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Somatic mutations in cancer and genetic syndromes

Posted Jun 29 2008 2:08pm

As for clinical geneticist, traditionally concerned more with germline (hereditary) mutations and disease, it might be strange to search through somatic mutation (or acquired) databases. But it is obvious that understanding of cancer genetics can not be limited to only germline or somatic mutations – it must be combined approach. And then you start to think in systemic way, or in other words, you think in pathways or patterns (pretty much the same way as main character from D. Aronofsky’s notorious “Pi” :) )

Anyway, currently I’m gliding through Ras-MAPK signaling pathway and in a future some posts will be related to it. Interestingly, lot of things in genetics are connected or in other ways, as a friend of mine once stated, “traditional genetics is dead:)

Just take a look: Ras-MAPK pathway is probably one of the most upregulated pathway in sporadic cancers. And there are bunch of syndromes with inherited altered mutations in a genes from there :

Among other symptoms, Neurofibromatosis type 1 have up to 13% risk for developing maligancy (mostly for MPNST) , Costello syndrome have about 17% increased risk of cancer (particularly rhabdomyosarcomas, neuroblastomas and bladder Ca), in Noonan there is increased risk for juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Therefore lot of attempt must taken to perform targeted screening for these patients. LEOPARD (which is allelic for Noonan s. and stands for lentigines, ECG anomalies, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonic stenosis, abnormal genitalia, retarded growth and deafness) and CFC syndrome seems do not have increased cancer risk.

For somatic mutation in cancer invaluable tool seems to be COSMIC database – Catalogue of Somatic Mutation In Cancer by Wellcome Trust institute. COSMIC is designed to store and display somatic mutation information and related details and contains information relating to human cancers. Enjoy.

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