Giant cell tumors of the bone have 3 major cell types: 1) proliferating mononuclear cells thought to be the neoplastic element of the tumor, 2) nonproliferating mononuclear cells, and 3) multinucleated giant cell that are fused mononuclear cells. It is difficult to treat, A completely successful use of interferon alpha was first reported by Dickerman in 1999, althought here was one previous report of its use. A number of positive case reprots followed. There are also reports of successful use of interferon in other sarcoma types.
A 2002 series of 8 tumors concluded that: " Antiangiogenic therapy, in combination with curettage, is a promising strategy for treatment of aggressive giant cell tumors."
There are no prospective studies of interferon for giant cell tumors. Such studies are difficult to expect because of the rarity of the disease.