The myeloid growth factors granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been extensively studied in acute leukemias. Whether administered before, during, or after chemotherapy for acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemias, these agents reduce the duration of neutropenia and appear to be safe and well tolerated. Despite consistently demonstrating a shorter duration of neutropenia, multiple, prospective, randomized trials have documented only modest benefits in terms of reduction in the incidence and severity of infections, without substantial gains or impact in complete remission, overall survival, and disease-free survival rates. Growth factors have also been used to recruit quiescent leukemia cells into the S phase of the cell cycle to increase their susceptibility to chemotherapy with the goal to reduce relapse and resistance. Randomized trials to evaluate this priming strategy have consistently demonstrated an improvement in terms of disease-free or event free survival in the intermediate risk group of patients with acute myeloid leukemia, but no overall survival benefit.G-CSF is usually well tolerated and medullary bone pain is the most frequently reported side-effect. Other less common adverse effects include headaches, generalized musculoskeletal pain, and exacerbation of underlying inflammatory skin diseaseNeulasta is not used routinely in acute myeloid leukemia but is not harmful if used appropriately. A recent guideline says: "Similarly there is insufficient evidence to support routine use of G-colony stimulating factor (CSF) or granulocyte macrophage (GM)-CSF with induction chemotherapy in patients over 60 years of age, although this may be appropriate if it is desirable to reduce hospitalisation or antibiotic usage".
Milligan DW, Grimwade D, Cullis JO, Bond L, Swirsky D, Craddock C, Kell J, Homewood J, Campbell K, McGinley S, Wheatley K, Jackson G. Guidelines on the management of acute myeloid leukaemia in adults. London (UK): British Society of Haematology (BSH); 2005 May 23. 77 p. [202 references]