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History of Education, Teacher Training, Teaching, Teachers

Posted Mar 20 2012 8:48am
Western history of teacher training, education history, teaching theories, education of teachers, modern history od education, began in early 18th century Germany: teaching seminaries educating teachers were the first formal teacher training in Western history of education and teaching.

(History of education had 2nd century-BC Greek Spartan free public education, Athenian Academy until age 18 and higher Academy and Lyceum; Roman private formal schooling in tiers; China's 1st century-BC administrator examinations; 1st century Jewish informal Cul' Tura general education; Islam's 9th century universities [madrasahs]; 16th century Aztec mandatory teen education; 18th century Russian nation-wide education, Poland's Education Ministry, Chez ‘teacher of nations' Comenius's ‘Didactica Magna' on universal education [compulsory, certified teachers, tests]; leading later Western history of education –17th century Scotland's free education, 18th's Norway's mandatory literacy and  New Zealand's standard education, 21st's Europe's Bologna process equalising educational qualifications.)

Teacher education and training, first teacher training college in French  history of education and history of teaching, Jean Babtiste de la Salle's 18th century Brothers of the Christian schools, had non-clerical male teachers teaching poor and middle class children. Based on Greek philosophers' philosophy of education and teaching, re-introduced by Islam, spirituality was not its only reason, basis of education. Teacher education and training had been clerical –this was Western history of education's first secular teacher training college.

This philosophy of education changed educational history's attitude to education. It reformed education, educational theory, learning, enabled further education reforms and educational theories of teaching in history of education. With education reforms in education history, educational theory of teacher education required of teachers an understanding of the human mind and the theory of education, knowledge of sciences and arts, principles and educational methods of teaching. This need in educational history for a teaching method, method of education, necessitated theories of education -in Western history of education educational theories on teacher education interested educators.

These educational philosophies and theories of education on teacher education became the norm in Western history of education, teacher training establishments first Normal Schools in the history of education and training of teachers.

Teacher education progressed educational history: in history of education and history of teaching the system of education required and enabled knowledge, in-service experience, certification for teachers, continuing professional development for teachers in teaching. This non-uniform system of teacher education and training enabled teachers, while teaching, at teacher seminars to refresh and increase their knowledge of theory of education and method of teaching -exchanging ideas among teachers.

Napoleon, in history of education and teacher training,  uniformed professional teaching. Adopting Germany's teacher seminars, in French history of education and in Western history of education and training of teachers, established the first uniform teacher education system.

Neither the USA's educational history nor British history of education did in educational philosophies, systems of education, include formal teacher education and training, although Elizabeth-I had introduced teachers' moral teaching fitness certification in teacher education .

In England's history of education and teaching, in early 19th century Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell founded the Lancastarian teaching method of teacher training: in a monitorial system of teacher education and training senior students (‘monitors') receiving teaching from tutors were teaching junior students, acting as teachers.

In Scotland's history of education and teaching, 17th century free education compulsory in late 19th, Germany's teacher education and training influenced David Stowe's founding the Glasgow Normal Seminary for teachers.

Progress in teaching and teacher training began with Horace Mann's Massachusetts Normal Schools in the USA's educational history, and in Britain's history of education by the churches' and voluntary organisations' teacher training colleges and teaching the colonials.

In philosophies of education arguments followed on teacher education in educational history: should persons of lower English social class attend teacher training colleges and give teaching to children of higher social class!? Might teachers' teaching not influence young French minds with liberal ideas?!

(Japan's educational philosophy [perhaps influencing the USA's educational philosophy, history of education and teaching] emphasised patriotic teacher education and teaching.)

In Europe's history of teacher education and training, Rosencrantz's 19th century 'Philosophy of Education' emphasised 'philosophical and psychological data'; this, resembling Islam's university faculties, developed into separate teaching disciplines.

In Sweden's history of education and teaching, Pestalozzi furthered the progress of systems of education, advocating formal teacher training colleges.

(Pestalozzi, except theologically, was self-educated, did not leave a written account of teaching and of teacher training colleges; his place in the history of education and teaching is deducible in outline from his various writings, loving sincere deeds, the example he set.)

Germany's Froebel, and Alexander Bain's 'Education as a Science', favoured education of teachers through teacher training colleges; teacher education adopted what philosophies of education in Western educational history and teaching had lacked -Herbart's pedagogical emphasis in teaching on five formal steps: preparation, presentation, comparison, generalisation, application.

Germany's teacher education and training became the basis of developments in the history of education and teacher training; Derwent Coleridge and James Kay Shuttleworth in Britain, Mann in the USA broadly agreed: teacher education and training should emphasise techniques of teaching -"not only the subjects of instructions, but also the method of teaching".

Jules Ferry laws' compulsory education established teacher education and training in late 19th century French history of education: teacher education and training, by law, should be through formal teacher training colleges.

English speaking countries' history of education and teaching, formal teacher education and training, began with the University of Edinburgh's creating a chair in education, with St. Andrews; in the USA's history of education, e.g., Henry Bernard, Nicholas Murray Butler, followed.
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In Western history of education, England's progress involved pedagogy and Herbart Sepencer's teaching techniques in teacher education and training, the USA's e.g., Francis W. Parker's, studying Germany's pedagogical teacher education developments.

In the USA's history of education and teaching the Darwinian hypothesis (as before later scientific evaluation) influenced John Dewey at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools; taking into account from other disciplines what were considered relevant in teaching to child development, the religiously affiliated Brown University founded an education department.

(The La Salle College in Philadelphia, had been teaching education.)

New York's Teachers College, founded 1888, was incorporated into the Columbia University, 1893, establishing its teacher training college, announcing: "The purpose of the Teacher Training College is to afford opportunity, both theoretical and practical, for the training of teachers, of both sexes, for kindergartens and elementary schools and secondary schools, of principals, supervisors, and superintendents of schools, and of specialists in various branches of school work, involving normal schools and colleges" -it became the basis, in Western history of education and teaching, of teacher education and training and Teacher Colleges.

(The USA's educational history experts' versions vary on it history of education.)

In most of British Commonwealth's history of education and system of teacher training, entry into teacher training came to require senior secondary education at High School level or British Grammar School education with national Matriculation or Ordinary and Advanced General Certificate of Education (GCE) examinations –or equivalent.

In Europe's history of education and teacher training, education with similar Gymnasium(/Abitur)  or General Lycè e Diploma, or equivalent education, became professional teacher education and training entry qualification.

(In British history of education, until early 20th century, holders of those qualifications, by selection examination, could become temporary teachers. Oxbridge graduates could register 'master' and be syndicated teachers. Other universities' graduates, to become teachers, attended teacher training colleges [if Bachelor of Education, second year teacher training of a teacher training college].)

In British Commonwealth's history of education greater importance was attached to professionalism in teacher education and training: academic qualifications did not suffice for teaching; teacher examinations required specific periods of specifically professional study in teaching. Professional teaching involved two years' professional study in teaching and additional in-house teacher training before professional teacher status. Professional teachers could, with another educational year at the teacher training college, specialise in a subject, e.g., geography or history (in farming colonies, e.g., Cyprus where Agriculture became a secondary school examination subject,  with one or two more educational years' through the Teacher Training College's Rural Agricultural School). Science graduates without professional teaching training and education qualified for permanent teaching after a year's classroom teaching experience approved by professionally qualified headmasters, as teachers of their subjects. Teachers were expected to attend teachers' seminars as continuing professional development.

While professional qualifications are regarded for professional reasons equivalent to doctorates in their counterparts and what qualify for teaching, teacher education and training (school age becoming lower and years less, to enable maturer teachers and teaching), for professional teaching knowledge and skills acquired at teacher training colleges, favoured bachelor degrees with teaching content emphasising skills over theory and, e.g., the USA's academic ‘first professional degree' –more for research than professional practice.

(British history of education desired teaching with Post-graduate Certificate in Education [PGCE] -for English state school teaching Qualified Teacher Status [QTS] skills test, and [also if Bachelor of Education] successfully completing an induction year [in Scotland two] in school teaching as Newly Qualified Teacher [NQT], with continuing professional development; alternatively a specific teaching degree or on-the-job teacher training. Teachers trained at Teacher Training Colleges in [former] colonies –and similarly trained teachers with GCSE [grade C] or equivalent in English and Mathematics [for primary school teaching, also Physics] enjoy Qualified Teacher Status.)

(Canada's provinces or schools certify teachers; Australia requires none for federally funded private schools; France's is college/bachelor and Teacher Institute [master's -2010].)

{In the USA's history of education, until 1960s, one year's teacher training college education was required for teacher certification. In 1984 an alternate teaching route was introduced: bachelor's with teaching preparation and within a specified number of years completing a teaching or content based master's. (Some universities award [with summer study] bachelor degrees in two years, some two bachelor degrees simultaneously [e.g., with two arts and two science majors both BA Philosophy and BS ChE Chemical Engineering]; the  doctoral JD is pre-requisite to master's LL.M which not all tenured professors need posses.) The ‘Master of Professional Studies' (MPS) First Professional Degree is academic, not professional. Many states require of teachers, for permanent teaching, examinations in pedagogy and a content area or general knowledge accredited by many private associations' varying standards; in early 21st century Marlboro-Carolina 20% of teachers had no certification.}

In educational history post general education having been academic for career advancement and scholarly activity or research, or professional for actual practice in the filed, the professional qualification is normally the terminating qualification; in professional teaching, advanced professional degrees enabling specialised teaching, e.g., at universities, are not regarded as part of professional teacher education and training for general education teaching; the USA's main master's area is for Ed.D or Ph.D. –research.)

In European history of education, teaching related educational leadership gained importance at the end of 20th century. Desiring the benefits of learnable leadership skills and inherent personal leadership qualities, teachers' educational leadership skills in teaching leadership are remunerated according to national teacher pay scales.

The USA's educational leadership teachers' pay is non-uniform; educational leadership skills standards vary. Graduate educational leadership programs are in, e.g., community issues and educational law. Private Teacher Advancement Programmes (TAP) subscribed by some schools encourage teachers in administrative or teaching development: a teacher prepares an individual growth plan (IGP) with an educational goal or teaching activity, or a cluster group of teachers identify a student learning need, becoming ‘mentor' or ‘master teacher'/‘teacher of teachers'.

As others', USA's teacher training colleges' comparable teaching qualifications enjoy international regard.

In their history of education, having less aspired to ‘practical' general education as in the USA and 21st century Britain, most British Commonwealth and European teaching institutions almost uniformly value widely academic general education as culture not acquirable in post general education (e.g., an opposition leader to a Prime Minister [both lawyers] "I as a Grammar School boy" [would not take ‘that' from him who was not]) and Britain's suggestion to equate practical skills certificates with general academic qualifications was criticised.

(Early 21st century British educational history saw [university or equivalent  mandatory student grants becoming loans, unemployment necessitating longer and more courses, foreigners scoring higher in English] no increase since late 20th in literacy.)

(In the USA's history of education, with 20% adult functional illiteracy, as the educationists' concerns grew, the educationalists considered Europe's baccalaureate system of education; with growing public interest in education, at the end of 20th century a state appointed three generals to improve the standards of teaching and education and at the beginning of 21st century a general was appointed to federally improve teaching and educational standards.)

In educational history interest in the teaching profession has been based on the status of teachers. Regard for teachers in late 20th century was highest in Russia where teachers enjoyed better employment terms than elsewhere.

(In Britain's history of education, 1980s' miss-projection of numbers of teachers needed necessitated engaging science graduates without teaching qualifications as teachers; but a status was enjoyed by teachers of regard as in Europe, and, about the end of 20th century, knighthood for long serving teachers was suggested –due to controversy over peerages it did not materialise. At the beginning of 21st century reducing undergraduate degrees to two years with vocational content was considered, with master's for teachers -also non-major professional qualifications being above undergraduate degrees in National Vocational Qualifications; but Teachers' status was regarded to have been equated for economical reasons to classroom assistants' socially criticised for taking classes without professional teacher education and training.])

In the USA's history of education, teaching has hailed a form of essentialism in education, with a culture of practicality and model citizenry, emphasising respect for authority (advocated also for 21st century British education); with no general minimum standard in teacher training and education, some states not recognising the teaching qualifications of some others, teachers and teaching appear officially to enjoy no higher regard then Bernard Shaw's remark (about writers) "Those who can, do; those who can not, teach".

(In the USA, e.g., some teachers paid only term time having to seek vacation work, teaching and teachers generally are regarded to have enjoyed less good terms and conditions than elsewhere in proportion to social regard and public resources.)

The growth of interest in culture and education in Western history of teaching has been seen in the European Union, e.g., in Cyprus with the popularisation of education in mid. 20th century -reportedly with highest percentage of university graduates by 21st.

In Western educational reforms spiritual values in education are protected by teaching religious studies in schools in American secularism (protection of religion from political influence) and by the religious affiliations of many universities; in European secularism (protecting against one's formal dominance of the other), often with a state religion enshrined in the constitution, this is ensured by, e.g., Britain's Education Acts' requirement in compulsory education of religious worship by pupils at least once a month and, while British universities are not formally religiously affiliated, the availability of  chapels and chaplains to students at universities.

While preferences in education (e.g., the pedagogy based Steiner-Waldorf education for creating free moral and integrated individuals -its teachers' and schools' say on defining the curricula by some disagreed with, or Montessori's pre-school and elementary school child's self directed activities with auto-didactic equipment -regarded by some as risking raising obedient automatons), and  emphasis (be it practical skills or Emerson's ‘thinking man'), have all had praise and criticism in the history of education and teaching and arguments continue on pragmatism and creation -v- evolution, generally Socrates's argument that the rightly trained mind turns toward virtue carries weight in most educational systems. Basically, in every history of education, an important aim of education and the societies' all time expectations have been on the lines of these verses (by the Cypriot teacher, the late Orhan Seyfi Ari):

" 'I was an ape' you say -or amphibian?
And now?! Are you not now.. 'man'!? "

The cultural values balance have been more reflected in the education and training of teachers in Western history of education and teaching and the status of teachers in Europe mostly in Spain, Italy and France where, without much disregard to spiritual values, school teachers' political and ideological affiliations have been the norm in professional teaching.
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