Precancerous inflammation can cause increased genetic and epigenetic damage
Aberrant oncogenic signaling can induce inflammation
The inflammatory response in cancer tissues elicits tumor tissue remodeling and metastases
Cancer related inflammation can fall into one of two categories: 1. precancerous inflammation lesions and 2. Inflammation that is present in almost all cancer tissues including those that have no precancerous inflammation lesions. The connection between inflammation and cancer can be thought of as consisting of two pathways: an extrinsic mechanism, where a constant inflammatory state contributes to increased cancer risk (such as inflammatory bowel disease); and an intrinsic mechanism, where acquired genetic alterations (such as activation of oncogenes) trigger tumor development (Fig. 1).