Said to obesity, the world health organization has defined as obesity disease, it is at present the cardio-cerebrovascular disease and cancer of the human health threat after the third big disease.
The incidence of obesity is modern people more and more, and obesity has become the world's important medical problems and serious social problem in the past twenty years, the incidence of obesity in developed countries and developing countries is obviously rising trend, our country is in the incidence of more than 20%. Obesity is an important cause cardiovascular disease risk factors, our country every 10 adults had 2 had cardiovascular disease, there are reports that the cardiovascular disease in total patients have as high as 230 million. And obesity can also lead to infertility. Therefore, control and prevent obesity is imperative.
A, the definition of obesity
Obesity is to point to some degree of obvious overweight and fat layer too thick, is the body fat, especially triglycerides accumulation and lead to too much of a kind of state.
Triglyceride is in the form of fat is stored quantity of heat source, animals and people, also have a fat gathered triglycerides, triglyceride is white fat part.
In order to contain global obesity problem worse gradually, the world health organization in 1997 offered to give priority to body mass index, waist circumference, supplemented by global definition of obesity range, and obesity treatment principle.
About body mass index, also is the BMI, I had been told many times, is calculated by dividing weight by the square of height.
The world health organization to put forward, with a body mass index of 25 and 30 as overweight and obesity enjoyed mild, more than 25 for obesity, including 25 ~ 29.9 for obesity, the 30 ~ 34.9 for level 1 obesity; 35 ~ 39.9 as secondary obesity, more than 40 for level 3 obesity.
This and our country have some different, our country to 24 ~ 28.9 for overweight, 29 ~ 33.9 is fat, more than 34 is severe obesity. A research report, our country's body mass index and relative to Europe and America is 30, in fact, the world health organization and the international obesity project team, in 1999 had at specific Asian area meeting, also once noticed this, asians, besides Polynesian island nation such as tall, especially strong outside, had temporarily recommendations to 23 enjoyed as Asia. But now Asian countries more controversy.
And I in clinical, more use is Taiwan's standards. In the whole series lecture, I also is to Taiwan's standards as standard, I think the standard for east Asian people more proper, body mass index less than 18.5 is thin, normal is 18.5 ~ 23.9, the overweight is 24 ~ 26.9, mild obesity is 27 ~ 29.9, moderate obesity is 30 ~ 34.9, severe obesity is greater than 35.
About waist circumference, male waist size of 102 cm enjoyed obesity, women enjoyed waistline is 88 cm, the greater than this value is obesity.
Choose body mass index as obesity the main index, the reason is that it's easy to measure, high reliability, and at the same time it and body fat percentage, all kinds of obesity related disease incidence, mortality are highly related.
And waist circumference is the most simple and feasible, credibility and effectiveness are higher abdomen grease substitution index.
Also have waist-hip ratio, triceps and leather fat thickness after set index, but because of their credibility and measuring difference, at present we are to body mass index and waist size as obesity definition standard.
Two, the obese reason, classification and good hair parts
Manner the obese reason
Cause fat for many reasons, the main about this article a few:
(1) the nutrition surplus;
Eat and drink too much, lead to absorb quantity of heat more than consumption and excess fat in the form of triglycerides and stored in the body that obesity. Especially high fat intake, sweets, beverage, main, convenient foods and low fiber food, etc.;
(2) the movement is insufficient;
The body lack of exercise, lack of consumption, even if is normal diet, still can absorb quantity of heat more than consumption quantity of heat, lead to redundant quantity of heat into fat, accumulate over a long period after more and more fat; Obesity once formed, due to the action inconvenience, more is not willing to exercise that weight and the on-going form vicious cycle;
(3) basal metabolic low;
Metabolism is the human body based in conscious and extreme quiet case, don't be nervous, muscle activity, food and environmental temperature influence factors such as the energy metabolization rate, also is that every hour of every square metre that body heat release.
High basal metabolism, consume more calories than; Basal metabolic low, consume less heat, basal metabolic rate difference, is some people's food intake is not more than normal, but the weight is still increasing, while others into eat a lot still not one of fat causes.
If the foundation low metabolism, the quantity of heat of intake also normal people just intake is equal to use up, and metabolic low have surpluses, have redundant quantity of heat into fat storage.
Basic metabolism and sports consumption, low nutritional imbalance, muscle tissue, less sex hormones, low level of thyroid function is low, don't eat breakfast and other relevant;
(4) psychological factors;
Abnormal psychological factors in obesity happened on development plays an important role, such as emotional trauma or parents divorced, and loved ones, from the abuse by by indulgence, etc, can cause a timid, fear, loneliness, and cause a loner, not activities, or to amuse themselves eating, and involuntarily eating or eat and drink too much, leading to excessive calories, turn to fat, he gradually became obese;
A headscarf genetic factors;
Obesity has certain familial genetic predisposition, parents fat, the daughter about a 53% chance of obesity; One of the parents obesity, the daughter fat probability dropped to 40%; Parents' no obesity, the daughter obesity are within 3%; This shows that even if a family history of obesity, fat and not fat, about half can be made by human factors decision, therefore, completely through reasonable diet, and fully exercise to his posture well-balanced;
Long-term very late only then eat before bedtime or eat people, the most easily fat. Because night metabolic sent, absorb good, so it was easy to get fat;
Ingestion [central nervous barrier;
The normal human existence central energy balance mediation function, weight control relatively stable, if the central nervous affect) feeding central, and send the body excessive intake, more than demand, it would cause obesity;
Stuff is not normal hormone secretion or certain drugs;
Such as adrenaline, thyroid element, insulin secretion, androgen, abnormal, can appear obesity; If the use of steroids drug, may cause of obesity drug.
This is cause the obese reason, article 8, because the cause fat for different reasons, therefore, clinical classification is also different.
2. Obese classification
Obesity first divided into simple obesity and secondary obesity two kinds big. General referred for obesity obesity, also called physical sexual obesity. Mainly because of excessive intake, sports too little accumulation and into, also some scholars called simple obesity.
And cause secondary the obese reason is commonly disease causes, common main is so several:
(1) the hypothalamus sex fat. Our brain eat eat less of the management of food central in the hypothalamus. If the hypothalamus because inflammation or other effects of the lesion, damage or appear function disorder that causes feeding central function abnormality, patients will appetite, and even gluttony, feeding the result of too much, is redundant energy stored as fat up. Due to the ingestion central near gonadotropins secretion of the central, a problem, often another will have brought trouble, so these obese patients often has the function is low, performance for amenorrhea, sexual function lowly, reproductive organs dysplasia or atrophy, clinically obese sexual reproduction called incompetent syndrome, also is the hypothalamus sex fat;
(2) the gonads function abnormal sexual obesity. Common are polycystic ovary syndrome, gonad function is low, appears amenorrhoea, and weight loss can often be restored after menstruation;
(3) hyperthyroidism adrenocortical function. Also is KeXingShi syndrome. Is often because adrenal cortical tumors be caused by, the patient's face fat to like the moon 15, the typical characteristics is "full moon face", "buffalo shoulder" and abdominal fat "October be pregnant";
(4) time of low thyroid function, for metabolic rate reduce adipose accumulation also can cause;
A headscarf diabetes and pancreas cancers are obese women also more see.
The tone of fat common sites
As the energy stored in the form of fat, it's there is a certain rule.
If we put the fat distribution storage more place called adipose storehouse of words, so the number one fat library is subcutaneous tissue, subcutaneous tissue contains a moderate amount of fat, some women more, so that it looks good and some, not fat place fat, thin place it is nothing more than skin and bones.
The second body fat library around in the gut, especially around the kidney and mesenteric, internal organs around the right amount of fat, can support, fixed and protect the internal organs. However, too much will limit and influence of viscera function. Like the heart such organs is more obvious. Fat people a activity is flustered and shortness of breath, and the heart is often around the extrusion adipose tissue has a certain relationship.
The third big body fat library is abdominal omental. Abdominal have to protect, obesity to after certain level, become obese, this is what omental fat storage of performance.
The human body fat reserves no degree, no matter how much fat can put it. This is the fat person can be a relentless fat down reasons. In the guinness book of world records, the world's most fat man is Mexico man, Manuel uribe up to 560 kg weight as the world first. (photos)
Different age and gender of fat distribution is not very consistent library. Infant nutrition surplus, mainly is the number of fat cells multiply, the whole body uniform distribution, so children obesity, fat is systemic even increase, after for adult obesity uniformity to lay the foundation. For women, and many times of women who have repeatedly by birth, and pelvic wide, fat in hip accumulation overmuch, cause hip model fat. The old activity less, sit, fat easily deposition in the abdominal skin and omental, form of abdominal obesity. From the gender on look, men in the neck and body fat distribution mainly cadres, less limbs; Women in abdomen and legs, hips, and give priority to. Also artificially divided into upper body fat and private parts of central obesity, obesity and limbs sex fat.
Three, the health risks of obesity
Obesity is never going to benefit from the, from the whole body speaking, first obesity affects the quality of life, affect the appearance and the sports ability, obesity is a variety of diseases because causative factor and risk factors, therefore, the fat man shorten life, had been obese children, in the growth process, the serious influence psychological normal growth, cause is withdrawn, unsocial and depression, abnormal psychology.
Obesity and a variety of closely related to the occurrence of cancer, the cancer colon cancer, breast cancer is mainly, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer and prostate cancer and gallbladder, pancreatic cancer etc, obese people are obvious high-risk. If weight down more than 40% of normal weight, the incidence of men will be raised by 33%, women will be increased by 55%.
Obese people more adipose tissue, oxygen consumption increase, heart burden, myocardial hypertrophy, as time passes can lead to high blood pressure. Fat deposits inside in the artery wall, the luminal stenosis, hardening, easy to have coronary heart disease, stroke, etc. Obese people very easily at the same time with coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, high blood lipid levels and diabetes, also more likely to happen cerebrovascular accident, this is some people often say "death quintet,".
Obesity also easier to suffer from breathing problems, asthma, sleep apnea syndrome also is serious snore, snoring, gallbladder disease, gout, waist and leg joint pain, osteoporosis, anesthesia risk disease, but these are not today we key points of discussion, we discuss the influence on the quality of the birth.
Four, obesity in the influence of pregnancy
In front of the lecture mentioned many times, pregnant to keep the right weight.
In aquaculture, everyone know such a fact, is raising pigs pigs started off from the gonads pigs will be neutered, otherwise the pig won't biaofei ma body fat. In turn, if want to cultivate breeding, will not choose biaofei ma fat body, because, is too fat to reproductive ability is not strong, it is engaged in the breeding of the person all know.
Chickens also is such, the hen is too fat, became the YouJi does not lay eggs.
I say so no pejorative meaning. Because for humans, with side is consistent with the animals, human beings to the fact of breeding, and fully prove, reproductive capacity, with obesity and organ in fat metabolism have close relations, and this is after large sample, long time of animal experiments prove the, is anyone can't deny that.
For humans, the first, and obesity can lead to after the pituitary gland, fat, the pituitary function drops, and even function is lost, sex hormone release reduce the gonads severely affected, sexual down;
Second, obesity can also lead to the whole body endocrine metabolic disorder, first is blood insulin levels, insulin resistance, appear high insulin hematic disease, high insulin hematic disease in women can stimulate ovarian and adrenal secrete excessive androgen, lead to follicle growth under control, affect oulation, appear menstrual disorder or even menopause, high-risk polycystic ovary syndrome, cause infertility; In men can stimulate testicular adrenal gland secretion and too much estrogen, lead to less refined weak sperm and sexual ability;
The results of the comprehensive function, for men, the obesity can cause testicular narrow, penis short or adult secondary sex characteristics and then narrowed, impotence, and lack of symptoms; International line magazine "epidemiology of previously published on the article points out that the male obesity than medical standards each 0.9 kg, its infertility correspondingly increasing probability of about 1%, are 30 kg, infertility probability will increase 27%;
Therefore, the male adult obesity, toward women direction, we look around obese people, the fat later, the sound becomes pointed, breast, penis is narrow, the function decline, check the semen quality, descend of more.
Obesity for women, in addition to increased androgen, fat cells of the existing in aromatase, can let the body androgen into estrogen, the more fat, causing the more estrogens generation, too much estrogen is normal women even 2 ~ 5 times, we know, hormone more all not line, much more a few times, so, male and female hormones increased, after negative feedback, thus affecting the hypothalamus-the pituitary gland-ovarian function of normal shaft, restrain the follicle development and ovulation, and stimulate endometrial proliferation, cause dysfunctional uterine bleeding and implantation barrier;
Too much androgen, fat women can check yourself, you can see your face, extremities appeared more heavy hair, the nipple the areola on the abdomen or midline or near the anus, also appeared degree differs of hair, even some people, even on the lips of all heavy fuzz. About six in the hormone, I have to tell you, estrogen foundation increased value, can lead to fertility down; Androgen foundation increased value, will cause infertility.
Such multi-pronged, menstrual disorders, not ovulation, amenorrhea, lining, abnormal implantation block, that is more infertility.
Also not going to pregnant women are overweight, if you have a menstrual disorders, menstrual thin hair, then you must be careful, if again with hair increased, so be about to look to the hospital, is suffering from a polycystic ovary syndrome.
Five, the pregnant woman obese adverse effects
Pregnant women weight gain is a natural phenomenon, but there is a normal growth of degrees.
Generally speaking, the whole pregnancy can increase 10 ~ 15 kg, twins can increase heavy 15 ~ 20 kilograms more appropriate.
Normal pregnant women pregnant head 3 months weight, monthly increase about 0.5 kilograms, but because of individual pregnancy effects heavier, pregnant women appear weight loss is normal phenomenon, is not very important, because for normal embryos for, at 12 to weekend, weight only 20 grams, equivalent to a third of eggs.
Pregnant three months later, pregnancy reaction disappear, increased appetite, weight increase gradually. From five months pregnant, up to the rapid weight gain, about a week increased by 0.35 ~ 0.45 kg, but should not be more than 1 catty, if not easy to cause high blood pressure and diabetes. Pregnancy seven to eight months, weight gain to slow down. Full-term pregnancy weight when no longer increases. The extra weight during pregnancy, the fetus is occupied 38%, the placenta is occupied 9%, amniotic fluid 11%, mother uterine, breast, ham and coxal adipose tissue of the place such as 20%, blood and body fluid accounted for 22%. The mother of the physiological changes during pregnancy and hormonal changes related, term before delivery, the hormone levels drop caused weight growth slow even slightly dropped this is to wage a signal of childbirth, weight loss after the birth of 8 to 9 kg, and distribution in pregnant women shoulder, upper arm, metal-studded, ham and coxal adipose tissue is retained as a baby's nutrition supply. Lactation weight decreases, generally in the stop after lactation weight will return to the level before childbirth.
This is normal pregnancy weight gain.
If from pregnant is obese women, very not easy after pregnancy, the relationship between male and female hormone due to higher, even if pregnant, conceived a fertilized egg quality often also adversely affected, prone to abortion; And obese women, the incidence of polycystic ovary is extremely high, if is after pregnancy polycystic hard, after pregnancy about 50% in the first three months of pregnancy happened abortion, these women's abortive rate is almost normal abortion rate of 4 ~ 5 times.
If not happened abortion, high androgen's house environment, female fetuses in the future will be more has the dedication to work, this is a good thing, but the incidence of polycystic oary adult will be particularly high, was born, adult after a is so easy to get fat, 2 it is so difficult to pregnancy, over the years, adult disease was the fetal research, also confirmed it;
If conceived child, high estrogen can lead to the boy's reproductive system dysplasia, androgen too high, the future child of the adolescent and adult will be particularly easy after aggressive;
For pregnancy because too much food, sugar too much, too much fat, cause of the pregnant women quickly obesity, easy to cause the pregnancy of hypertension, gestational diabetes, pregnancy and poisoning, venous tumor, phlebitis, anemia, nephritis, gravid grain, more than 8 jin's great son, and postpartum hemorrhage of cesarean delivery situation increase, the wound infection, perinatal infants dead increased mortality, abnormalities fetus increase, and so on.
We say the behavior of pregnancy can magnify the sex of the impact on the child's life, palace of the memory of the environment fat, can't change gene itself, but by changing the gene expression way to work. Huge fetal as adults, 60% ~ 80% are obese.
Here are two ideas need to clear, the one is, body weight fast, does not fully describe you don't lack of nutrition, in many cases, not reasonable diet can lead to nutrition surplus and nutritional deficiencies exist; Another is, don't on another extreme, in order to prevent obesity and try very hard to go on a diet, for pregnant women, mothers and infants, be on a diet of course is wrong, to change, how to just can be more scientific and reasonable diet.
Of course also not too thin, too thin influence fetal development, brain development, leading to poor constitution. Modern medicine found that birth weight and adults are overweight or obese in a "U" relationship, that is too high and low birth weight are easy to occur after adult obesity and diabetes, but, if too high or low weight, born in to breastfeeding, can effectively prevent future obesity and diabetes occurs.
Now adult obesity is so much, most are obese and milk fat with palace related, therefore, the expectant mother must give up the birth of a big chubby boy baby idea, this time, and in the developed countries bear a weight of moderate thorough popular feeling children, therefore, in Europe and America, Australia, New Zealand, more than 8 jin's great son, almost all of the birth mother is Chinese, in recent years, there have been more than 14 pounds is of huge baby born, you will realize that this is a tragedy, is hurt the child's behavior, let the baby's life, almost from the sensible start in inferior quality of life and live is not high in.
The developed countries of the birth weight worth learning, but raising diet, often have too much fat, easy to raise the fat man the day after tomorrow, and China is easy to birth innate fatty, each have shortcomings, new parents need to watch and using for reference.
Six, postpartum obesity
Postpartum obesity often is the continuation of pregnancy obesity, with pregnancy, mothers pursues the principle of for the children, tried to eat, but we want to know the secretion of milk, as long as the basic normal weight, reasonable nutrition can achieve standard, excessive dine, instead of the normal percentage change nutrition, such as a large increase in fat, cause new baby steatorrhea;
Still have a few during pregnancy, but also is normal, because the influence of the placenta hormones during pregnancy, appetite is affected, so the whole pregnancy doesn't overweight.
But after childbirth, along with the excretion of the placenta, some appetite suppression suddenly get lifted, plus excessive consumption, it would form a postpartum obesity;
And even if a lot of people and keep the same with about pregnancy diet, due to the existence of the placenta hormone, we know that these hormones mainly is the human gonadotropins, estrogen and progesterone, due to the existence of these hormones, pregnant women basal metabolic rates are higher, the foundation of pregnant women than body temperature before pregnancy on high 0.5 degrees above, pregnant women most are afraid of cold, this is the basic metabolism of high impact, but after the birth of the placenta peeling, placenta hormone to drop quickly disappear, maternal metabolism back to the pregnant low metabolism condition, at this time, many's energy intake will accumulate form excess oil, so as to cause fat.
After delivery, the puerperium plentiful 42 days later, if the weight gain 10% than pregnant as postpartum obesity assistant diagnosis standard, data shows, the increasing emphasis on pregnancy 10 ~ 15 kg of pregnant women accounted for about 40%, and weight gain greater than 15 kg accounts for about 60% of the nearly; Six weeks after childbirth, weight more than 10% of 93%, and that 93% of more than 20% of the weight of 58%.
Obesity after delivery, the influence on the quality of the birth is not big, but to the newborn adult obesity, still through the breastfeeding influence, and, postpartum obesity affects wound healing and recovery in puerperium, because fat easily lead to fatigue, therefore, affecting the normal infant tending.
Seven, infant obesity
Obesity is part of infant fetal obesity continuance, part of it is not science, not on raising reasonable, and most problems appeared in artificial feed. Breastfeeding the milk of composition to be as baby food intake and the increase of change, play a role of baby weight to prevent too high, but artificially bred, almost 90% of parents are afraid of children to eat less and therefore is constantly added amount, before you know it, child obesity.
This time is often well-balanced sex fat fat, the whole body fat library uniformity expansion, fat cells growing number. Fat cells increased, lead to secrete aromatase increased, the male hormone translates into more estrogen, so obese children serum increased levels of estrogen, appear feminine performance, such as breast enlargement, abdomen is adipose wait; Happened in the organs of the fat cells around increase, if happened in the pituitary, different degree of the pituitary gland adipose change, it will lead to different degrees of pituitary function drops, and then the influence of different level of future gonadal and reproductive function.
Since the childhood obesity, the boy's leydig cell is fatty infiltration, most will affect the stroma cells to develop the function of the male hormone, so the future child reproductive functions, sexual ability will be affected, small penis is almost inevitable result. For the next generation to round of difficult fertility problems lay the basis.
Since the childhood obesity, but also for the early alzheimer disease, such as disease of heart head blood-vessel lay the basis of psychology influence also is serious and far-reaching, from the group, withdrawn, low self-esteem, self-confidence low and so on, is in fact the parents for the baby a hit paved and hurt the most road, obesity, serious point, let most of children lose in the society's competitive position, from the mentality of the failure reducing weight, can't self-salvation mentality, serious frustration, created a failure psychology and personality, this is the fatal, is 100% of the parents don't want to see.
But, the consequences of not children, but the parents do hurt him.
Eight, energy metabolism and energy consumption
Before we know the triglycerides was stored quantity of heat source, and obesity is triglyceride accumulation and cause too much. So in the body, the absorption of nutrition, metabolism and consumption are how to do?
1. The body digestive organ
The body has a digestive system, mainly including oral, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine and other parts. And the big digestive gland, including salivary gland, liver and pancreas.
Need to explain, the digestive system and the Chinese medicine god im spleen, have no relation, the spleen is the largest immune body lymphoid organ, is filtering and stored blood, think the spleen and digest related, this is the ancients know of the low misinformation.
We eat into food, after teeth and stomach grinding pieces, and this is mechanical digestion, small intestine is the most important digestion and absorption of places.
The vitamin in food, water and inorganic salt can be absorbed directly use, protein, fat and sugar the three nutrients can be the body absorbed directly use, need to be in small intestine is broken down to simple structure of small molecules, such as, sweets into glucose, protein into amino acids, lipid into glycerol and fatty acids, and then these decomposition nutrients, and is mainly the small intestine absorbed by the jejunum, into the blood and lymph. In the digestive gland help digestion process called chemical digestion.
2. Sugar, protein, fat purposes
We eat in nutrients be absorbed later, there are four main aspects of USES:
(1) is used to synthetic body organs organization raw material;
(2) maintain basic metabolism and body constant temperature;
(3) for the body movement and provide the energy metabolism;
(4) into triglycerides, glycogen as energy stored up.
You must be thinking, that obesity not degree constraints, we eat in nutrients is all is absorbed?
Of course not, on the one hand, the degree of the body are nowhere to refine all nutrients in the food digestion and absorption ability of all 100%, on the other hand, the absorption of amount, will see the small intestine absorption function and the liver of metabolism.
3. Sugar, protein, fat is absorbed by the way
You know, the body fat with the three major only nutrients, and is also the sugar, protein, fat relevant.
Sugar is the main source of we eat staple food, such as rice starch and so on, and fruit and so on, main component is ShuangTang or polysaccharide, if food intake of excess sugar, absorption, its main way is as follows:
(1) the organization for oxidative decomposition provide energy, this is the main way blood sugar;
(2) in the liver, such as muscle tissue for glycogen synthesis;
(3) into other sugar and its derivatives, such as DNA, amino sugar etc;
(4) into the sugar substances, such as fat, the essential amino acids, it is very related to obesity;
Blood sugar concentration is too high a headscarf, too much sugar will discharge from urine, therefore, high blood sugar of urine is high, and it is for this reason.
Protein, most often exists in eggs, meat, dairy animals, such as protein and legumes, grains and other plant protein in, by human body after breaks down into amino acids can be absorbed, after absorption, its main way is:
(1) the protein synthesis itself, peptide or other biological active substance; This is the main application, about 75%;
(2) the oxidative decomposition release energy; Accounting for 10% of the total energy of the human body needs ~ 15%;
(3) into sugar or fat kind, into sugars used to offer can, into the lipid, that will lead to obesity;
(4) excess protein, mainly in the form of urea, from urine discharge; Some amino acids can also through the metabolic into purine, pyrimidine, porphyrin, certain hormones or the form of alkaloids from urine eduction.
Fat, mainly from high fat diet, such as cooking oil and animal fat, butter, nuts, etc.; Mainly is the triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol this three forms of fat;
The fat was small intestinal absorption, the main way also very similar:
(1) the synthetic itself, lipid membrane, lipoprotein constitute bile components;
(2) the main inside the body to triglycerides stored up, 50% in subcutaneous fat library; Also can use up adipose, also called variable fat, reduce weight is mainly minus this thing;
(3) in the sugar can not decompose triglyceride provide energy, so want to be moved more energy more after, to break down the existing fat;
(4) if fat intake excessive, by intestinal with food scraps discharge.
So, the big three nutrients in the body can be synthesis, decomposition and mutual transformation, if as energy material oxidative decomposition can, the result is carbon dioxide and water. But carbohydrate and fat can be in store inside body, protein can't in store inside body, in the energy, the big three nutrients is the first order of carbohydrate, fat and, second, third protein.
Need to mention is that dietary fiber is a kind of can't be human body sugar digestive enzymes, although cannot be absorbed, but it can absorb moisture, make waste become soft, the increase in size, so as to promote peristalsis, help to defecate and prevent constipation. Because it can't be absorbed, so can be used to reduce weight, if you eat in 90% of the dietary fiber, quantity of heat rarely, and satisfy the appetite, will surely increase fat consumption, common rich in dietary fiber food, such as loose t. mongolicum and dry red fruits and mulberry dry, dry jujubes, dry chili peppers, mushrooms, bamboo, fractionation, tremella, edible fungus, barley, oats, beans, this is all very good food reducing weight.
4. Three nutrients energy metabolism
We eat in nutrients, and in the body, digesting into the small molecules can absorb nutrients, and be absorbed into the bloodstream. In a cell, these nutrients through synthetic metabolism, the components of the synthesis we or update the aging organizations; Rice motherafter catabolism metabolic products into and release energy.
The three nutrients in the molecular structure of the materials, contain hydrocarbon keys, the chemical bonds containing the chemical energy, the oxidation process in hydrocarbon key fracture, generating CO2 and H2O, and release the reserves of energy. These energy 50% or more of the rapid into heat energy, used for maintenance of temperature and basic metabolism, the rest is less than 50% in the form of high-energy phosphate bond the keep in storage inside body, for the body to use. The main body with high-energy phosphate key chemicals is adenosine triphosphate, also is the ATP.
Among them, the sugar offer can metabolism, divided into anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic oxidation.
Anaerobic glycolysis is also in the body such as violent campaign under the condition of the relative lack of oxygen offer can form, 1 molecular oxygen in under the condition of glucose into 2 molecular lactic acid, at the same time, along with the energy production, net produce 2 ATP molecules;
The start of the aerobic oxidation and anaerobic glycolysis process similar, in the cytoplasm. In the condition of oxygen generation of pyruvic acid lactic acid. In aerobic conditions pyruvic acid into mitochondria generation acetyl coa A, then enter the Krebs cycle. The Krebs cycle thoroughly into water, carbon dioxide oxidation, and release and molecular ATP. Aerobic oxidation is the main way of sugar decomposition oxidation, is the main way to get energy body.
Protein in the body are first broken down into amino acids can absorb, absorb the decomposition of the liver after metabolism, the decomposition of amino acid metabolism is generally off first to amino acid and, to form acetyl coa A, then enter the Krebs cycle. The Krebs cycle thoroughly into water, carbon dioxide oxidation, and release energy.
Fat, which is also called the body triglycerides, and are first broken down into three molecular fatty acids and 1 molecular glycerin, and then be released into the blood, and for other organizations use oxidation.
So the glycerin oxidative decomposition, also is in the role of glycerin kinase, generating 3-phosphate glycerin, phosphoric acid (2 acetone, then along the anaerobic glycolysis can live in aerobic oxidation way can oxidation; If followed the sugar metabolism aerobic oxidation ways, 1 molecular glycerin thoroughly oxidation can net generation 17.5 ~ 19.5 molecular ATP.
And the decomposition of fatty acid metabolism, first generation activation reaction CoA et fat, and then into mitochondria, through dehydrogenation and add water, then the solution oxidation sulfur and dhea, generating acetyl CoA A, then enter the Krebs cycle thoroughly oxidation for fuel.
As you can see, acetyl coa A is A hub of energy metabolism of physical, sugar, fat, protein catabolism can yield succinyl coa; From acetyl coa into A completely oxidation of the Krebs cycle, the Krebs cycle is the release of energy of the most link, is the nutrients capacity metabolism and the hub of transformation.
In the body, the big three nutrients in certain conditions, may change into each other, I see the network or even postdoctoral out popular science, said in the body could not be sugar into fat, I think that's wrong, and we see the Krebs cycle to understand, sugar in the body, through the glucose to pyruvic acid, fatty acid and acetyl coa and A fat. This is a sugar into fat approach.
5. Gastric emptying and appetite
Food by stomach into the duodenum process known as gastric emptying, gastric emptying and stomach depends on the duodenum, between the pylorus the pressure on both sides of the poor, the movement of the stomach produces pressure in the stomach is the power of the gastric emptying, also is the original power. That is, after food in the stomach, you must be empty, food is more, the greater the emptying the power; The speed of the gastric emptying and food traits and chemical composition about, in the empty speed in order as, sweets > protein > fat; The thin, fluid food > thick and solid food.
When the food into the duodenum, food through the various sensors to bowel wall of stimulation, reflective cause stomach motion decreases, emptying slows down, the movement of the stomach and emptying the inhibition. When the food is in the duodenum discharged into the jejunum, duodenal inhibition on the stomach and gradually disappear, the movement of the stomach and strengthen gradually, and part of the stomach content is top of the duodenum. So the stomach is empty continuous.
Because the stomach is grinding and mechanical digestive organs, large pieces of food grinding time long, emptying speeds slower than the small particles; Sugar because there is help digest salivary glands, therefore, sugar emptying the fastest; Second, the secretion pepsin, protein kind of the emptying for second, adipose kind of most slow; The high permeability solution emptying slower than drainage, etc; Usually, for mixed food, the stomach completely empty need about 4 ~ 6 hours. After emptying, small bowel peristalsis bowel sounds produce sound, cause stomach is butterfly, this is should the consumption of the signal.
Therefore, in the time of have a meal, the same number of diet food process, drink half an hour before the extended porridge and dessert, eat order of carbohydrate, protein first class of fat again, so that the speed of the slowest empty stomach.
Human consumption of course and appetite relevant, appetite and blood sugar levels related. If the blood of sugar in low to some degree, it stimulates the lateral head issueing grave the feeding center, cause hungry feeling and eating desire; If blood sugar levels in the blood of the rising slowly, the hypothalamus inside the full centre are stimulated, and inhibit feeding centre of the activities.
Feeding central appeared ill caustic, don't want to eat, don't have any appetite; Full central damaged, appear to meet appetite, and gradually obesity.
So, why do you want to drink half an hour before the porridge, eat some dessert, most of be let blood sugar to rise, halt the appetite; Second is to let liquid food soon eduction stomach, behind the consumption of the solid food gastric emptying becomes slower.
Why take food slowly, is also the reason why, because of the change of blood glucose is slow, feeding central received signal is slow, delay, extend the meal time, can let the appetite is restrained, was quick to eat 2 catties of eating food, eat any more still have appetite, but if the meal time is extended, total intake may have less than 1 catty is full.
Why to want to tell everyone about the problem of so much energy, in fact is to let everybody know, energy is conservative, not consumption will not disappear without reason, to extra body fat consumption has existed, must rely on extra movement, increase the basal metabolic rates to achieve, without any shortcuts.