CARBS – The Often-Confused Macronutrient Broken Down, Part I : Focus on Fiber
Posted May 06 2013 10:13am
I was in the supermarket the other day when I overheard a mom tell her toddler that he couldn’t have a snack that he saw because “it has carbs and we are not eating carbs anymore so Mommy and Daddy can lose weight.” Meanwhile, this same mom was drinking a rather large iced tea that I am guessing had a decent amount of sugar in it. While this mother’s statement to her child made me cringe for so many reasons, what struck me was how unaware she was of the basic facts of what carbohydrates are…. And how important healthy forms are for growing bodies and brains. Yes, you heard me correctly – the human body needs carbohydrates to function properly. With so many health claims out there touting carbs to be a weight gain promoter, I think it’s fair to say that too much, or the wrong kind of any form of food we take into our body can pose health risks. I am not saying shove your face with a loaf of bread each time you get hungry (and I use this example because that is what I did as a youngster growing up on Long Island – from world-famous delicious bagels to killer Italian food, I pretty much ate enough carbs during the day to fuel a space mission to Mars and back), but keep plenty of healthy carbohydrates stocked in your home for energy levels to stay stable and healthy. Too many times, I find people totally baffled as to what carbohydrates are exactly – the types that exist and what kinds and how much you should be getting. Rather than try to avoid all carbohydrates out of fear that they will lead to weight gain and an unhealthy diet, stay away particularly from carbohydrates in the form of concentrated sugars (like soft drinks, candies, sweet snacks, cookies, etc.). Carbohydrates in the form of whole grains, vegetables, and legumes/beans are healthy options that can fuel the body well. Over the next few articles, I’ll try and break a major carbohydrate lesson down into the most easy-to-understand terms so you don’t have to feel like you’re committing a dietary sin each time you or your family eats a “carb.” I want to pay particular attention to dietary fibers in this article, as we cannot get enough of this healthy carb.
Lets’ start with the basics. One of the most important carbohydrates is glucose (otherwise known as blood sugar or dextrose) – this simple carbohydrate provides nearly all of the energy the human brain uses daily. Glycogen is a more complex sugar (called a polysaccharide, meaning “many sugars”) that is made up out of several glucose molecules. Glycogen is manufactured and stored in the liver and muscles as a storage form of glucose. Both glucose and glycogen provide about half of all the energy muscles and other body tissues use. The other half of the body’s energy comes from mostly fat. So what does all of this technical jargon about glucose and glycogen mean? In actuality, people don’t eat glucose and glycogen directly. Rather, when foods rich in carbohydrates are eaten, the human body receives glucose for immediate energy and converts some glucose into glycogen for reserve energy. All plant foods (i.e. whole grains, vegetables, legumes/beans, and fruits) provide ample carbohydrates. Some people may not realize this, but even dairy foods like milk contain carbohydrates due to their sugar content (yes, milk naturally has sugar!).
Here are two quick tips to remember:
Monosaccharides and disaccharides are known as the “sugars” and referred to as simple carbohydrates
Polysaccharides are known as starches and fibers and referred to as complex carbohydrates
Chemically, the dietary carbohydrate “family” includes:
Monosaccharides (“simple sugars”)
Disaccharides (sugars made of pairs of monosaccharides/simple sugars) – glucose occurs in all three dietary forms of this type of sugar:
Polysaccharides (large molecules composed of chains of monosaccharides) – these complex sugars are made up of many glucose units and are very important for energy production in the body. There are three major types:
Many times, I see processed foods touting the label as “high fiber” or “low carb” and I look at the nutrition label and gasp…. Sometimes the fiber content is so ridiculously unnatural that I wonder what chemicals were used to create this ratio of fiber. While eating high-fiber foods are great for your health, make sure they come from natural sources and not from manufactured “functional fibers” that are nothing but factory created foods. Eating too many of these functional fibers is dangerous, especially to children because it can cause a lack of nutrient and mineral absorption. It can also lead to dehydration if it causes too many bowel movements. It is not advised for parents to give their children supplements like dissolving fiber granules or foods that are full of functional fibers. Rather, natural forms of soluble and insoluble fiber are what the human body needs to safely support health.
This is just the tip of the iceberg when delving into the whole realm of carbohydrates. Now that you hopefully have a clearer understanding of what carbohydrates are and the different forms of food they can be found in, I will continue next article more on how carbohydrates are digested and absorbed in the body, which is important to know so you can better understand how your children (and yourself) utilize the foods taken in. Knowing the balance of nutrients is imperative to maintaining a healthy diet.