Removing Severely Autistic from the Autism Spectrum
Posted Feb 21 2010 7:42am
The DSM 5 promotes the stigmatization of low functioning persons with autism disorders by excluding any reference to cognitive or intellectual disabilities in its description of the new categories of autism spectrum disorders. The mainstream media has long ensured that such stigmatization prospers in the popular culture by focusing on stories of great feats by some persons with Aspergers and Autism while steadfastly ignoring the plight of the severely autistic persons living in institutional care. In a similar vein every protest by even a handful of persons with Aspergers and High Functioning Autism, of "negative" depictions of autism, depictions of the realities of life faced by the severely autistic, is promoted as enlightened self advocacy by a largely autism ignorant mainstream media.
The mainstream media continues its obsession with high functioning autism and Aspergers in discussing the autism changes in the DSM 5 with article after article about how the changes will affect those with Aspergers. Some of that attention to the potential impact on persons with Aspergers is certainly warranted but not to the point of refusing to consider the impact of the DSM 5 changes on those at the severely affected, low functioning, end of the autism spectrum, those with Autistic Disorder and Intellectual Disabilities.
The fact that between 75 and 80% of persons with autistic disorder, as it is currently called, the category comprised of the original pre-1994 DSM change "autistics", also have intellectual disabilities is hidden completely from sight in the DSM 5. One of the signposts of stigmatization is when it is not considered polite to mention some persons or topics in polite company and the DSM 5 has ensured that the stigmatization of persons with autistic disorder and intellectual disability will continue.
The DSM 5 pretends that ASD and ID are unrelated, that delay or inability in understanding language is not itself indicative of a cognitive or intellectual deficit, and by pretending that the 75-80% of persons with cognitive disorders AND assessed intellectual disabilities is just an amazing coincidence, one not needing discussion; one not needing mention in the diagnostic manuals used by psychiatrists, psychologists and general practitioners. It is only a matter of time until persons with Autism Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities are officially excluded from the Autism Spectrum of Disorders category of the DSM.
The mainstream media has responded to the proposed changes by obsessing over the impact on those with Aspergers and, with few exceptions, ignoring the impact of the changes on the lower functioning persons with autism, those with intellectual and cognitive deficits. The headline of one an AP article (which is one of the more balanced articles on the autism changes) highlights the media focus in reporting DSM 5 autism changes:
This humble blogger, and father of a 14 year old son with Autistic Disorder and profound developmental delays, was interviewed and quoted by Lindsey Tanner in the above noted AP article. I appreciate her effort to provide some balance to the discussion but even that article, as the headline indicates, is focused primarily on the impact on "Aspies" of the DSM 5 autism changes. Few other media articles showed that much balance. Not a single article focused on what impact the changes would have on those most severely affected by autism disorders.
Both the DSM 5 and the mainstream media have adopted a perverse triage system when it comes to discussing autism disorders. The highest priority is given to examining the impact of official diagnostic labels and criteria on those least impaired by autism disorders first and foremost and examine the impact on those most affected later ... if ever.
The DSM has, in the DSM IV and DSM 5, been changed to expand the definition of autism to include those with Aspergers, those at the high functioning end of the autism spectrum of disorders. Some at the high functioning end do not consider their condition to be a medical disorder even though they embrace medical terms like Autism and Aspergers. Meanwhile the original autistic persons of the DSM III are increasingly stigmatized, rendered invisible by failure to mention the most salient and disabling features of their disorders ... their intellectual disabilities and cognitive impairments. The stigmatization of intellectual disabled, low functioning autistic persons is clearly illustrated in the Lindsay Tanner/AP article;
Liane Holliday Willey, a Michigan author and self-described Aspie whose daughter also has Asperger's, fears Asperger's kids will be stigmatized by the autism label — or will go undiagnosed and get no services at all. Grouping Aspies with people "who have language delays, need more self-care and have lower IQs, how in the world are we going to rise to what we can do?" Willey said.
The expansion of autism in the DSM IV and DSM 5 to include more and more persons barely impacted by autism will result in more identifcation of autism with giftedness in the public mind and the severely affected will be even more completely removed from public discussions of autism. It is only a matter of time until those with autism and intellectual disability are officially removed from the autism spectrum completely. It will probably happen officially in the DSM 6 but it is already well under way.