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Biomarker-guided interventions of clinically relevant conditions associated with autism spectrum disorders and attention defici
Posted Apr 28 2010 9:41pm
(click the title link above to download the full .pdf)
Bradstreet JJ, Smith S, Baral M, Rossignol DA.
Altern Med Rev. 2010 Mar;15(1):15-32.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD) are common and complex neurodevelopmental conditions.
Diagnostic criteria for these conditions have traditionally relied
solely on behavioral criteria without consideration for potential
biomedical underpinnings. Newer evidence, however, reveals that ASDs are
associated with: oxidative stress; decreased methylation capacity;
limited production of glutathione; mitochondrial dysfunction; intestinal
dysbiosis; increased toxic metal burden; immune dysregulation,
characterized by a unique inflammatory bowel disease and immune
activation of neuroglial cells; and ongoing brain hypoperfusion. Many of
these same problems are common features in children with ADHD. These
medical conditions, whether co-morbidities or etiopathogenic, would be
expected to have synergistically negative effects on the development,
cognition, focus, and attention of affected children. It is likely these
biological abnormalities contribute significantly to the behavioral
symptoms intrinsic in these diagnoses. However, treatment for these
underlying medical disorders is clinically justified, even if no clear
immediate behavioral improvements are observed. This article reviews the
medical literature and discusses the authors clinical experience using
various biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress, methylation capacity
and transsulfuration, immune function, gastrointestinal problems, and
toxic metal burden. These biomarkers provide useful guides for
selection, efficacy, and sufficiency of biomedical interventions. The
use of these biomarkers is of great importance in young children with
ADHD or individuals of any age with ASD, because typically they cannot
adequately communicate regarding their symptoms.
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