond [to HBOT],” said Dr. Golden. “The plasticity of the brain may be much greater than we imagined. HBOT may stimulate ability of the brain to reorganize itself.”

Dr. Golden and his associates used the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to rate basic adaptive, motor, and cognitive abilities “This can be used without a child having to perform for us, which is challenging with cerebral palsy,” he said.

They assessed blood flow changes with a series of three single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans before, during, and after HBOT treatment. They assessed the cerebellum, pons, right and left hemisphere subcortical areas, and the cortical region.

"Improvements in motor functions [from HBOT] allowed them to do things they could not do at the beginning of the study."


While doing my usual research, I was given the web address of a foundation that supplies free HBOT to children in dire need. It is true that there is a charity organization that supplies everything you could possibly imagine when you're in need. Another reminder of the wonderful generosity of a majority of the population. From the website,Hyperbaric Center for Children, here's where it all started for the Selama Grotto Cerebral Palsy Foundation (a non-profit organization):

Our mission is to initiate, sponsor, support and promote activities and projects for the care, treatment and education of children afflicted with Cerebral Palsy and other special needs without regard to faith, creed, race, national origin or ethnic background.This website is a clearing house for information about our efforts to create a center to treat and care for children suffering from many ailments that can benefit from the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT). We have many testimonials and scientific evidence that shows children with Cerebral Palsy, Autism, Shaken Baby Syndrome and other special needs can benefit from these treatments.
The CP Endowment has pioneered a new direction with HBOT for children. We use portable hyperbaric oxygen chambers to treat children with Cerebral Palsy, Autism and other neurological disorders. Treatments with the HBOT have been so successful that the first portable chamber was purchased in 2000. For the next five years, this chamber was delivered to the home where the children resided and remained there for at least three weeks, with parents operating the chamber. At the end of the period, the chamber would be moved to the next child on the list and after several months the chamber would be returned to the first child's home and the schedule would repeat itself. While this program greatly improved these children's lives and that of the care-givers, its weakness was that only one child per day could be treated.In 2006, fund-raisers were held to purchase a second chamber, planned to be operated at a location whereby several children a day could be scheduled for its use. The HBOT program was so successful that by the end of the year, a total of five portable chambers were in operation; two in St. Petersburg, one each in Pinellas Park and Tampa, and on the east coast of the state. This allowed up to 25 children per day to receive these treatments.All five chambers are in operation in private homes, a situation that can not go on forever. Therefore, we established the goal of opening the nation's first HBOT Center for Children with all children receiving free HBOT. It has drawn the interest and support of the guru of HBOT, Dr. Paul Harch. Dr. Harch and Virginia McCullough are the authors of The Oxygen Revolution, published byHatherleighPress. Still in the early planning stages and in need of financing, the concept for the Center is to have 12 hospital-grade chambers along with diagnostic services and equipment.It is envisioned that someday there will be satellite chambers located in several different locations. The sponsors and operators of these chambers could be other Grottoes, churches, civic clubs, etc. They would sent their children to our Center where the diagnostics and examinations would be accomplished, then return home for treatments in local chambers. They would return periodically for progress checks and return home for more treatments.

Like I mentioned before, I've been in contact with a few different HBOT centers, only to be told that they've "heard" that treatments can help children with hydranencephaly, but they don't know of any formal cases to assure that it would be worth the time invested...and in normal cases, the money. I've been in contact with the above mentioned not for profit organization, Selama Grotto Cerebral Palsy Endowment, for more information. Hopefully, the idea of neuroplasticity will be of a greater hope in the future with the aid of HBOT.

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