Silent Vascular Disease Accompanies Cognitive Decline in Healthy Aging
Posted Nov 10 2010 11:49am
This research study caught my attention because near the beginning I was wondering if Dotty suffered from some type of vascular disease. I still wonder about it.....
By Bob DeMarco Alzheimer's Reading Room
Dotty's original doctor kept mentioned that she might have had a mini-stroke but never did a single thing to get to the bottom of the issue. Greedy doctor focused on profit.
This occurred during the days of capitated contracts here in Florida. In those days the doctor received a set fee per patient (HMO) regardless of treatment rendered. Less treatment, more profit. Test are expensive and cut into profit.
This is one of the many reasons why I continually harp on people that you need to find a competent personal care physician. People rarely listen, but I keep trying.
Even healthy, active older people experience subtle deficits in mental functioning
Older people who are leading active, healthy lifestyles often have silent vascular disease that can be seen on brain scans that affect their ability to think, according to a new study led by UC Davis researchers and published online today in the Archives of Neurology, one of the JAMA Archives journals.
"This study shows that silent vascular disease is really common as we get older and it influences our thinking abilities," said Charles DeCarli, professor of neurology in the School of Medicine at UC Davis and director of the UC Davis Alzheimer's Disease Center. "We're beginning to realize that vascular disease plays a major role in Alzheimer's disease — they go together."
The study findings are based on data from participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. The initiative tracks individuals who are normal, those who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and people with Alzheimer's disease using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and laboratory and cognitive testing to track changes in their cognitive status.
Over 5 million elderly people in the United States have Alzheimer's disease, a progressive, incurable and terminal disease and the most common form of age-related dementia. In its 2009 World Alzheimer Report, Alzheimer's Disease International found that there are more than 35 million people worldwide with Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. It also projected that the number should nearly double in the next 20 years.
Cardiovascular disease, including hypertension, high cholesterol and atherosclerosis, is also common in the elderly, and causes "white matter hyperintensities," regions of damaged brain tissue that look like white-hot areas on MRI scans. The purpose of the study was to better understand the relationship between white matter hyperintensities and the extent to which they precede, coincide with or follow short-term changes in cognitive functioning.
For the study, more than 800 participants ages 55 to 90 were recruited from more than 50 research sites throughout the United States and Canada. Some 200 participants were cognitively normal individuals who were followed for three years. Approximately 400 people with mild cognitive impairment also were followed for three years. Two hundred people with Alzheimer's disease were followed for two years. Potential participants with serious brain anomalies, such as brain tumors or prior surgery, were excluded from the study.
All of the participants' baseline cognitive functioning was established using clinical diagnostic evaluation, including the Mini Mental State Exam and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale. Criteria for the normal group included no evidence of depression, mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Individuals were included in the MCI category if they had a subjective memory complaint or objective memory loss, among other measures. Participants with Alzheimer's disease met nationally accepted criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease.
Participants whose white matter hyperintensities were significantly above average at the beginning of the study lost more points each year in cognitive testing than those whose white matter hyperintensities were average at baseline. Those with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease at baseline had additional declines on their cognitive testing each year, meaning that the presence of white matter hyperintensities and MCI or Alzheimer's disease together added up to even faster and steeper cognitive decline. In addition, participants who were older at baseline saw faster declines over time in their Mini Mental State Exam scores.
The researchers found that, at the outset of the study, the extent of white matter hyperintensities was associated with greater subsequent declines in global cognition over a one-year period.
"In a sample … with frequent evaluations, short-term follow-up and a relatively mild profile of cardiovascular risk, white matter disease may be an important predictor of subsequent short-term global cognitive change," the study found.
"There's a big group of people who have not had major cardiovascular events such as heart attacks. But we see signs that even milder vascular-related insults can contribute to loss of cognitive functioning," said Owen Carmichael, the study's lead author and an assistant professor in the Department of Neurology in the School of Medicine at UC Davis.
Carmichael said that the study suggests that reducing your cardiovascular risk factors to a moderate level may not be enough to avert all forms of brain disease that can lead to cognitive decline in aging.
"Every little bit counts — you have got to squeeze every little bit of healthy lifestyle out of your day" to avoid brain aging, he said.
Other study authors include Christopher Schwartz, David Drucker, Evan Fletcher, Danielle Harvey and Laurel Beckett of UC Davis; Clifford R. Jack, Jr., of the Mayo Clinic; and Michael Weiner of UC San Francisco.
The study was funded by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, which is supported by the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering and by private and non-profit funding organizations.
The UC Davis School of Medicine is among the nation's leading medical schools, recognized for its research and primary-care programs. The school offers fully accredited master's degree programs in public health and in informatics, and its combined M.D.-Ph.D. program is training the next generation of physician-scientists to conduct high-impact research and translate discoveries into better clinical care. Along with being a recognized leader in medical research, the school is committed to serving underserved communities and advancing rural health. For more information, visit UC Davis School of Medicine at www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/medschool/.
Insight and Advice
Bob DeMarco is the Founder of the Alzheimer's Reading Room and an Alzheimer's caregiver. Bob has written more than 1,950 articles with more than 95,100 links on the Internet. Bob resides in Delray Beach, FL.