This week was undoubtfully very important in elucidation of genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. Three teams (two public and one private) reported their SNP studies inNature Genetics.
A two-stage genome-wide association study(GWAS), lead by well known Cancer Research UK researchers dr. Rosalind Eeles and Douglas F Easton, was performed on Australian and UK men and confirmed previously associated genetic variants (SNP’s) to prostate cancerat 8q24, occurring in three distinct blocs, which were best “tagged” by SNPsrs6983267, rs1016343 and rs4242384 (as you know, our genome is fragmented and genetic information passes through generations by distinct “blocks” of DNA, called haplotypes, and which can be “marked/tagged” by representative spots, called “tag SNP” - a kind of genetic folksonomy marks) and 17q (a strongest association with rs7501939 (at 17q12) andrs1859962(at 17q24) . Also several genetic variants on seven new loci on chromosomes 3 (rs2660753), 6 (rs9364554), 7 (rs6465657),10 (rs10993994), 11 (rs7931342), 19 (rs2735839) and X (rs5945619) were identified, which could explain ~6% of the genetic risk for prostate cancer (a highly significant SNP rs10993994 inMSMB (beta-microseminoprotein) geneproximal promoter constitutes ~2% of risk).
Constantly innovative deCODEbased on own resultsissued predisposition to prostate cancer testdeCODE PrCaof 8 SNPs for $500, which is the second commercially available genetic test for prostate cancer afterFocus5test offered byProactive Genomics. Two new SNP’s single-letter variations (rs721048 on chromosome 2 and rs5945572 on the X chromosomeare also included in deCODEmegenotyping service, and subscribers can check it out now.
These two SNPs confer relatively modest increases in risk – of approximately 20% and 15% per copy carried, respectively - but because they are also quite common they are each believed to contribute to about 5% of prostate cancer cases (via).
“The genetic testing market is highly competitive. No sooner does one company launch a first-of-its-kind test than another launches a similar one”,Hsien at EyeOnDNA notesabout this new test.
Other studyalso confirms previously reported loci on 8q24 and 17q chromosomes and identifies new SNPs on 7 (rs10486567),10(rs10993994; strongest association) and 11 (rs10896449) chromosomes (overal 7 SNPs). Individual population attributable risk (PAR) for prostate cancer for each of the seven independent loci ranged from 8% to 20%.
These findings help clarify genetic structure of prostate cancer, shed light on plausible candidates gene regions and have implications for risk counseling, which can be of clinical importance when cumulative risk is appreciated.
Interestingly, all studies were performed usingIlluminabead-chips platform.
Note:to associate any SNP with some condition a strict statistics must be applied: the results must meet or at least approach the “standart of genome-wide significance” with P value <10 minus 7 (0.00000001).