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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis is thelatest accepted revision,acceptedon23 April 2013.

Posted Apr 27 2013 2:46am
Burma From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThis is thelatest accepted revision,acceptedon23 April 2013.Please helpimprove itor discuss these issues on thetalk page.Pleaseimprove itbyverifyingthe claims made and addinginline citations.Statements consisting only of original research may be removed.Please do not remove this message until thedispute is resolved.(March 2013)This article'stoneor style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipediae Wikipedia'sguide to writing better articlesfor suggestions.(March 2013)Republic of the Union of Myanmarပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်Anthem:Kaba Ma KyeiSorry, your browser either has JavaScript disabled or does not have any supported player.You candownload the clipordownload a playerto play the clip in your browser.Location ofBurma(green)inASEAN(dark grey) — [Legend]CapitalNaypyidawa19°45′N96°6′E / 19.100Largest cityYangon(Rangoon)Official languagesBurmeseRecognised regionallanguagesJingphoKayahKarenChinMonRakhineShanOfficial scriptsBurmese scriptEthnicgroups68%Bamar9%Shan7%Karen4%Rakhine3%Chinese2%Indian2%Mon5% otherDemonymBurmese/ MyanmaGovernmentUnitarypresidentialconstitutionalrepublic-PresidentThein Sein-Vice PresidentsSai Mauk KhamNyan TunLegislatureAssembly of the Union-Upper houseHouse of Nationalities-Lower houseHouse of RepresentativesFormation-Pagan Dynasty23 December 849-Toungoo Dynasty16 October 1510-Konbaung Dynasty29 February 1752-Independence(fromUnited Kingdom)4 January 1948-Coup d'état2 March 1962-New constitution30 March 2011Area-Total676,578km2(40th)261,227sqmi-Water(%)3.06Population-2010estimate60, capita$1,393[2]GDP(nominal)2012estimate-Total$54.498[3]low·149thCurrencyKyat(K) (MMK)Time zoneMST(UTC+06:30)Drives on therightbCalling code+95Internet TLD.Some governments recogniseYangon (Rangoon)as the national capital.Without properrendering support, you may seequestion marks, boxes, or other symbolsinstead ofBurmese script.Burma(i/ˈbɜrmə/BUR-mə), also known asMyanmar(i/ˈmjɑːnˌmɑr/MYAHN-mar,[5]/ˈmaɪænmɑr/or/ˈmjænmɑr/),[6][7][8]is asovereign stateinSoutheast Asiabordered byChina,Thailand,India,LaosandBangladesh.One-third of Burma's total perimeter of 1,930 kilometres (1,200mi) forms an uninterrupted coastline along theBay of Bengaland theAndaman Sea.Its population of over 60million makes it the world's 24th most populous country[1]and, at 676,578km2(261,227 sqmi), it is the world's 40th largest country and the second largest in Southeast Asia.The country has been under military control sincea coup d'état in 1962.During this time, theUnited Nationsand several other organizations have reported consistent and systematichuman rightsviolations in the country[by whom?], includinggenocide, the use ofchild soldiers, systematicrape,child labour,slavery,human traffickingand a lack offreedom of speech.Since the military began relinquishing more of its control over the government, however– coupled with its release in 2011 of Burma's most prominenthuman rights activist,Aung San Suu Kyi– the country's foreign relationships have improved rapidly, especially with major powers such as theEuropean Union,Japan, and theUnited States.Trade and othersanctions, for example, imposed by the European Union and the United States, have now been eased.[9][10]Burma is a country rich inprecious stones,oil,natural gasand other mineral resources.7 billion and was estimated as growing at an annual rate of 5.2Child/forced/slave labour, systematic sexual violence and human trafficking3.6State Ownership/Corporatism and Economic liberalization post 20115Demographics5.3Wildlife8Health9Education10See also11References12Bibliography13External links[edit]EtymologyMain article:Names of BurmaIn 1989, the military governmentofficially changedthe English translations of many names dating back toBurma's colonial period, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar".[12]Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country.[13]The country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar"i/ˈmjɑːnˌmɑr/[5](Burmese:ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်,Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw,pronounced:[pjìdàʊɴzṵ θàɴməda̰ mjəmà nàɪɴŋàɴdɔ̀]).Some countries, however, have not recognized this name and use the short form "Union of Burma" instead.[14][15]In English, the country is popularly known by either of its short names "Burma" or "Myanmar".Both these names are derived from the name of the majority BurmeseBamarethnic group.Myanmaris considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, whileBurmais derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name.Depending on theregisterused, the pronunciation would beBama(pronounced:[bəmà]) orMyamah(pronounced:[mjəmà]).The nameBurmahas been in use in English since the time ofBritish colonial rule.Burmacontinues to be used in English by the governments of many countries, including theUnited Kingdom,Canadaand theUnited States.TheUnited NationsusesMyanmar, as do theAssociation of Southeast Asian Nations,Russia,[16]Germany,[17]Norway,[18]China,India,Australia[19]andJapan.[20] are variations of "Myanmar" when translated to local languages.On 19 November 2012 during the first visit by a sittingPresident of the United States,Barack Obamareferred to the nation as both Myanmar and Burma.[22][edit]HistoryMain article:History of BurmaBurma is home to some of the early civilizations of Southeast Asia including thePyuand theMon.[23]In the 9th century, theBurmansof theKingdom of Nanzhaoentered the upperIrrawaddyvalley and, following the establishment of thePagan Empirein the 1050s, theBurmese languageandcultureslowly became dominant in the country.During this period,TheravadaBuddhismgradually became the predominant religion of the country.The Pagan Empire fell due to theMongol invasions(1277–1301), and several warring states emerged.In the second half of the 16th century, the country was reunified by theTaungoo Dynastywhich for a brief period was the largest empire in thehistory of Southeast Asia.[24]The early 19th centuryKonbaung Dynastyruled over an area that included modern Burma as well asManipurandAssam.Since independence in 1948, the country has been in one of thelongest runningcivil warsamong the country'smyriad ethnic groupsthat remains unresolved.Themilitary juntawas officially dissolved in 2011 following ageneral election in 2010and a nominally civilian government installed, though the military retains enormous influence.[edit]PrehistoryMain articles:Prehistory of Burma,Pyu city-states, andMon city-statesNeolithic paintings found insidePadah-Lin Caves,radiocarbondated up to 13,000 years agoArchaeological evidence shows thatHomo erectuslived in the region now known as Burma as early as 750,000 years ago andHomo sapiensabout 11,000 BC, in aStone Ageculture called theAnyathian, when plants and animals were first domesticated and polished stone tools appeared in Burma.[25]TheBronze Agearrived circa 1500 BC when people in the region were turning copper into bronze, growing rice and domesticating poultry and pigs; they were among the first people in the world to do so.TheIron Agearrived around 500 BC when iron-working settlements had emerged in an area south of present-dayMandalay.[26]Evidence also shows rice-growing settlements of large villages and small towns that traded with their surroundings as far as China between 500 BC and 200 AD.[27]Around the 2nd century BC the first-knowncity-statesemerged in central Burma.The city-states were founded as part of the southward migration by theTibeto-Burman-speakingPyu, the earliest inhabitants of Burma of whom records are extant, from present-dayYunnan.[28][29]The Pyu culture was heavily influenced by trade withIndia, importingBuddhismas well as other cultural, architectural and political concepts, which would have an enduring influence on later Burmese culture and political organization.[30]By the 9th century AD several city-states had sprouted across the land: the Pyu states in the central dry zone, Mon states along the southern coastline and Arakanese states along the western littoral.The balance was upset when the Pyu states came under repeated attacks from theKingdom of Nanzhaobetween the 750s and the 830s.In the mid-to-late 9th century theMranma(Burmans/Bamar) of Nanzhao founded a small settlement atPagan(Bagan).It was one of several competing city-states until the late 10th century when it grew in authority and grandeur.[31][edit]Imperial BurmaMain articles:Pagan Kingdom,Toungoo Dynasty, andKonbaung DynastySee also:Ava Kingdom,Hanthawaddy Kingdom,Mrauk U Kingdom,andShan statesPagodas and temples in present-dayPagan(Bagan), the capital of thePagan KingdomPagan gradually grew to absorb its surrounding states until the 1050s–1060s whenAnawrahtafounded thePagan Empire, the first ever unification of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery.In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Pagan Empire and theKhmer Empirewere two main powers inmainland Southeast Asia.[32]TheBurmese languageandculturegradually became dominant in the upper Irrawaddy valley, eclipsing thePyu,MonandPalinorms by the late 12th century.Theravada Buddhismslowly began to spread to the village level althoughTantric,Mahayana,Brahmanic, andanimistpractices remained heavily entrenched.Pagan's rulers and wealthy built over 10,000 Buddhist temples in the Pagan capital zone alone.RepeatedMongol invasions(1277–1301) toppled the four-century-old kingdom in 1287.[33]Temples at Mrauk UPagan's collapse was followed by 250 years of political fragmentation that lasted well into the 16th century.Like the Burmans four centuries earlier,Shanmigrants who arrived with the Mongol invasions stayed behind.Several competingShan statescame to dominate the entire northwestern to eastern arc surrounding the Irrawaddy valley.The valley too was beset with petty states until the late 14th century when two sizable powers,Ava KingdomandHanthawaddy Kingdom, emerged.In the west, a politically fragmented Arakan was under competing influences of its stronger neighbors until theKingdom of Mrauk Uunified the Arakan coastline for the first time in 1437.Early on, Ava foughtwars of unification(1385–1424) but could never quite reassemble the lost empire.Having held off Ava, Hanthawaddy entered its golden age, and Arakan went on to become a power in its own right for the next 350 years.In contrast, constant warfare left Ava greatly weakened, and it slowly disintegrated from 1481 onward.In 1527, theConfederation of Shan Statesconquered Ava itself, and ruled Upper Burma until 1555.Like the Pagan Empire, Ava, Hanthawaddy and the Shan states were all multi-ethnic polities.Burmese literature"grew more confident, popular, and stylistically diverse", and the second generation of Burmese law codes as well as the earliest pan-Burma chronicles emerged.[34]Hanthawaddy monarchs introduced religious reforms that later spread to the rest of the country.[35]Many splendid temples of Mrauk U were built during this period.Bayinnaung's Empire in 1580Political unification returned in the mid-16th century, due to the efforts of one tinyToungoo(Taungoo), a former vassal state of Ava.Toungoo's young, ambitious kingTabinshwehtidefeatedthe more powerful Hanthawaddy in 1541.His successorBayinnaungwent on to conquer a vast swath ofmainland Southeast Asiaincluding theShan states,Lan Na,Manipur, theChinese Shan states,Siam,Lan Xangand southern Arakan.However, the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia unravelled soon after Bayinnaung's death in 1581, completely collapsing by 1599.Siam seized Tenasserim and Lan Na, andPortuguesemercenaries establishedPortuguese ruleatSyriam(Thanlyin).The dynasty regrouped and defeated the Portuguese in 1613 and Siam in 1614.It restored a smaller, more manageable kingdom, encompassing Lower Burma, Upper Burma, Shan states, Lan Na and upper Tenasserim.The Restored Toungoo kings created a legal and political framework whose basic features would continue well into the 19th century.The crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley, and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of Shan chiefs.Its trade and secular administrative reforms built a prosperous economy for more than 80 years.From the 1720s onward, the kingdom was beset with repeatedManipuriraids into Upper Burma, and a nagging rebellion in Lan Na.In 1740, the Mon of Lower Burma founded theRestored Hanthawaddy Kingdom.Hanthawaddy forces sacked Ava in 1752, ending the 266-year-old Toungoo Dynasty.A British 1825 lithograph ofShwedagon Pagodashows British occupation during theFirst Anglo-Burmese War.After the fall of Ava, one resistance group,Alaungpaya'sKonbaung DynastydefeatedRestored Hanthawaddy, and by 1759, had reunited all of Burma (and Manipur), and driven out the French and the British who had provided arms to Hanthawaddy.By 1770, Alaungpaya's heirs had subdued much ofLaos(1765),defeated Siam(1767), anddefeated four invasionsbyChina(1765–1769).[36]With Burma preoccupied by the Chinese threat, Siam recovered its territories by 1770, and went on to capture Lan Na by 1776.Burma and Siam went to war until 1855, but all resulted in a stalemate, exchanging Tenasserim (to Burma) and Lan Na (to Siam).Faced with a powerful China and a resurgent Siam in the east, KingBodawpayaturned west, acquiring Arakan (1785), Manipur (1814) and Assam (1817).It was the second largest empire in Burmese history but also one with a long ill-defined border withBritish India.Burma lost Arakan, Manipur, Assam and Tenasserim to the British in theFirst Anglo-Burmese War(1824–1826).In 1852, the British easily seizedLower Burmain theSecond Anglo-Burmese War.KingMindontried to modernize the kingdom, and in 1875 narrowly avoided annexation by ceding theKarenni States.The British, alarmed by the consolidation ofFrench Indo-China, annexed the remainder of the country in theThird Anglo-Burmese Warin 1885.Konbaung kings extended Restored Toungoo's administrative reforms, and achieved unprecedented levels of internal control and external expansion.For the first time in history, the Burmese language and culture came to predominate the entire Irrawaddy valley.The evolution and growth of Burmese literature and theater continued, aided by an extremely high adult male literacy rate for the era (half of all males and 5% of females).[38]Nonetheless, the extent and pace of reforms were uneven and ultimately proved insufficient to stem the advance of British colonialism.[edit]British BurmaMain articles:British rule in BurmaandBurma CampaignThe landing of British forces in Mandalay after the last of theAnglo-Burmese Wars, which resulted in the abdication of the last Burmese monarch, KingThibaw Min.The country was colonized by Britain following threeAnglo-Burmese Wars(1824–1885).British rule brought social, economic, cultural and administrative changes.With the fall of Mandalay, all of Burma came under British rule, beingannexedon 1 January 1886.Throughout the colonial era, many Indians arrived as soldiers, civil servants, construction workers and traders and, along with theAnglo-Burmesecommunity, dominated commercial and civil life in Burma.Rangoon became the capital of British Burma and an important port between Calcutta and Singapore.Burmese resentment was strong and was vented in violent riots that paralysed Yangon (Rangoon) on occasion all the way until the 1930s.[39]Some of the discontent was caused by a disrespect forBurmese cultureand traditions such as the British refusal to remove shoes when they entered pagodas.Buddhist monks became the vanguards of the independence movement.U Wisara, an activist monk, died in prison after a 166-day hunger strike to protest a rule that forbade him from wearing his Buddhist robes while imprisoned.[40]On 1 April 1937, Burma became a separately administered colony of Great Britain andBa Mawthe first Prime Minister and Premier of Burma.Ba Maw was an outspoken advocate for Burmese self-rule and he opposed the participation of Great Britain, and by extension Burma, in World War II.He resigned from the Legislative Assembly and was arrested for sedition.In 1940, before Japan formally entered the Second World War,Aung Sanformed theBurma Independence Armyin Japan.A major battleground, Burma was devastated duringWorld War II.By March 1942, within months after they entered the war,Japanesetroops had advanced on Rangoon and the British administration had collapsed.A Burmese Executive Administration headed by Ba Maw was established by the Japanese in August 1942.Wingate's BritishChinditswere formed intolong-range penetrationgroups trained to operate deep behind Japanese lines.[41]A similar American unit,Merrill's Marauders, followed the Chindits into the Burmese jungle in 1943.[42]Beginning in late 1944, allied troops launched a series of offensives that led to the end of Japanese rule in July 1945.However, the battles were intense with much of Burma laid waste by the fighting.[43]Although many Burmese fought initially for the Japanese, some Burmese, mostly from the ethnic minorities, also served in the British Burma Army.[44]TheBurma National Armyand the Arakan National Army fought with the Japanese from 1942 to 1944, but switched allegiance to the Allied side in 1945.Following World War II, Aung San negotiated thePanglong Agreementwith ethnic leaders that guaranteed the independence of Burma as a unified state.In 1947, Aung San became Deputy Chairman of the Executive Council of Burma, a transitional government.But in July 1947, political rivals[45]assassinated Aung Sanand several cabinet members.[46][edit]IndependenceBritish governorHubert Elvin Ranceand Sao Shwe Thaik at the flag raising ceremony on 4 January 1948 (Independence Day of Burma).On 4 January 1948, the nation became an independent republic, named theUnion of Burma, withSao Shwe Thaikas its first President andU Nuas its first Prime Minister.Unlike most other former British colonies and overseas territories, it did not become a member of theCommonwealth.Abicameralparliament was formed, consisting of aChamber of Deputiesand aChamber of Nationalities,[47]andmulti-partyelections were held in1951–1952,1956and1960.The geographical area Burma encompasses today can be traced to thePanglong Agreement, which combined Burma Proper, which consisted ofLower BurmaandUpper Burma, and theFrontier Areas, which had been administered separately by the British.[48]In 1961,U Thant, then the Union of Burma's Permanent Representative to the United Nations and former Secretary to the cartier we9003z3 watch women Prime Minister, was electedSecretary-General of the United Nations, a position he held for ten years.[49]Among the Burmese to work at the UN when he was Secretary-General was a youngAung San Suu Kyi, who went on to become winner of the 1991Nobel Peace Prize.[edit]Military ruleOn 2 March 1962, the military led by GeneralNe Wintook control of Burma through a coup d'étatand the government has been under direct or indirect control by the military since then.Between 1962 and 1974, Burma was ruled by a revolutionary council headed by the general, and almost all aspects of society (business, media, production) werenationalizedor brought under government control under theBurmese Way to Socialism[50]which combinedSoviet-style nationalisation andcentral planningwith the governmental implementation ofsuperstitiousbeliefs.[citation needed]A newconstitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burmawas adopted in 1974.Until 1988, the country was ruled as aone-party system, with the General and other military officers resigning and ruling through theBurma Socialist Programme Party(BSPP).[51]During this period, Burma became one of the world's most impoverished countries.[52]There were sporadic protests against military rule during the Ne Win years and these were almost always violently suppressed.On 7 July 1962, the government broke up demonstrations atRangoon University, killing 15 students.[50]In 1974, the military violently suppressed anti-government protests at the funeral of U Thant.Student protests in 1975, 1976 and 1977 were quickly suppressed by overwhelming force.[51]Protesters gathering in central Rangoon, 1988In 1988, unrest over economic mismanagement and political oppression by the government led to widespread pro-democracy demonstrations throughout the country known as the8888 Uprising.Security forces killed thousands of demonstrators, and GeneralSaw Maungstaged a coup d'état and formed theState Law and Order Restoration Council(SLORC).The military government finalised plans for People's Assembly elections on 31 May 1989.[53]SLORC changed the country's official English name from the "Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma" to the "Union of Myanmar" in 1989 May 1990, the government heldfree electionsfor the first time in almost 30 years and theNational League for Democracy(NLD), the party ofAung San Suu Kyi,won 392 out of a total 489 seats(i.However, the military junta refused to cede power[54]and continued to rule the nation as SLORC until 1997, and then as theState Peace and Development Council(SPDC) until its dissolution in March 2011.On 23 June 1997, Burma was admitted into theAssociation of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN).On 27 March 2006, the military junta, which had moved the national capital fromYangonto a site nearPyinmanain November 2005, officially named the new capitalNaypyidaw, meaning "city of the kings".[55]Protesters inYangonduring the2007 Saffron Revolutionwith a banner that readsnon-violence: national movementinBurmese.Cyclone Nargis, 2–3 May 2008,devastated southern BurmaIn August 2007, an increase in the price ofdieselandpetrolled toa series of anti-government proteststhat were dealt with harshly by the government.[56]The protests then became a campaign ofcivil resistance(also called theSaffron Revolution.[57][58])[59]led by Buddhist monks,[60]hundreds of whom defied the house arrest of democracy advocate Aung San Suu Kyi to pay their respects at the gate of her house.The government finally cracked down on them on 26 September 2007.The crackdown was harsh, with reports of barricades at the Shwedagon Pagoda and monks killed.However, there were also rumours of disagreement within the Burmese armed forces, but none was confirmed.The military crackdown against unarmedSaffron Revolutionprotesters was widely condemned as part of theInternational reaction to the 2007 Burmese anti-government protestsand led to an increase ineconomic sanctionsagainst the Burmese Government May 2008,Cyclone Nargiscaused extensive damage in the densely populated, rice-farming delta of theIrrawaddy Division.[61]It was the worstnatural disasterin Burmese history with reports of an estimated 200,000 people dead or missing, and damage totaled to 10billion dollars (USD), and as many as 1 million left homeless.[62]In the critical days following this disaster, Burma's isolationist government hindered recovery efforts by delaying the entry of United Nations planes delivering medicine, food, and other supplies.[63]In early August 2009, a conflict known as theKokang incidentbroke out inShan Statein northern Burma.For several weeks, junta troops fought against ethnic minorities including theHan Chinese,[64]Va, andKachin.[65][66]From 8–12 August, the first days of the conflict, as many as 10,000 Burmese civilians fled toYunnanprovince in neighbouring China.[65][66][67][edit]Reforms and transition towards democracyThe goal of theBurmese constitutional referendum of 2008, held on 10 May 2008, is the creation of a"discipline-flourishing democracy".As part of the referendum process, the name of the country was changed from the "Union of Myanmar" to the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar"[citation needed]and generalelectionswere held under the new constitution in 2010.Observer accounts of the 2010 election day describe the event as mostly peaceful; however, allegations were raised in regard to polling station irregularities, and the United Nations (UN) and a number ofWesterncountries condemned the elections as fraudulent.[68]One report documented 77 percent as the official turnout rate of the election.[69]The military-backedUnion Solidarity and Development Partylater declared victory, stating that it had been favoured by 80 percent of the votes; however, the claim was disputed by numerous pro-democracy opposition groups with an assertion that the military regime engaged in rampant fraud to achieve such a result.Since the 2010 election, the government has embarked on a series of reforms to direct the country towardsliberal democracy, amixed economyand reconciliation; although, the questioning of the motives that underpin such reforms has not ceased.The series of reforms includes the release of pro-democracy leaderAung San Suu Kyifrom house arrest, establishment of the National Human Rights Commission, granting of general amnesties for more than 200 political prisoners, new labour laws that permit labour unions and strikes, relaxation of press censorship, and the regulation of currency practices.[71]The impact of the post-election reforms has been observed in numerous areas, such as ASEAN's approval of Burma's bid for the position of ASEAN chair in 2014; the visit by United States Secretary of StateHillary Clintonin December 2011 for the encouragement of further progress—it was the first visit by a Secretary of State in more than fifty years[72](Clinton met with Burmese presidentThein Sein, as well as opposition leaderDaw Aung San Suu Kyi);[73]and the participation of Aung San Suu Kyi'sNational League for Democracy (NLD)party in the 2012 by-elections, facilitated by the government's abolition of the laws that previously barred the NLD.[74]As of September 2012, more than 300[75]political prisoners remain imprisoned, while conflict between the Burmese Army and local insurgent groups continues.The by-elections occurred on 1 April 2012 and the NLD won 43 of the 45 available seats; previously an illegal organization, the NLD had never won a Burmese election up until this time.The 2012 by-elections was also the first time that international representatives were allowed to monitor the voting process in Burma.[76]Following the announcement of the by-elections, the Freedom House organization raised concerns about "reports of fraud and harassment in the lead up to elections, including the March 23 deportation of Somsri Hananuntasuk, executive director of the Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL), a regional network of civil society organizations promoting democratization."[77][edit]Civil warMain articles:Internal conflict in BurmaandKachin ConflictCivil wars have been a constant feature of Burma's socio-political landscape since the attainment of independence in 1948.These wars are predominantly struggles for ethnic and sub-national autonomy, with the areas surrounding the ethnicallyBurmancentral districts of the country serving as the primary geographical setting of conflict.Foreign journalists and visitors require a special travel permit to visit the areas in which Burma's civil wars continue.[78]In October 2012 the number of ongoing conflicts in Burma included theKachin conflict,[79]between theKachin Independence Armyand the government;[80][81]a civil war between theRohingyaMuslims, and the government and non-government groups inArakan State;[82]and a conflict between theShan,[83][84]LahuandKaren[85][86]minority groups, and the government in the eastern half of the country.A widely publicised Burmese conflict was the2012 Rakhine State riots, a series of conflicts that primarily involved the ethnicRakhineBuddhist people and theRohingyaMuslim people in the northernRakhine State—an estimated 90,000 people were displaced as a result of the riots.[87]The Burmese government previously identified the Rohingya as a group of illegal migrants; however, the ethnic group has lived in Burma for numerous centuries.[88]In 2007 the German professorBassam Tibisuggested that the Rohingya conflict may be driven by anIslamistpolitical agenda to impose religious laws,[89]while non-religious causes have also been raised, such as a lingering resentment over the violence that occurred during theJapanese occupation of Burmain World War II—during this time period the British allied themselves with the Rohingya[90]and fought against thepuppet government of Burma(comprised mostly of Bamar Japanese) that helped to establish theTatmadawmilitary organization that remains in power as of March 2013.A UN envoy reported in March 2013 that unrest had re-emerged between Burma's Buddhist and Muslim communities, with violence spreading to towns that are located closer to Yangon.[91][edit]Government and politicsMain article:Politics of BurmaThe constitution of Burma, its third since independence, was drafted by its military rulers and published in September 2008.The country is governed as apresidential republicwith a bicameral legislature, with a portion of legislatures appointed by the military and others elected in general elections.The current head of state, inaugurated asPresidenton 30 March 2011, isThein Sein.The legislature, called thePyidaungsu Hluttaw, is bicameral and made up of two houses: The 224-seat upper houseAmyotha Hluttaw(House of Nationalities) and the 440-seat lower housePyithu Hluttaw(House of Representatives).The upper house consists of 224 member of which 168 are directly elected and 56 are appointed by the Burmese Armed Forces while the lower house consists of 440 members of which 330 are directly elected and 110 are appointed by the armed forces.The major political parties are theNational League for Democracy,National Democratic Forceand the two backed by the military: theNational Unity Party, and theUnion Solidarity and Development Party.Burma's army-drafted constitution was approved in areferendumin May 2008.4% of the 22 million voters with an official turnout of 99%, are considered suspect by many international observers and by the National league of democracy with reports of widespread fraud,ballot stuffing, and voter intimidation.[92]Theelections of 2010resulted in a victory for the military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party and various foreign observers questioned the fairness of the elections.[93][94][95]One criticism of the election was that only government sanctioned political parties were allowed to contest in it and the popular National League for Democracy was declared illegal and is still barred from political activities.[96]However, immediately following the elections, the government ended the house arrest of the democracy advocate and leader of the National League for Democracy,Aung San Suu Kyi.[97]and her ability to move freely around the country is considered an important test of the military's movement toward more openness.[96]After unexpectedreforms in 2011, NLD senior leaders have decided to register as a political party and to field candidates in future by-elections.[98]Burma rates as a highly corrupt nation on theCorruption Perceptions Indexwith a rank of 180th out of 183 countries worldwide and a rating of 1.5 out of 10 (10 being least corrupt and 0 being highly corrupt) as of 2011.[99][edit]Foreign relationsMain article:Foreign relations of BurmaThough the country's foreign relations, particularly with Western nations, have been strained, relations have thawed since the reforms following the 2010 elections.After years of diplomatic isolation and economic and military sanctions,[100]the United States relaxed curbs on foreign aid to Burma in November 2011[101]and announced the resumption of diplomatic relations on 13 January 2012[102]The European Union has placed sanctions on Burma, including an arms embargo, cessation oftrade preferences, and suspension of all aid with the exception ofhumanitarian aid.and European government sanctions against the former military government, coupled with boycotts and other direct pressure on corporations by supporters of the democracy movement, have resulted in the withdrawal from the country of most U.[104]On 13 April 2012 British Prime MinisterDavid Cameroncalled for the economic sanctions on Burma to be suspended in the wake of the pro-democracy party gaining 43 seats out of a possible 45 in the 2012 by-elections with the party leader,Aung San Suu Kyibecoming a member of the Burmese parliament.[105]Despite Western isolation, Asian corporations have generally remained willing to continue investing in the country and to initiate new investments, particularly innatural resourceextraction.The country has close relations with neighbouring India and China with several Indian and Chinese companies operating in the country.Under India'sLook East policy, fields of cooperation between India and Burma includeremote sensing,[106]oil and gas exploration,[107]information technology,[108]hydro power[109]and construction of ports and buildings.[110]In 2008, India suspended military aid to Burma over the issue of human rights abuses by the ruling junta, although it has preserved extensive commercial ties which provide the regime with much needed revenue.[111]The thaw in relations began on 28 November 2011, whenBelarusianPrime MinisterMikhail Myasnikovichand his wife Ludmila arrived in the capital, Naypyidaw, the same day as the country received a visit by US Secretary of StateHillary Clinton, who also met with pro-democracy opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi.[112]International relations progress indicators continued in September 2012 when Aung San Suu Kyi visited to the US[113]followed by Burma's reformist president visit to theUnited Nations.[114][edit]Visits by Western Heads of StateThein Sein meets U.PresidentBarack ObamainYangon, 19 November 2012In mid October, 2012.former UK Prime MinisterTony Blair"led a delegation" to shake hands withPresidentThein Sein, and met withlower housespeakerShwe Mann.A British embassy spokesperson said he was there on behalf ofThe Office of Tony Blair, an umbrella group of foundations – inter-faith, sports, etc.– and governance initiatives that he started up after leaving office.The spokesperson said only that he had "productive discussions about the reform process".[115]On 3 November 2012 European Commission PresidentJosé Manuel Barrosomet with Myanmar's President Thein Sein in Myanmar.[116][117]On 6 November 2012 Australia's Prime Minister,Julia Gillardmet with Myanmar's President Thein Sein on the sidelines of the 9thAsia–Europe Meetingbecoming the first Australian head of government to meet Burma's leader in nearly 30 years.[118]On 12 November 2012 Sweden's Prime Minister,Fredrik Reinfeldtmet President U Thein Sein at the presidential palace in the new capital,Naypyidawwhile being accompanied on his visit by the Swedish Trade MinisterEwa Björlingand two business delegations.[119]On 19 November 2012, US PresidentBarack Obamavisited Burma following his 2012 reelection and was accompanied by Hillary Clinton, returning almost a year after her first visit.Though he did not visit the capital, President Obama delivered a speech atRangoon University, out of respect for the university where opposition to colonial rule first took hold.Obama's speech was broadcast live via Burmese state television channels but its simultaneous spoken translations was stopped when Obama began speaking about theKachin Conflict.[120]Obama also stated that recent violence in Rakhine state during the2012 Rakhine State riotshad to be addressed, he called for an end to communal violence between Muslims and Buddhists and then left to visit Thailand.[121][122][edit]Military relationsMain article:TatmadawMyanmar Air ForceNanchang A-5attack aircraft during landingBurma has received extensive military aid from India and China in the past[123]According to some estimates, Burma has received more than US$200million in military aid from India.Though it gave up its turn to hold the ASEAN chair and host theASEAN Summitin 2006, it is scheduled to chair the forum and host the summit in 2014.[125]In November 2008, Burma's political situation with neighbouring Bangladesh became tense as they began searching for natural gas in a disputed block of the Bay of Bengal.[126]The fate of Rohingya refugees also remains an issue between Bangladesh and Burma.[127]The country's armed forces are known as theTatmadaw, which numbers 488,000.The countryranked twelfthin the world for its number of active troops in service.[11]The military is very influential in the country, with all top cabinet and ministry posts usually held bymillitary officials.Estimates vary widely because of uncertain exchange rates, but Burma's military forces' expenses are high.[128]The country imports most of its weapons from Russia, Ukraine, China and India.The country is building a researchnuclear reactornearPyin Oo Lwinwith help from Russia.It is one of the signatories of the nuclearnon-proliferationpact since 1992 and a member of theInternational Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) since 1957.The military junta had informed the IAEA in September 2000 of its intention to construct the reactor.The research reactor outbuilding frame was built by ELE steel industries limited ofYangon/Rangoonand water from Anisakhan/BE water fall will be used for the reactor cavity cooling system.[129][130]In 2010 as part of the Wikileaks leaked cables, Burma was suspected of using North Korean construction teams to build a fortified Surface-to-Air Missile facility.[131]Until 2005, theUnited Nations General Assemblyannually adopted a detailed resolution about the situation in Burma by consensus.[132][132][133][134][135]But in 2006 a divided United Nations General Assembly voted through a resolution that strongly called upon the government of Burma to end its systematic violations of human rights.[136]In January 2007, Russia and China vetoed a draft resolution before theUnited Nations Security Council[137]calling on the government of Burma to respect human rights and begin a democratic transition.[138]On 19 November 2012,Barack Obamabecame the first American president to visit Myanmar.[139][edit]Human rightsMain article:Human rights in BurmaFurther information:Internal conflict in BurmaandPersecution of Muslims in BurmaThis article'sfactual accuracymay be compromised due to out-of-date information.(January 2013)There is consensus that the military regime in Burma is one of the world's most repressive and abusive regimes.[140][141]On 9 November 2012,Samantha Power,Barack Obama's Special Assistant to the President on Human Rights wrote on the White House blog in advance of the president's visit that "Serious human rights abuses against civilians in several regions continue, including against women and children."[83]In addition, members of the United Nations and major international human rights organisations have issued repeated and consistent reports of widespread and systematic human rights violations in Burma.TheUnited Nations General Assemblyhas repeatedly[142]called on the Burmese Military Junta to respect human rights and in November 2009 the General Assembly adopted a resolution "strongly condemning the ongoing systematic violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms" and calling on the Burmese Military Regime "to take urgent measures to put an end to violations of international human rights and humanitarian law."[143]International human rights organizations includingHuman Rights Watch,[144]Amnesty International[145]and theAmerican Association for the Advancement of Science[146]have repeatedly documented and condemned widespread human rights violations in Burma.TheFreedom in the World 2011report byFreedom Housenotes that "The military junta has.suppressed nearly all basic rights; and committed human rights abuses with impunity.The country [has] more than 2,100 political prisoners included about 429 members of the NLD, the victors in the 1990 elections."[147]They have claimed that there is no independentjudiciaryin Burma.As of September 2012, according toAssistance Association for Political Prisoners, there are currently 311 political prisoners, including 26 monks, still lingering in Burmese prisons.[75]Mae La camp,Tak, Thailand, one of the largest of nineUNHCRcamps in Thailand where over 700,000Refugees,Asylum-seekers, andstate-lesspersons have fled.[148][edit]Child soldiersChild soldiers have and continue to play a major part in the Burmese Army as well as Burmese rebel movements.The Independentreported in June, 2012 that "Children are being sold as conscripts into the Burmese military for as little as $40 and a bag of rice or a can of petrol."[149]The UN's Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict,Radhika Coomaraswamy, who stepped down from her position a week later, met representatives of theGovernment of Myanmaron 5 July 2012 and stated that she hoped the government's signing of an action plan would "signal a transformation."[150]In September 2012, theMyanmar Armed Forcesreleased 42 child soldiers and theInternational Labour Organizationmet with representatives of the government as well as theKachin Independence Armyto secure the release of more child soldiers.delegation raised the issue of child soldiers with the government in October, 2012 however she did not comment on the government's progress towards reform in this area.[83]ABangkok Postarticle on 23 December 2012 reported that theMyanmar Armed Forcescontinued to use child soldiers including during the army's large offensive against the KIA in December 2012.The newspaper reported that "Many of them were pulled off Yangon streets and elsewhere and given a minimum of training before being sent to the front line."[152][edit]Child/forced/slave labour, systematic sexual violence and human traffickingForced labour,human trafficking, andchild labourare common.[153]The military is also notorious for rampant use of sexual violence as an instrument of control, including allegations of systematic rapes and taking ofsex slavesby the military, a practice which continued in 2012.[154]In 2007 the international movement to defend women's human rights issues in Burma was said to be gaining speed.[155][edit]Genocide allegations and crimes against Rohingya peopleEvidence has been gathered suggesting that the Burmese regime has marked certain ethnic minorities such as theKaren,KarenniandShanfor extermination or 'Burmisation'.[156]This, however, has received little attention from the international community since it has been more subtle and indirect than the mass killings in places like Rwanda.[157]TheRohingyahave consistently faced human rights abuses by the Burmese regime which has refused to acknowledge them as Burmese citizens (despite some of them having lived in Burma for some generations) and attempted to forcibly expel Rohingya and bring in non-Rohingyas to replace them.[158]This policy has resulted in the expulsion of approximately half of the Rohingya population from Burma.[158]An estimated 90,000 people have been displaced in the recentsectarian violencebetween Rohingya Muslims and Buddhists in Burma's westernRakhine State.[87]As a result of this policy Rohingya people have been described as "among the world's least wanted"[159]and "one of the world's most persecuted minorities."[160][161]They have been denied Burmese citizenship since a 1982 citizenship law was enacted.[162]Rohingya are not allowed to travel without official permission, are banned from owning land and are required to sign a commitment to have no more than two children.[162]In 2012, ariotbroke out between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims, which left 78 people dead, 87 injured, and thousands of homes destroyed.[163]As of July 2012, the Myanmar Government did not include the Rohingya minority group–-classified asstatelessBengali Muslims from Bangladesh since 1982—on the government's list of more than 130 ethnic races and therefore the government says that they have no claim to Myanmar citizenship.[164][edit]2012 Rakhine State riotsMain article:2012 Rakhine State riotsThe 2012 Rakhine State riots are a series of ongoing conflicts between Rohingya Muslims and ethnic Rakhine in northernRakhine State,Myanmar.The riots came after weeks of sectarian disputes and have been condemned by most people on both sides of the conflict.[165]The immediate cause of the riots is unclear, with many commentators citing the killing of ten Burmese Muslims by ethnic Rakhine after the rape and murder of a Rakhine woman as the main cause.[166]Over 300 houses and a number of public buildings have been razed.According to Tun Khin, the president of the Burmese Rohingya Organisation UK (BROUK), as of 28 June 2012, 650 Rohingyas have been killed, 1,200 are missing, and more than 80,000 have been displaced.[167]According to the Myanmar authorities, the violence, between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims, left 78 people dead, 87 injured, and thousands of homes destroyed.[163]The government has responded by imposing curfews and by deploying troops in the regions.On 10 June 2012, astate of emergencywas declared in Rakhine, allowing military to participate in administration of the region.[168][169]The Burmese army and police have been accused of targeting Rohingya Muslims through mass arrests and arbitrary violence.[167][170]A number of monks' organizations that played vital role in Burma's struggle for democracy have taken measures to block any humanitarian assistance to the Rohingya community.[171][edit]Freedom of speechMain article:Censorship in BurmaRestrictions on media censorship were significantly eased in August 2012 following demonstrations by hundreds of protesters who wore shirts demanding that the government "Stop Killing the Press."[172]The most significant change has come in the form that media organizations will no longer have to submit their content to a censorship board before publication.However, as explained by one editorial in the exiled pressIrrawaddy, this new "freedom" has caused some Burmese journalists to simply see the new law as an attempt to create an environment ofself-censorshipas journalists "are required to follow 16 guidelines towards protecting the three national causes — non-disintegration of the Union, non-disintegration of national solidarity, perpetuation of sovereignty — and "journalistic ethics" to ensure their stories are accurate and do not jeopardize national security."[172][edit]Praise for the 2011 government reformsSince the transition to new government in August 2011, Burma's human rights record has been improving according to theCrisis Group.[173]TheFreedom in the World 2012report notes improvement due to new reforms.Previously rated as a 7, the lowest rating, for civil liberties and political rights, the release of political prisoners and a loosening of restriction has given Burma a 6 for civil liberties in the most recentFreedom in the World.[174]The government has assembled aNational Human Rights Commissionconsisted of 15 members from various backgrounds.[175]Several activists in exile including Thee Lay Thee Anyeint members have returned to Burma after President Thein Sein's offer to expatriates to return home to work for national development.[176]In an address to the United Nations Security Council in 22 September 2011, Burma's Foreign MinisterWunna Maung Lwinconfirmed the release of prisoners in near future.[177]The government has also relaxedreporting laws, but these remain highly restrictive.[178]In September 2011, several banned websites, including YouTube,Democratic Voice of BurmaandVoice of America, have been unblocked.[179]A 2011 report by theHauser Center for Nonprofit Organizationsfound that while constrained by donor restrictions on contact with the Myanmar government, international humanitarian non governmental organisations (NGOs) see opportunities for effective advocacy with government officials, especially at the local level.At the same time, international NGOs are mindful of the ethical quandary of how to work with the government without bolstering or appeasing it.[180][edit]EconomyMain article:Economy of BurmaFurther information:Agriculture in Burma,Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia),Tourism in Burma,andTransport in BurmaGraphical depiction of Myanmar's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.The country is one of the poorest nations in Southeast Asia, suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement and isolation.The lack of an educated workforce skilled in modern technology contributes to the growing problems of the economy.Goods travel primarily across the Thai border (where most illegal drugs are exported) and along theIrrawaddy River.Railways are old and rudimentary, with few repairs since their construction in the late 19th century.[182]Highways are normally unpaved, except in the major cities.[182]Energy shortages are common throughout the country including inYangonand only 25% of the country's population has electricity.[183]The military government has the majority stakeholder position in all of the major industrial corporations of the country (from oil production and consumer goods to transportation and tourism).[186]The market rate was around two hundred times below the government-set rate in 2006.[188]Inflation is a serious problem for the economy 2010–2011, Bangladesh exported products worth $9.[189]The annual import of medicine and medical equipment to Burma during the 2000s was 160 million USD.[190]In recent years, both China and India have attempted to strengthen ties with the government for economic benefit.Many nations, including the United States and Canada, and the European Union, have imposed investment and trade sanctions on Burma.[187]Foreign investment comes primarily fromChina,Singapore,the Philippines,South Korea,India, andThailand.[191]Rice cultivation accounts for much of the agriculture in Burma today.[edit]BackgroundUnder British administration, Burma was the second-wealthiest country in South-East Asia.It produced 75% of the world'steakand had a highly literate population.[13]The country was believed to be on the fast track to development.[13]However, agricultural production fell dramatically during the 1930s as international rice prices declined, and did not recover for several decades.[192]During World War II, the British destroyed the major oil wells and mines for tungsten, tin, lead and silver to keep them from the Japanese.After a parliamentary government was formed in 1948, Prime MinisterU Nuembarked upon a policy of nationalization and the state was declared the owner of all land.The government also tried to implement a poorly considered Eight-Year plan.By the 1950s, rice exports had fallen by two thirds and mineral exports by over 96% (as compared to the pre-World War II period).Plans were partly financed by printing money, which led to inflation.[193]The 1962 coup d'état was followed by an economic scheme called theBurmese Way to Socialism, a plan to nationalise all industries, with the exception of agriculture.The catastrophic program turned Burma into one of the world's most impoverished countries.[52]Burma's admittance toLeast Developed Countrystatus by the UN in 1987 highlighted its economic bankruptcy.[194][edit]AgricultureThe major agricultural product is rice which covers about 60% of the country's total cultivated land area.Rice accounts for 97% of total food grain production by weight.Through collaboration with theInternational Rice Research Institute52 modern rice varieties were released in the country between 1966 and 1997, helping increase national rice production to 14 million tons in 1987 and to 19million tons in 1996.By 1988, modern varieties were planted on half of the country's ricelands, including 98 percent of the irrigated areas.[195]In 2008 rice production was estimated at 50 million tons.[196]Burma is also the world's second largest producer ofopium, accounting for 8% of entire world production and is a major source ofillegal drugs, includingamphetamines.[197]Opium bans implemented since 2002 after international pressure have left ex-poppy farmers without sustainable sources of income in the Kokang and Wa regions.[198][edit]Natural resourcesBurma produces precious stones such asrubies,sapphires,pearls, andjade.Rubies are the biggest earner; 90% of the world's rubies come from the country, whose red stones are prized for their purity andhue.Burma's "Valley of Rubies", the mountainousMogokarea, 200km (120mi) north ofMandalay, is noted for its rare pigeon's blood rubies and blue sapphires.and European jewellery companies, including Bulgari, Tiffany, and Cartier, refuse to import these stones based on reports of deplorable working conditions in the mines.Human Rights Watch has encouraged a complete ban on the purchase of Burmese gems based on these reports and because nearly all profits go to the ruling junta, as the majority of mining activity in the country is government-run.[200]The government of Burma controls the gem trade by direct ownership or by joint ventures with private owners of mines.[201]Other industries include agricultural goods, textiles, wood products, construction materials, gems, metals, oil and natural gas.Apartment building in Naypyidaw, the new capital of Burma[edit]TourismSince 1992, the government has encouragedtourism in the country.However, as of July 2006, fewer than 750,000 tourists entered the country annually.[202]Burma's Minister of Hotels and TourismSaw Lwinhas stated that the government receives a significant percentage of the income of private sector tourism services.[203]Much of the country is completely off-limits to tourists, and the military very tightly controls interactions between foreigners and the people of Burma, particularly the border regions.[204]They are not to discuss politics with foreigners, under penalty of imprisonment, and in 2001, the Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board issued an order for local officials to protect tourists and limit "unnecessary contact" between foreigners and ordinary Burmese people.[205][edit]Economic SanctionsThis section'sfactual accuracymay be compromised due to out-of-date information.(March 2013)The Government of Burma is currently cartier we9003z3 watch women under economic sanctions by theU.[206]There remains active debate as to the extent to which the American-led sanctions have had adverse effects on the civilian population or on the military rulers.[207][208][edit]State Ownership/Corporatism and Economic liberalization post 2011Main article:Union of Myanmar Economic HoldingsThe military government has the majority stakeholder position in all of the major industrial corporations of the country (from oil production and consumer goods to transportation and tourism).[184][185]In March 2012, a draft foreign investment law emerged, the first in more than 2 decades.Foreigners will no longer require a local partner to start a business in the country, and will be able to legallyleasebut notownproperty.[209]The draft law also stipulates that Burmese citizens must constitute at least 25% of the firm's skilled workforce, and with subsequent training, up to 50-75%.[209]In 2012, theAsian Development Bankformally began re-engaging with the country, to finance infrastructure and development projects in the country.[210]TheUnited States,Japanand theEuropean Union countrieshave also begun to reduce or eliminateeconomic sanctionsto allowforeign direct investmentwhich will provide the Burmese government with additional tax revenue.[211][edit]DemographicsMain article:Demographics of BurmaA block of flats in down-town Yangon, facingBogyoke Market.Much of Yangon's urban population resides in densely populated flats.[212]Population figures are rough estimates because the last partial census, conducted by the Ministry of Home and Religious Affairs under the control of the military junta, was taken in 1983.[213]No trustworthy nationwide census has been taken in Burma since 1931.There are over 600,000 registeredmigrant workersfrom Burma in Thailand, and millions more work illegally.Burmese migrant workers account for 80% of Thailand's migrant workers.[214]Burma has a population density of 75 per square kilometre (190/sqmi), one of the lowest in Southeast Asia.Refugee camps exist along Indian, Bangladeshi and Thai borders while several thousand are in Malaysia.Conservative estimates state that there are over 295,800 refugees from Burma, with the majority beingKarenni, andKayinand are principally located along the Thai-Burma border.[215]There are nine permanent refugee camps along the Thai-Burma border, most of which were established in the mid-1980s.The refugee camps are under the care of theThai-Burma Border Consortium (TBBC).Since 2006,[216]over 55,000 Burmeserefugeeshave been resettled in the United States.27million Muslims, over 300,000 Hindus and over 790,000 of those who believe in other religions in the country, according to an answer by Union Minister at Myanmar Parliament on 8 September 2011.[218]Ne Win's rise to power in 1962 and his relentless persecution of "resident aliens" (immigrant groups not recognised as citizens of theUnion of Burma) led to an exodus/expulsion of some 300,000Burmese Indians.[219]They migrated to escaperacial discriminationand wholesale nationalisation of private enterprise a few years later in 1964.[220]The Anglo-Burmese at this time either fled the country or changed their names and blended in with the broader Burmese society.ManyRohingyaMuslims fled Burma and many refugees inundated neighbouring Bangladesh including 200,000 in 1978 as a result of theKing Dragon operation in Arakan[221]and 250,000 in 1991.[222][edit]Largest citiesvteLargest cities or towns ofMyanmarnameDivisionPop.YangonMandalay1YangonYangon4,572,948NaypyidawMawlamyain groupsMain article:List of ethnic groups in BurmaEthnic Composition in Burma(rough estimate)ethnic grouppercentBamar68.50%A girl from thePadaungminority, one of the many ethnic groups that make up Burma's population.Burma is home to four major language families:Sino-Tibetan,Tai–Kadai,Austro-Asiatic, andIndo-European.Mon,Palaung, andWaare the majorAustroasiaticlanguages spoken in Burma.The two major Indo-European languages arePali, the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism, and English.[224]According to theUNESCOInstitute of Statistics, Burma's officialliteracy rateas of 2000 was 89.To qualify forleast developed countrystatus by the UN in order to receive debt relief, Burma lowered its official literacy rate from 78.While it is extremely difficult to verify this statement, there are at least 108 different ethnolinguistic groups in Burma, consisting mainly of distinct Tibeto-Burman peoples, but with sizeable populations ofTai–Kadai, Hmong–Mien, and Austroasiatic (Mon–Khmer) peoples.[228][229]Burma's ethnic minority groups prefer the term "ethnic nationality" over "ethnic minority" as the term "minority" furthers their sense of insecurity in the face of what is often described as "Burmanisation"—the proliferation and domination of the dominant Bamar culture over minority cultures.Mon, who form 2% of the population, are ethno-linguistically related to theKhmer.[228]The remainder are Kachin, Chin,Anglo-Indiansand other ethnic minorities.Once forming a large and influential community, the Anglo-Burmese left the country in steady streams from 1958 onwards, principally to Australia and the U.Today, it is estimated that only 52,000 Anglo-Burmese remain in the country.[230]89% of the country's population are Buddhist, according to a report on ABC World News Tonight in May 2008 and the Buddha Dharma Education Association.[231][edit]LanguageMain article:Languages of BurmaBurmese, the mother tongue of the Bamar and official language of Burma, is related toTibetanand to the Chinese languages.[224]It is written in ascriptconsisting of circular and semi-circular letters, which were adapted from theMon script, which in turn was developed from a southern Indian script in the 8th century.The earliest known inscriptions in the Burmese script date from the 11th century.It is also used to writePali, the sacred language of Theravada Buddhism, as well as several ethnic minority languages, including Shan, several Karen dialects, and Kayah (Karenni), with the addition of specialised characters anddiacriticsfor each language.[232]The Burmese language incorporates widespread usage ofhonorificsand is age-oriented.[233]Burmese society has traditionally stressed the importance of education.In villages, secular schooling often takes place inmonasteries.Secondary and tertiary education take place at government schools.[edit]ReligionMain articles:Religion in Burma,Buddhism in Burma,Hinduism in Burma,Christianity in Burma,Islam in Burma, andHistory of the Jews in BurmaReligion in BurmaBuddhism89%Islam4%Christianity4%Others2%Traditional Animistic1%Many religions are practised in Burma.Religious edifices and orders have been in existence for many years.The Christian and Muslim populations do, however, face religious persecution and it is hard, if not impossible, for non-Buddhists to join the army or get government jobs, the main route to success in the country.[234]Such persecution and targeting of civilians is particularly notable in Eastern Burma, where over 3000 villages have been destroyed in the past ten years.[235][236][237]More than 200,000RohingyaMuslims have settled in Bangladesh, to escape persecution, over the past 20 years.[238]In February 2012, 1000 Buddhist monks and followers gathered for the 18th annualShwegyin NikayaConference at the compound of Dhammaduta Zetawon Tawya Monastery inHmawbi Township,Yangon Region.Other religions are practiced largely without obstruction, with the notable exception of some ethnic minorities such as the Muslim Rohingya people, who have continued to have their citizenship status denied and treated as illegal immigrants instead,[162]and Christians in Chin State.[239]4% of the population practices Islam; 4% Christianity; 1% traditionalanimisticbeliefs; and 2% follow other religions, includingMahayana Buddhism,Hinduism,East Asian religionsand theBahá'í Faith.State Department's 2010 international religious freedom report, official statistics are alleged to underestimate the non-Buddhist population.Independent researchers put the Muslim population at 6 to 10% of the population.A tiny Jewish community in Rangoon had a synagogue but no resident rabbi to conduct services.[243]Although Hinduism is presently only practiced by 1% of the population, it was a major religion in Burma's past.Several strains of Hinduism existed alongside both Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism in thePyu periodin the first millennium CE,[244]and down to thePagan period(9th to 13th centuries) when "SaiviteandVaishanaelements enjoyed greater elite influence than they would later do."[245][edit]CultureMain article:Culture of BurmaRama (Yama) and Sita (Me Thida) in the Burmese version of theRamayana,Yama Zatdaw.A diverse range of indigenous cultures exist in Burma, the majority culture is primarilyBuddhistandBamar.Bamar culture has been influenced by the cultures of neighbouring countries.This is manifested in its language, cuisine, music, dance and theatre.The arts, particularly literature, have historically been influenced by the local form ofTheravada Buddhism.Considered the national epic of Burma, theYama Zatdaw, an adaptation of India'sRamayana, has been influenced greatly by Thai,Mon, and Indian versions of the play.[246]Buddhism is practised along withnat worshipwhich involves elaborate rituals to propitiate one from a pantheon of 37 nats.[247][248]Mohinga, rice noodles in fish soup, is widely considered to be Burma's national dish a traditional village, the monastery is the centre of cultural life.A novitiation ceremony calledshinbyuis the most importantcoming of ageevents for a boy, during which he enters the monastery for a short period of time.[249]All male children in Buddhist families are encouraged to be a novice (beginner for Buddhism) before the age of twenty and to be a monk after the age of twenty.[249]Burmese culture is most evident in villages where local festivals are held throughout the year, the most important being the pagoda festival.[233][250]Many villages have a guardian nat, and superstition and taboos are commonplace.Thingyan festival, the Burmese New YearBritish colonial rule also introduced Western elements of culture to Burma.Burma's educational system is modelled after that of the United Kingdom.Colonial architectural influences are most evident in major cities such asYangon.[251]Many ethnic minorities, particularly theKarenin the southeast, and the Kachin and Chin who populate the north and north-east, practice Christianity.[252]According to the CIA World Factbook, the Burman population is 68%, and the Ethnic groups comprise of 32%.However, the exiled leaders and organisations claims that Ethnic population is 40% which is implicitly contrasted with CIA report (official U.[edit]MediaMain article:Media of BurmaDue to Burma's political climate, there are not many media companies in relation to the country's population, although a certain number exists.Some are privately owned, but all programming must meet with the approval of the censorship board.Burma announced on 20 August 2012, that it will stop censoring media before publication.Newspapers and other outlets would no longer have to be approved by state censors, journalists in the country could still face consequences for what they write and say.[253]Burma also was in the attention of the media's eye when on 18 November 2012 Barack Obama visited the country, making it the first time a sitting U.[254]Burma is the primary subject of a 2007 graphic novel titledChroniques BirmanesbyQuébécoisauthor and animator,Guy Delisle.The graphic novel was translated into English under the titleBurma Chroniclesin 2008.In 2009, a documentary about BurmesevideojournalistscalledBurma VJwas released.[255]This film was nominated forBest Documentary Featureat the2010 Academy Awards.[256][edit]SportTheLethwei,Bando,Banshay,Pongyi thaingmartial arts andchinloneare the national sport in Burma.[edit]Units of measureMain article:Burmese units of measurementAccording to the CIA Factbook, Burma is one of three countries along with Liberia and the United States of America that has not adopted theInternational System of Units(SI)metric systemas their official system of weights and measures.[257]The common units of measure are unique to Burma, but the government web pages use both imperial units[258]and metric units[259]and in June 2011, the Burmese government's Ministry of Commerce began discussing proposals to reform the measurement system in Burma and adopt the metric system used by most of its trading partners.[260][edit]GeographyMain article:Geography of BurmaTopographic map of BurmaRural landscape of Shan StateBurma, which has a total area of 678,500 square kilometres (262,000sqmi), is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia, and the 40th-largest in the world.It lies between latitudes9°and29°N, and longitudes92°and102°E.As of February 2011, Burma consisted of 14 states and regions, 67 districts, 330 townships, 64 sub-townships, 377 towns, 2914 Wards, 14220 village tracts and 68290 villages is bordered on the northwest by theChittagong Divisionof Bangladesh and theMizoram,Manipur,NagalandandArunachal Pradeshstates of India.Its north and northeast border straddles theTibetandYunnanregions of China for a Sino-Burman border total of 2,185 kilometres (1,358mi).Burma has 1,930 kilometres (1,200mi) of contiguous coastline along theBay of BengalandAndaman Seato the southwest and the south, which forms one quarter of its total perimeter.[11]In the north, theHengduan Shanmountains form the border with China.Hkakabo Razi, located inKachin State, at an elevation of 5,881 metres (19,295ft), is the highest point in Burma.[261]Many mountain ranges, such as theRakhine Yoma, theBago Yoma, theShan Hillsand theTenasserim Hillsexist within Burma, all of which run north-to-south from theHimalayas.[262]The mountain chains divide Burma's three river systems, which are theIrrawaddy,Salween (Thanlwin), and theSittaungrivers.[263]The Irrawaddy River, Burma's longest river, nearly 2,170 kilometres (1,348mi) long, flows into theGulf of Martaban.Fertile plains exist in the valleys between the mountain chains.[262]The majority of Burma's population lives in the Irrawaddy valley, which is situated between the Rakhine Yoma and the Shan Plateau.[edit]Administrative divisions (regions and states)Main article:Administrative divisions of BurmaThe country is divided into seven states (ပြည်နယ်) and seven regions (တိုင်းဒေသကြီး), formerly called divisions.[264]The announcement on the renaming of division to regions was made on 20 August 2010.[265]Regions are predominantlyBamar(that is, mainly inhabited by the dominant ethnic group).States, in essence, are regions which are home to particular ethnic minorities.The administrative divisions are further subdivided intodistricts, which are further subdivided into townships,wards, and villageslow are the number of districts, townships, cities/towns, wards, village Groups and villages in each divisions and states of Burma as of 31 December 2001:[266]No.State/RegionDistrictsTownshipsCities/TownsWardsVillagegroupsVillage State3182011660626302Kayah State27729796243Kayin State37104637620924Chin State2992947513555Sagaing Region83737171176960956Tanintharyi Region310106326512557Bago Region42833246142464988Magway Region52526160154347749Mandalay Region731292591611547210Mon State2101169381119911Rakhine State417171201041387112Yangon Region44520685634211913Shan State11545433616261551314Ayeyarwady Region62629219191211651Total6332431225481374265148[edit]ClimateMain article:Climate of BurmaLimestone landscape ofMon StateMuch of the country lies between theTropic of Cancerand theEquator.It lies in themonsoonregion of Asia, with its coastal regions receiving over 5,000mm (196.Annualrainfallin thedeltaregion is approximately 2,500mm (98.4in), while average annual rainfall in the Dry Zone, which is located in central Burma, is less than 1,000mm (39.Northern regions of the country are the coolest, with average temperatures of21 °C(70°F).Coastal and delta regions have an average maximum temperature of32 °C(89.[263][edit]WildlifeThe country's slow economic growth has contributed to the preservation of much of its environment andecosystems.Forests, including dense tropical growth and valuableteakin lower Burma, cover over 49% of the country, including areas ofacacia,bamboo,ironwoodandmichelia champacaconutandbetel palmand rubber have been introduced.In the highlands of the north,oak,pineand variousrhododendronscover much of the land.[267]Heavy logging since the new 1995 forestry law went into effect has seriously reduced forest acreage and wildlife habitat.[268]The lands along the coast support all varieties oftropical fruitsand once had large areas ofmangrovesalthough much of the protective mangroves have disappeared.In much of central Burma (the Dry Zone), vegetation is sparse and stunted.Typicaljungleanimals, particularly tigers andleopards, occur sparsely in Burma.In upper Burma, there arerhinoceros, wildbuffalo,wild boars,deer,antelope, and elephants, which are also tamed or bred in captivity for use as work animals, particularly in thelumber industry.Smaller mammals are also numerous, ranging fromgibbonsandmonkeystoflying foxesandtapirs.The abundance of birds is notable with over 800 species, including parrots,peafowl,pheasants,crows,herons, andpaddybirds.Among reptile species there arecrocodiles,geckos,cobras,Burmese pythons, andturtles.Hundreds of species offreshwaterfish are wide-ranging, plentiful and are very important food sources.[269]For a list of protected areas, seeList of protected areas of Burma.[edit]HealthMain article:Health in BurmaFurther information:HIV/AIDS in BurmaThe general state of health care in Myanmar (Burma) is poor.5% to 3% of the country's GDP on health care, consistently ranking among the lowest in the world.[270][271]Although health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals.Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment.HIV/AIDS, recognised as a disease of concern by theBurmese Ministry of Health, is mostprevalentamongsex workersandintravenous drugusers.In 2005, the estimated adult HIV prevalence rate in Burma was 1.3% (200,000 – 570,000 people), according toUNAIDS, and early indicators of any progress against the HIV epidemic are inconsistent.[272][273][274]However, the National AIDS Programme Burma found that 32% of sex workers and 43% of intravenous drug users in Burma have HIV.[274]Burma's government spends the least percentage of its GDP on health care of any country in the world, and international donor organisations give less to Burma, per capita, than any other country except India.[275]According to the report named "Preventable Fate", published byDoctors without Borders, 25,000 Burmese AIDS patients died in 2007, deaths that could largely have been prevented byantiretroviral therapydrugs and proper treatment.[275]In June 2011, theUnited Nations Population Fundreleased a report onThe State of the World's Midwifery.It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries.The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Myanmar is 240.The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 73 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 47.[edit]EducationMain article:Education in BurmaYangon University of Medicine 1The educational system of Burma is operated by the government agency, the Ministry of Education.Universities and professional institutes from upper Burma and lower Burma are run by two separate entities, the Department of Higher Education of Upper Burma and the Department of Higher Education of Lower Burma.The education system is based on the United Kingdom's system, due to nearly a century of British and Christian presences in Burma.Nearly all schools are government-operated, but there has been a recent increase in privately funded English language schools.Schooling is compulsory until the end of elementary school, probably about 9 years old, while the compulsory schooling age is 15 or 16 at international level.There are 101 universities, 12 institutes, 9 degree colleges and 24 colleges in Burma, a total of 146 higher education institutions.[276]Students on their way to school,Hakha,Chin State, BurmaThere are 10 Technical Training Schools, 23 nursing training schools, 1 sport academy and 20 midwifery schools.There are 2047 Basic Education High Schools, 2605 Basic Education Middle Schools, 29944 Basic Education Primary Schools and 5952 Post Primary Schools.There are four international schools which are acknowledged by WASC and College Board–The International School Yangon(ISY),Crane International School Yangon(CISM),Yangon International School(YIS) andInternational School of Myanmar(ISM) in Yangon.[edit]See alsoGeography portalAsia portalBurma portalIndex of Burma-related articlesOutline of Burma[edit]References^ab"Asian Development Bank and Myanmar: Fact Sheet".^ab"Myanmar - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary".^"Definition of Myanmar - Oxford Dictionaries (British World English)".^Houtman, Gustaaf (1999)ntal culture in Burmese crisis politics.ILCAA Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa Monograph Series No.Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.^"Embassy of the Russian Federation in the Union of Myanmar".^"Sala de Imprensa: Situação em Mianmar"stitutional website(Itamaraty).Obama calls it both on visit"(News and blogging)n Correspondent(Bristol, England: Hybrid News Limited)."YANGON, Burma (AP) — Officially at least, America still calls this Southeast Asian nation Burma, the favored appellation of dissidents and pro-democracy activists who opposed the former military junta's move to summarily change its name 23 years ago.^Lieberman 2003: 152^Cooler 2002: Chapter 1^Myint-U 2006: 45^Hudson 2005: 1^Hall 1960: 8–10^Moore 2007: 236^Myint-U 2006: 51–52^Lieberman 2003: 90–91^Lieberman 2003: 24^Htin Aung 1967: 63–65^Lieberman 2003: 134^Myint-U 2006: 64–65^Lieberman 2003: 184–187^Myint-U 2006: 109^Lieberman 2003: 202–206^Collis, Maurice (1945).The World of Buddhism-Buddhist Monks and Nuns in Society and Culture."Japanese prisoners of war"ntinuum International Publishing Group.^Houtman, Gustaaf (1999)ntal Culture in Burmese Crisis Politics: Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy.Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.^"100,000 Protestors Flood Streets of Rangoon in "Saffron Revolution"".^Christina Fink, "The Moment of the Monks: Burma, 2007", inAdam RobertsandTimothy Garton Ash(eds.),Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford University Press, 2009,ISBN 978-0-19-955201-6, pp."Aid arrives in Myanmar as death toll passes 22,000, but worst-hit area still cut off –".^"Official: UN plane lands in Myanmar with aid after cyclone".^ab"A Changing Ethnic Landscape: Analysis of Burma's 2010 Polls"."Budding Friendship on Display as Clinton, Burma’s Suu Kyi Meet Again"."Wrapping up a historic three-day visit to Myanmar [Burma], the first by a secretary of state to the Southeast Asian nation in more than 50 years"^"Clinton Says U."Aung San Suu Kyi hails "new era" for Burma after landslide victory".[ttp://"Displaced by fighting, villagers take shelter in Hpakant"]mocratic Voice of Burma.^"About 75,000 Rohingyas in Myanmar camps: Refugee International"."Karen fighters and Burma Army soldiers killed over ceasefire breech".^ab"Burma unrest: UN body says 90,000 displaced by violence"."A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire"tic Researches(The Asiatic Society)5: 219–240., 2007, Political Islam, World Politics and Europe: Democratic Peace and EuroIslam versus Global Jihad, New York, Routledge/^Field-Marshal Viscount William Slim (2009)feat Into Victory: Battling Japan in Burma and India, 1942–1945.^"Reuters, Cyclone-hit Myanmar says 92 percent back charter"."Aung San Suu Kyi has to tread softly – but governments must tell it like it is".[dead link]^"David Cameron calls for Burma sanctions to be suspended".^"NewsLibrary – newspaper archive, clipping service – newspapers and other news sources".^"Myanmar, India to build IT centres in Myanmar_English_Xinhua".^"India to develop two hydel power projects in Myanmar - 56908".^"India and Burma: time to choose (Human Rights Watch, 14-1-2008)".^"The Barefoot Diplomat: Hillary Clinton Begins Landmark Visit to Burma".Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and pro-democracy opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi talk prior to dinner in Rangoon, Burma, 1 Dec."More than one of|work=and|newspaper=specified (help)^"Burma's Suu Kyi begins landmark US visit"(News blogging)n Correspondent(Bristol, England: Hybrid News Limited)."WASHINGTON (AP) — Burma democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi will be honored in Washington this week and presented Congress's highest award, the latest milestone in her remarkable journey from political prisoner to globe-trotting stateswoman."^"Burma's president to make historic US visit"(News blogging)n Correspondent(Bristol, England: Hybrid News Limited)."YANGON, Burma (AP) — Burma's reformist president is heading to the United States to tout his country's makeover and push for an end to sanctions, in the first U.visit by a leader of the former international pariah since 1966."(News blogging)n Correspondent(Bristol, England: Hybrid News Limited)."The word out of Burma over the weekend was that former UK Prime Minister Tony Blair had paid a visit."^Supporting lasting peace in Myanmar, European Commission, 3-11-12,by José Manuel Barroso to Burma/Myanmar, European Commission, 3-11-12,PM holds historic talks with Burmese leader, Updated 6 November 2012, 10:14 AEST, By Samantha Hawley in Vientiane, staff, Radio Australia,Swedish PM to visit Myanmar and Indonesia on 12-14 Nov, expects to meet Then Sein and Suu Kyi,9 November 2012, Sippachai Kunnuwong,Displaced, Francis Wade, The Revealer, 17 December 2012,Jonathon (19 November 2012)."US President Obama hails Burma's "remarkable journey""(text and video)."Burma is on a "remarkable journey" of reform that has much further to go, Barack Obama said as he made the first visit to the South East Asian nation by a serving US president."More than one of|work=and|newspaper=specified (help)^Zin Linn (20 November 2012)."President Obama rejuvenates Rangoon University of Burma"(News blogging)n Correspondent(Bristol, England: Hybrid News Limited)."^View all comments that have been posted about this article."Caution by Junta's Asian Neighbors Reflects Their Self-Interest"."World Military Spending Topped US$1 [[1000000000000 (number)|trillion]] in 2004".Wikilink embedded in URL title (help)^"Russia and Burma in Nuclear Deal".^"ALLEGED NORTH KOREAN INVOLVEMENT IN MISSILE ASSEMBLY AND UNDERGROUND FACILITY CONSTRUCTION IN BURMA".^abUnited Nations General AssemblyVerbotim Reportmeeting 83 session 54page 30, The President on 17 December 1999 at 10:00 (retrieved 25 September 2007)^United Nations General AssemblyVerbotim Reportmeeting 81 session 55page 22, The President on 4 December 2000 at 15:00 (retrieved 25 September 2007)^United Nations General AssemblyVerbotim Reportmeeting 92 session 56page 7 on 24 December 2001 at 11:00 (retrieved 25 September 2007)^United Nations General AssemblyVerbotim Reportmeeting 69 session 60page 19, The President on 23 December 2005 at 10:00 (retrieved 25 September 2007)^United Nations General AssemblyVerbotim Reportmeeting 84 session 61page 14 on 22 December 2006 at 10:00 (retrieved 25 September 2007)^United Nations Security CouncilDocument14S-2007-14on 12 January 2007 (retrieved 25 September 2007)^United Nations Security CouncilVerbotim Reportmeeting 5619page 3, Mr.KumaloSouth Africaon 12 January 2007 at 16:00 (retrieved 25 September 2007)^Spetalnick, Matt."Obama offers praise, pressure on historic Myanmar trip - Yahoo!^"A Special Report to the 59th Session of the United Nations"."repressive and abusive military regime"^"List of UN General Assembly Resolutions On Burma".^"UN General Assembly Resolution: Time for Concrete Action"(Press release)."Amnesty International 2009 Report on Human Rights in Myanmar"nesty International.^"Satellite Images Verify Myanmar Forced Relocations, Mounting Military Presence".^UNHCR, Thailand Country page 2012,Burmese children a week conscripted into military, UN-verified accounts of child soldiers undermine junta's assurances on democratic reforms, The Independent, Jerome Taylor, Tuesday 19 June 2012,Conference on Action Plan to End Recruitment of Child Soldiers in Myanmar, UN, July, 2012,in Talks with Kachins over Child Soldiers, By LAWI WENG / THE IRRAWADDY| 5 September 2012,end in sight amid season of slaughter, published 23 December 2012 at 12:00 AM Newspaper section: Spectrum,Bangkok Post,10th anniversary of military repression"nesty International.^Human Rights Watch World Report 2012, Burma,of Terror report"(PDF)."Burma's 'slow genocide' is revealed through the eyes of its child victims".^abA Handbook of Terrorism and Insurgency in South East Asia, Tan, Andrew T., Chapter 16, State Terrorism in Arakan, Islam, Syed Serajul Islam, Edward Elgar Publishing,ISBN 978-1-84542-543-2, pg.^ab"UN refugee agency redeploys staff to address humanitarian needs in Myanmar".^"Four killed as Rohingya Muslims riot in Myanmar: government"."Myanmar stung by global censure over unrest"ence France-Presse in the Philippine Daily Inquirer."Burmese authorities targeting Rohingyas, UK parliament told"mocratic Voice of Burma."အေရးေပၚအေျခအေန ေၾကညာခ်က္ ႏုိင္ငံေရးသမားမ်ား ေထာက္ခံ".Soubhik Ronnie Saha The Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations Harvard University September 2011^Brown, Ian (2005)., By Simon Roughneen, Correspondent / 20 October 2012, Christian Science Monitor,Brian (28 February 2012)."Burma's Economic Prospects – Testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs"."Political and Economic History of Myanmar (Burma) Economics".2KB), Facts About Cooperation, International Rice Research Institute.^"Burma: Gem Trade Bolsters Military Regime, Fuels Atrocities".5Billion Despite Human Rights Abuse ConcernsARTINFO^Henderson, Joan C."ADB Preparing First Myanmar Projects in 25 Years as Thein Opens".Move to Ease Export Ban Could Take Years Because of Poor Infrastructure, Preparedness, By SAM HOLMES and CELINE FERNANDEZ, Wall Street Journal, 28 September 2012,AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION SECTION (PSIS)".^"Conflict and Displacement in Karenni: The Need for Considered Responses"(PDF)."Why deadly race riots could rattle Myanmar's fledgling reforms".^"Adult (15+) Literacy Rates and Illiterate Population by Region and Gender for"(XLS).^"Proposal for encoding characters for Myanmar minority languages in the UCS"(PDF).^"Ethnic and Religious Diversity: Myanmar's Unfolding Nemesis", Matthews, Bruce, Institute of South East Asian Studies, Visiting Researcher Series, Volume 2001, No."The Encounter of Missionary Christianity and Resurgent Buddhism in Post-colonial Myanmar"(PDF).^"Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs – Background Note: Burma".^Aung-Thwin 2005: 31–34^Lieberman 2003: 115–116^"Ramayana in Myanmar's heart".The Thirty-seven Nats-A Phase of Spirit-Worship prevailing in Burma.^"The Worshipping of Nats – The Special Festival of Mount Popa"."BBC News - US President Obama hails Burma's "remarkable journey"".^"Burma VJ– Academy Award Nominee– Best Documentary Feature".^"Burma VJ Nominated for the 2010 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature " Rev.^"ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော် ဖွဲ့စည်းပုံ အခြေခံဥပဒေ ၂၀၀၈".^"တိုင်းခုနစ်တိုင်းကို တိုင်းဒေသကြီးများအဖြစ် လည်းကောင်း၊ ကိုယ်ပိုင်အုပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရ တိုင်းနှင့် ကိုယ်ပိုင်အပ်ချုပ်ခွင့်ရ ဒေသများ ရုံးစိုက်ရာ မြို့များကို လည်းကောင်း ပြည်ထောင်စုနယ်မြေတွင်ခရိုင်နှင့်မြို့နယ်များကို လည်းကောင်း သတ်မှတ်ကြေညာ".^List of Districts, Townships, Cities/Towns, Wards, Village Groups and Villages in Union of Myanmarpublished by Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of Union of Myanmar on 31 December 2001^"Myanmar's Forest Law and Rules".^Reid, Robert; Bindloss, Joseph and Butler, Stuart (2009) "Environment: National Parks"Myanmar (Burma)(10th edition) Lonely Planet, Footscray, Victoria, Australia, page 85,ISBN 978-1-74104-718-9^""Flora and Fauna" at".^"PPI: Almost Half of All World Health Spending is in the United States".^"A scaled-up response to AIDS in Asia and the Pacific"(PDF).^ab[2][dead link]^Chronicle of National Development Comparison Between Period Preceding 1988 and after (up to 31 December 2006).The Mists of Rāmañña: The Legend that was Lower Burma(illustrated ed.Hudson, Bob (March 2005),"A Pyu Homeland in the Samon Valley: a new theory of the origins of Myanmar's early urban system",Myanmar Historical Commission Golden Jubilee International ConferenceLieberman, Victor B.[edit]External linksFind more aboutBurmaat Wikipedia'ssister projectsDefinitions and translationsfrom WiktionaryMediafrom CommonsLearning resourcesfrom WikiversityNews storiesfrom WikinewsQuotationsfrom WikiquoteSource textsfrom WikisourceTextbooksfrom WikibooksTravel guidefrom WikivoyageGovernmentmyanmar.mmChief of State and Cabinet MembersGeneral informationBurma Myanmar search EngineBurmaentry atThe World FactbookBurmafromUCB Libraries GovPubsBurmaat theOpen Directory ProjectBurma profilefrom theBBC News[atEncyclopædia BritannicaWikimedia Atlas of Myanmar[timeline of turning points in Burmese history]Key Development cartier we9009z3 watch mens Forecasts for MyanmarfromInternational FuturesOnline Burma/Myanmar Library: Classified and annotated links to more than 17,000 full-text documents on Burma/MyanmarEconomyTaipei American Chamber of Commerce; Topics Magazine, Analysis, November 2012.Myanmar: Southeast Asia's Last Frontier for Investment, BY DAVID DUBYNEvteBurmatopicsBurma is also known asMyanmarHistoryPrehistoryPyu city-statesPagan KingdomMyinsaing KingdomPinya KingdomSagaing KingdomAva KingdomProme KingdomHanthawaddy KingdomMrauk U KingdomToungoo DynastyRestored Hanthawaddy KingdomKonbaung DynastyBritish ruleJapanese occupationState of BurmaUnion of BurmaSocialist RepublicUnion of MyanmarGeographyHkakabo RaziMount PopaIndawgyi LakeInle LakeIrrawaddy RiverChindwin RiverSalween RiverSittang RiverGovernanceAssembly of the UnionConstitutionElectionsForeign relationsHuman rightsLGBTWomen's League of BurmaMilitaryMonarch(defunct)PoliticsPresidentlistPrime Minister(defunct)Vice PresidentPolitical partiesCommunist Party (CPB)National League for Democracy (NLD)National Unity Party (NUP)Shan Nationalities League for Democracy (SNLD)EconomyCommunicationsMyanma kyat(currency)TransportationCultureCensorshipCinemaCuisineEtymologyLiteratureMus holidaysReligionBuddhismChristianityRoman CatholicismScoutingDemographicsEthnic groupsHealthHIV/AIDSLanguagesBurmeseWomenCurrent events2011–2012 political reforms2012 by-electionsRohingya conflictOutlineIndexCategoryPortalWikiProjectGeographic localevteCountries and other territories inSoutheast 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GuineaPhilippinesSamoaSingaporeSolomon IslandsSri LankaSurinameThailandTokelauTongaTuvaluUnited States(Hawaii)VanuatuVietnamWallis and FutunaInternational membership and historyvteAssociation of Southeast Asian NationsGovernanceCharterFree trade areaCustoms unionMember statesBruneiBurma(Myanmar)CambodiaIndonesiaLaosMalaysiaPhilippinesSingaporeThail New GuineaEast TimorBangladeshSummitsForumsASEAN SummitsASEAN +3AMUASEAN Regional ForumASEMEast Asia SummitCEPEACMIRelated articlesAnthemCommon TimeDate of EstablishmentEmblemFlagHymnOrganizationsSEA GamesSecretariatTreaty of Amity and CooperationvteTheBritish Empireand theCommonwealth of NationsLegendCurrent territoryFormer territory*Now aCommonwealth realmNow a member of theCommonwealth of NationsEurope1708–1757MinorcaSince 1713Gibraltar1763–1782Minorca1798–1802Minorca1800–1964Malta1807–1890Heligoland18 Islands1878-1960Cyprus1921–1937Irish Free StateNorth America17th century and before18th century19th and 20th century1579New 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*Grenada1763–1978Dominica1763–1873Prince Edward Island1763–1791Quebec1763–1783East Florida1763–1783West Florida1784–1867New Brunswick1791–1841Lower Canada1791–1841Upper CanadaSince 1799Turks and Caicos Islands1818–1846Columbia District/Oregon Country11833–1960Windward Islands1833–1960Leeward Islands1841–1867Province of Canada1849–1866Vancouver Island1853–1863Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands1858–1866British Columbia1859–1870North-Western Territory1860–1981 *British Antigua and Barbuda1862–1863Stikine Territory1866–1871Vancouver Island and British Columbia1867–1931 *Dominion of Canada21871–1964British Honduras (*Belize)1882–1983 *Saint Kitts and Nevis1889–1962Trinidad and Tobago1907–1949Dominion of Newfoundland31958–1962West Indies Federation1Occupied jointly with the United States.2In 1931, Canada and other Britishdominionsobtained self-government through theStatute of Westminster.3Gave upself-rulein 1934, but remained ade jureDominion until itjoined Canadain 1949.South America1651–1667Willoughbyland (Suriname)1670–1688Saint Andrew and Providence Islands41831–1966British Guiana (Guyana)Since 1833Falkland Islands5Since 1908South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands54Now theSan Andrés y Providencia DepartmentofColombia.5Occupied by Argentina during theFalklands Warof April–June 1982.Africa17th century18th century19th century20th centurySince 1658Saint Helena141792–1961Sierra Leone1795–1803Cape ColonySince 1815Ascension Island14Since 1816Tristan da Cunha141806–1910Cape Colony1807–1808Madeira1810–1968Mauritius1816–1965The Gambia1856–1910Natal1868–1966Basutoland (Lesotho)1874–1957Gold Coast (Ghana)1882–1922Egypt1884–1966Bechuanaland (Botswana)1884–1960British Somaliland1887–1897Zululand1890–1962Uganda1890–1963Zanzibar (Tanzania)1891–1964Nyasaland (Malawi)1891–1907British Central Africa Protectorate1893–1968Swaziland1895–1920East Africa Protectorate1899–1956Anglo-Egyptian Sudan1900–1914Northern Nigeria1900–1914Southern Nigeria1900–1910Orange River Colony1900–1910Transvaal Colony1906–1954Nigeria Colony1910–1931South Africa1914–1954Nigeria Colony and Protectorate1915–1931South West Africa (Namibia)1919–1960Cameroons (Cameroon)61920–1963Kenya1922–1961Tanganyika (Tanzania)61923–1965Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)71924–1964Northern Rhodesia (Zambia)1954–1960Nigeria1979–1980Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)76League of Nations mandate.7Self-governingSouthern Rhodesiaunilaterally declared independencein 1965 (asRhodesia) and continued as anunrecognisedstate until the 1979Lancaster House Agreement.After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 200317th and 18th century19th century20th century1685–1824Bencoolen(Sumatra)1702–1705Con Dao1757–1947Bengal (West Bengal (India)andBangladesh)1762–1764Manila1786-1946Penang1795–1948Ceylon (Sri Lanka)1796–1965Maldives1812–1824Banka (Sumatra)1812–1824Billiton (Sumatra)1819–1826British Malaya (Peninsular MalaysiaandSingapore)1824–1946Straits Settlement of Malacca1826–1946Straits Settlements1839–1967Colony of Aden1839–1842Afghanistan1841–1997Hong Kong1841–1946Kingdom of Sarawak (Malaysia)1848–1946Crown colony of Labuan1858–1947British India (India,PakistanandBangladesh, Burma)1879–1919Afghanistan1882–1963British North Borneo (Malaysia)1885–1946Unfederated Malay States1888–1984Sultanate of Brunei1888–1946Sultanate of Sulu1891–1971Muscat and Oman protectorate1892–1971Trucial States protectorate1895–1946Federated Malay States1898–1930Weihai Garrison1878–1960Cyprus1907-1949Bhutan(protectorate)1918–1961Kuwait protectorate1920–1932Iraq81921–1946Transjordan71923–1948Palestine81945–1946South Vietnam1946–1963Sarawak (Malaysia)1946–1963Singapore1946–1948Malayan Union1948–1957Federation of Malaya (Malaysia)Since 1960Akrotiri and Dhekelia(before as part ofCyprus)Since 1965British Indian Ocean Territory(before as part ofMauritiusand theSeychelles)8League of Nations mandate.Oceania18 and 19thcenturies20thcentury1788–1901New South Wales1803–1901Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania1807–1863Auckland Islands91824–1980New Hebrides (Vanuatu)1824–1901Queensland1829–1901Swan River Colony/Western Australia1836–1901South Australiasince 1838Pitcairn Islands1841–1907Colony of New Zealand1851–1901Victoria1874–1970Fiji101877–1976British Western Pacific Territories1884–1949Territory of Papua1888–1965Cook Islands91889–1948Union Islands (Tokelau)91892–1979Gilbert and Ellice Islands111893–1978British Solomon Islands121900–1970Tonga(protected state)1900–1974Niue91901–1942 *Commonwealth of Australia1907–1953 *Dominion of New Zealand1919–1942Nauru1945–1968Nauru1919–1949Territory of New Guinea1949–1975Territory of Papua and New Guinea139Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand.Antarctica and South AtlanticSince 1658Saint Helena14Since 1815Ascension Island14Since 1816Tristan da Cunha14Since 1908British Antarctic Territory151841-1933Australian Antarctic Territory(Transferred to theCommonwealth of Australia)1841-1947Ross Dependency(Transferred to theRealm of New Zealand)14Since 2009 part ofSaint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island (1922—) and Tristan da Cunha (1938—) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena.15Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).vteEast Asia Summit (EAS)FirstSecondThirdFourthFifthSixthSeventhAustraliaBruneiBurmaCambodiaChinaInd ZealandPhilippinesRussiaSingaporeSouth KoreaThailandUnited StatesVietnamvteCountries and dependenciesofAsiaSovereign statesAfghanistanArmeniaAzerbaijanBahrainBangladeshBhutanBruneiBurma (Myanmar)CambodiaChinaCyprusEgyptGeorgiaIndiaIndonesiaIranIraqIsraelJapanJordanK KoreaSouth KoreaKuwaitKyrgyzstanLaosLebanonMalaysiaMaldivesMongoliaNepalOmanPakistanPhilipp ArabiaSingaporeSri LankaSyriaTajikistanThailandEast Timor (Timor-Leste)TurkeyTurkmenistanUnited Arab EmiratesUzbekistanVietnamYemenStates with limited recognitionAbkhaziaNagorno-KarabakhNorthern CyprusPalestineSouth OssetiaTaiwanDependenciesandspecial administrative regionsAustraliaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsChinaHong KongMacauUnited KingdomAkrotiri and DhekeliaBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryvteDutch EmpireColonies and trading posts of theDutch East India Company(1602–1798)Governorate GeneralBataviaGovernoratesAmbonBanda IslandsCape ColonyCeylonCoromandelFormosaNortheast coast of JavaCelebesMalaccaMoluccasDirectoratesBengalPersiaSuratteCommandmentsBantamMalab coast of SumatraResidenciesBanjarmasinCheribonPalembangPontianakOpperhoofdsettlementsBurm and trading posts of theDutch West India Company(1621–1792)Colonies in the AmericasBerbice1CayenneCuraçao and DependenciesDemeraraEssequiboBrazilNew NetherlandPomeroonSint Eustatius and DependenciesSurinam2TobagoVirgin IslandsTrading posts in AfricaArguinGold CoastLoango-AngolaSenegambiaSlave Coast1Governed by theSociety of Berbice2Governed by theSociety of SurinameSettlements of theNoordsche Compagnie(1614–1642)SettlementsSmeerenburgJan MayenColonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1962)Until 1825BengalCoromandelMalaccaUntil 1853DejimaUntil 1872Gold CoastUntil 1945Dutch East IndiesUntil 1954Curaçao and Dependencies3Surinam3Until 1962New Guinea3Becameconstituent countriesof the Kingdom of the Netherlands;Surinamegainedfull independencein 1975, Curaçao and Dependencies was renamed to theNetherlands Antilles, which was eventually dissolved in 2010.Kingdom of the Netherlands(1954–present)Constituent countriesArubaCuraçaoNetherlandsSint MaartenPublic bodiesof theNetherlandsBonaireSabaSint EustatiusCoordinates:22°N96°E / 22°N 96°E /22; 96
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