Diffuse large-cell lymphoma is the most common form of NHL, and autologous stem cell transplantation has been shown to be beneficial in some subsets with this illness. For patients with diffuse large-cell lymphoma who relapse from a CR but remain chemotherapy-responsive, autologous transplantation is the treatment of choice. At the present time, high-risk patients who achieve a CR after a full course of standard-dose chemotherapy and have a high risk for relapse may derive the most benefit from stem cell transplantation.
For anaplastic lymphoma specifically, a phase II trial that used high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as front-line treatment revealed a 5-year overall survival rate of 87%, which was significantly better than for aggressive nonanaplastic lymphomas. To date, no published randomized trials compare ASCT to conventional combination chemotherapy regimens. NCCN has no recommendations for anaplastic or ALK negative lymphoma. ALK negaive lymphomas have a poorer prognosis than ALK positive ones.
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S G Holtan, A L Feldman, R A Knudson, R P Ketterling and L F Porrata Failure of front-line autologous transplant in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma Bone Marrow Transplantation , (6 September 2010)