To maintain joint mobility is done by putting each of the patient's joints through all possible movements to increase and/or maintain movement in each joint. To prevent contracture, atony (insufficient muscular tone), and atrophy of muscles. To stimulate circulation, preventing thrombus and embolus formation. To improve coordination. To increase tolerance for more activity. To maintain and build muscle strength. TYPES OF EXERCISES
Passive. These exercises are carried out by the nurse, without assistance from the patient. Passive exercises will not preserve muscle mass or bone mineralization because there is no voluntary contraction, lengthening of muscle, or tension on bones.
Active Assistive. These exercises are performed by the patient with assistance from the nurse. Active assistive exercises encourage normal muscle function while the nurse supports the distal joint.
Active. Active exercises are performed by the patient, without assistance, to increase muscle strength.
Resistive. These are active exercises performed by the patient by pulling or pushing against an opposing force.
Isometric. These exercises are performed by the patient by contracting and relaxing muscles while keeping the part in a fixed position. Isometric exercises are done to maintain muscle strength when a joint is immobilized. Full patient cooperation is required.