Ath. And now let us clarisonic brush heads return from this digression and complete thework of legislation. Laws have been already enacted by us concerningthe robbers of the Gods, and concerning traitors, and alsoconcerning those who corrupt the laws for the purpose of subvertingthe government. A man may very likely commit some of these crimes,either in a state of madness or when affected by disease, or under theinfluence of extreme old age, or in a fit of childish wantonness,himself no better than a child. And if this be made evident to thejudges elected to try the cause, on the appeal of the criminal orhis advocate, and he be judged to have been in this state when hecommitted the offence, he shall simply pay for the hurt which he mayhave done to another; but he shall be exempt from other penalties,unless he have slain some one, and have on his hands the stain ofblood. And in that case he shall go to another land and country, andthere dwell for a year; and if he return before the expiration ofthe time which the law appoints, or even set his foot at all on hisnative land, he shall be bound by the guardians of the law in thepublic prison for two years, and then go free.
Having begun to speak of homicide, let us endeavour to lay down lawsconcerning every different kind of homicides, and, first of all,concerning violent and involuntary homicides. If any one in anathletic contest, and at the public games, involuntarily kills afriend, and he dies either at the time or afterwards of the blowswhich he has received; or if the like misfortune happens to any one inwar, or military exercises, or mimic contests. of which themagistrates enjoin the practice, whether with or without arms, when hehas been purified according to the law brought from Delphi relating tothese matters, he shall be innocent. And so in the case of physicians:if their patient dies against their will, they shall be held guiltlessby the law. And if one slay another with his own hand, butunintentionally, whether he be unarmed or have some instrument or dartin his hand; or if he kill him by administering food or drink or bythe application of fire or cold, or by suffocating him, whether hedo the deed by his own hand, or by the agency of others, he shall bedeemed the agent, and shall suffer one of the followingpenalties:-If he kill the slave of another in the belief that he ishis own, he shall bear the master of the dead man harmless fromloss, or shall pay a penalty of twice the value of the dead man, whichthe judges shall assess; but purifications must be used greater andmore numerous than for those who committed homicide at the games;-whatthey are to be, the interpreters whom the God appoints shall beauthorized to declare. And if a man kills his own slave, when he hasbeen purified according to laws he shall be quit of the homicide.And if a man kills a freeman unintentionally, he shall undergo thesame purification as he did who killed the slave. But let him notforget also a tale of olden time, which is to this effect:-He whohas suffered a violent end, when newly dead, if he has had the soul ofa freeman in life, is angry with the author of his death; and beinghimself full of fear and panic by reason of his violent end, when hesees his murderer walking about in his own accustomed haunts, he isstricken with terror and becomes disordered, and this disorder of his,aided by the guilty recollection of is communicated by him withoverwhelming force to the murderer and his deeds. Wherefore also themurderer must go out of the way of his victim for the entire period ofa year, and not himself be found in any spot which was familiar to himthroughout the country. And if the dead man be a stranger, thehomicide shall be kept from the country of the stranger during alike period. If any one voluntarily obeys this law, the next of kin tothe deceased, seeing all that has happened, shall take pity on him,and make peace with him, and show him all gentleness. But if any oneis disobedient, either ventures to go to any of the temples andsacrifice unpurified, or will not continue in exile during theappointed time, the next of kin to the deceased shall proceedagainst him for murder; and if he be convicted, every part of hispunishment shall be doubled.