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Hip hop

Posted May 02 2013 6:12am
Hip hop From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to:navigation,search"HipHop" redirects here.Hip Hopis a broad conglomerate ofartisticforms that originated as a specific streetsubculturewithinAfrican Americancommunities during the 1970s inNew York City, specifically inMorris Heights,The Bronx, then later spread its influence toLatin Americancommunities.[1][2][3][4][5][6]It is characterized by four distinct elements, all of which represent the different manifestations of the culture:rap music(aural),turntablismor"DJing"(aural),breaking(physical) andgraffiti art(visual).Despite their contrasting methods of execution, they find unity in their common association to the poverty and violence underlying the historical context that birthed the culture.It was as a means of providing a reactionary outlet from such urban hardship that "Hip Hop" initially functioned, a form of self-expression that could reflect upon, proclaim an alternative to, try and challenge or merely evoke the mood of the circumstances of such an environment.Even while it continues in contemporary history to develop globally in a flourishing myriad of diverse styles, these foundational elements provide stability and coherence to the culture.[1]The term is frequently used mistakenly to refer in a confining fashion to the mere practice ofrap music.The origin of the culture stems from theblock partiesofDJ Kool Hercat1520 Sedgwick Avenue, where Herc would mixsamplesof existing records with his own shouts to the crowd and dancers.DJAfrika Bambaataaof the hip-hop collectiveZulu Nationoutlined the pillars of hip hop culture, to which he coined the terms:MCing,DJing,B-boyingandgraffiti writing.[7][8][9][10][11]Since its evolution throughout theSouth Bronx, hip-hop culture has spread to bothurbanandsuburbancommunities throughout the world.[12]Hip-hop musicfirst emerged with Kool Herc and contemporary disc jockeys and imitators creating rhythmic beats byloopingbreaks (small portions of songs emphasizing a percussive pattern) on two turntables, more commonly referred to asjuggling.This was later accompanied by "rap", a rhythmic style of chanting or poetry often presented in 16-bar measures or time frames, andbeatboxing, a vocal technique mainly used to provide percussive elements of music and various technical effects of hip hop DJs.An original form of dancing and particular styles of dress arose among fans of this new music.These elements experienced considerable adaptation and development over the course of the history of the culture.Hip hop is simultaneously a new and old phenomenon; the importance ofsamplingto the art form means that much of the culture has revolved around the idea of updating classic recordings, attitudes, and experiences for modern audiences - called "flipping" within the culture.[citation needed]It follows in the footsteps of earlier American musical genresblues,jazz, androck and rollin having become one of the most practiced genres of music in existence worldwide, and also takes additional inspiration regularly fromsoul music,funk, andrhythm and bluesntents1Etymology2History2.1Criticisms7See also8References9External links[edit]EtymologyHip hop is the combination of two separate slang terms—"hip", used inAfrican American Englishas early as 1898, meaningcurrentorin the now, and "hop", for thehoppingmovement.[citation needed]Keith "Cowboy" Wiggins, a member ofGrandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, has been credited with coining the term[13]in 1978 while teasing a friend who had just joined theUS Army, byscat singingthe words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers.[citation needed]Cowboy later worked the "hip hop" cadence into his stage performance.[14]The group frequently performed with disco artists who would refer to this new type of music by calling them "hip hoppers".The name was originally meant as a sign of disrespect, but soon came to identify this new music and culture.The song "Rapper's Delight" byThe Sugarhill Gang, released in 1979, begins women wearing a cartier watch with the scat phrase, "I said a hip, hop the hippie the hippie to the hip hip hop, a you don't stop."Lovebug Starski, a Bronx DJ who put out a single called "The Positive Life" in 1981, andDJ Hollywoodthen began using the term when referring to this newdiscorapmusic.Hip hop pioneer and South Bronx community leaderAfrika Bambaataaalso credits Lovebug Starski as the first to use the term "Hip Hop", as it relates to the culture.Bambaataa, former leader of theBlack Spadesgang, also did much to further popularize the term.The words "hip hop" first appear in print on September 21, 1981, in theVillage Voicein a profile of Bambaataa written bySteven Hager, who also published the first comprehensive history of the culture with St.[14][15][16][edit]HistoryIn the 1970s an underground urban movement known as "hip hop" began to develop in theSouth Bronxarea ofNew York Cityfocusing onemceeing(or MCing),breakbeats, andhouse parties.Starting at the home ofDJ Kool Hercat the high-rise apartment at1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the movement later spread across the entire borough.Rap developed both inside and outside of hip hop culture, and began in America in earnest with the street parties thrown in the Bronx neighborhood of New York in the 1970s byKool Hercand others—Jamaicanborn DJ Clive "Kool Herc" Campbell is credited as being highly influential in the pioneering stage ofhip hop music,[17]Herc created the blueprint for hip hop music and culture by building upon the Jamaican tradition of impromptutoasting, boastful poetry and speech over music.[18]This becameEmceeing- the rhythmic spoken delivery ofrhymesand wordplay, delivered over abeator without accompaniment—taking inspiration from theRappingderived from thegriots(folk poets) ofWest Africa, andJamaican-styletoastinglle Mel, a rapper/lyricist with TheFurious Five, is often credited with being the first rap lyricist to call himself an "MC".[19]DJ Kool Hercis credited as being highly influential in the pioneering stage ofhip hop musicHerc also developed uponbreak-beatdeejaying,[20]where the breaks offunksongs—the part most suited to dance, usually percussion-based—were isolated and repeated for the purpose of all-night dance parties.This form of music playback, using hard funk, rock, formed the basis of hip hop music.Campbell's announcements and exhortations to dancers would lead to the syncopated, rhymed spoken accompaniment now known asrapping.He dubbed his dancers break-boys and break-girls, or simplyb-boysand b-girls.According to Herc, "breaking" was also street slang for "getting excited" and "acting energetically".[21]DJs such asGrand Wizard Theodore,Grandmaster FlashJazzy Jayrefined and developed the use of breakbeats, includingcutting and scratching.[22]The approach used by Herc was soon widely copied, and by the late 1970s DJs were releasing12"records where they would rap to the beat.Popular tunes includedKurtis Blow's "The Breaks" andThe Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight".[23]Herc and other DJs would connect their equipment to power lines and perform at venues such as public basketball courts and at1520 Sedgwick Avenue, Bronx, New York, now officially a historic building.[24]The equipment was composed of numerous speakers, turntables, and one or more microphones.[25]By using this technique DJs could create a variety of music, but according to Rap Attack by David Toop “At its worst the technique could turn the night into one endless and inevitably boring song” .Street gangswere prevalent in the poverty of the South Bronx, and much of the graffiti, rapping, and b-boying at these parties were all artistic variations on the competition and one-upmanship of street gangs.Sensing that gang members' often violent urges could be turned into creative ones, Afrika Bambaataa founded theZulu Nation, a loose confederation of street-dance crews, graffiti artists, and rap musicians.By the late 1970s, the culture had gained media attention, with Billboard magazine printing an article titled "B Beats Bombarding Bronx", commenting on the local phenomenon and mentioning influential figures such asKool Herc.[27]In late 1979,Debbie HarryofBlondietookNile RodgersofChicto such an event, as the main backing track used was the break from Chic's "Good Times".[23]The new style influenced Harry, and Blondie's later hit single from 1981 "Rapture" became the first major single containing hip hop elements by a white group or artist to hit number one on the U.Billboard Hot 100—the song itself is usually considerednew waveand fuses heavypop musicelements, but there is an extended rap by Harry near the end.Hip hop as a culture was further defined in 1982, whenAfrika Bambaataa and the Soulsonic Forcereleased the seminalelectro-funktrack "Planet Rock".Instead of simply rapping over disco beats, Bambaataa created an electronic sound, taking advantage of the rapidly improving drum machineRoland TB-303synthesizer technology, as well as sampling fromKraftwerk.[28]Encompassing graffiti art, mc'ing/rapping, dj'ing and b-boying, hip hop became the dominant cultural movement of the minority populated urban communities in the 1980s.[29]The 1980s also saw many artists make social statements through hip hop.In 1982,Melle MelandDuke Booteerecorded "The Message" (officially credited to Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five),[30]a song that foreshadowed the socially conscious statements ofRun-DMC's "It's like That" andPublic Enemy's "Black Steel in the Hour of Chaos".[31]During the 1980s, hip hop also embraced the creation of rhythm by using the human body, via thevocal percussiontechnique ofbeatboxing.Fresh,[32]Biz Markieand Buffy from theFat Boysmade beats, rhythm, and musical sounds using their mouth, lips, tongue, voice, and other body parts."Human Beatbox" artists would alsosingor imitateturntablismscratching or other instrument sounds.The appearance of music videos changed entertainment: they often glorified urban neighborhoods.[33]The music video for "Planet Rock" showcased the subculture of hip hop musicians, graffiti artists, and b-boys/b-girls.Many hip hop-related films were released between 1982 and 1985, among themWild Style,Beat Street,Krush Groove,Breakin, and the documentaryStyle Wars.These films expanded the appeal of hip hop beyond the boundaries of New York.The hip hop artwork and "slang" of US urban communities quickly found its way to Europe, as the culture's global appeal took root.[edit]American societyAfrika Bambaataawith DJ Yutaka ofUniversal Zulu Nationin 2004DJ Kool Herc's house parties gained popularity and later moved to outdoor venues in order to accommodate more people.Hosted in parks, these outdoor parties became a means of expression and an outlet for teenagers, where "instead of getting into trouble on the streets, teens now had a place to expend their pent-up energy."[34]Tony Tone, a member of theCold Crush Brothers, noted that "hip hop saved a lot of lives".[34]Hip hop culture became a way of dealing with the hardships of life as minorities within America, and an outlet to deal with violence and gang culture.MC Kid Lucky mentions that "people used to break-dance against each other instead of fighting".[35][broken citation]Inspired by DJ Kool Herc, Afrika Bambaataa created a street organization calledUniversal Zulu Nation, centered around hip hop, as a means to draw teenagers out of gang life and violence.[34]The lyrical content of many early rap groups focused on social issues, most notably in the seminal track "The Message", which discussed the realities of life in the housing projects.[36]"Young black Americans coming out of the civil rights movement have used hip hop culture in the 1980s and 1990s to show the limitations of the movement."[37]Hip hop gave young African Americans a voice to let their issues be heard; "Like rock-and-roll, hip hop is vigorously opposed by conservatives because it romanticises violence, law-breaking, and gangs".[37]It also gave people a chance for financial gain by "reducing the rest of the world to consumers of its social concerns."[37]However, with the commercial success ofgangsta rapin the early 1990s, the emphasis shifted to drugs, violence, andmisogyny.Early proponents of gangsta rap included groups and artists such asIce-T, who recorded what some consider to be the first gangster rap record,6 in the Mornin',[38]andN.whose second albumEfil4zagginbecame the first gangsta rap album to enter the charts at number one.[39]Gangsta rap also played an important part in hip hop becoming a mainstream commodity.’sStraight Outta Compton,Eazy-E’sEazy-Duz-It, andIce Cube’sAmerikkka's Most Wantedwere selling in such high numbers meant that black teens were no longer hip hop’s sole buying audience.[40]As a result, gangsta rap became a platform for artists who chose to use their music to spread politic and social messages to parts of the country that were previously unaware of the conditions of ghettos.[38]While hip hop music now appeals to a broader demographic, media critics argue that socially and politically conscious hip hop has been largely disregarded by mainstream America.Department of State, hip hop is "now the center of a mega music and fashion industry around the world," that crosses social barriers and cuts across racial lines.[42]National Geographicrecognizes hip hop as "the world's favorite youth culture" in which "just about every country on the planet seems to have developed its own local rap scene."[43]Through its international travels, hip hop is now considered a “global musical epidemic”.[44]According toThe Village Voice, hip-hop is “custom-made to combat the anomie that preys on adolescents wherever nobody knows their name.”[45]Hip hop sounds and styles differ from region to region, but there are also instances of fusion genres.[46]Not all countries have embraced hip hop, where "as can be expected in countries with strong local culture, the interloping wildstyle of hip hop is not always welcomed".[47]This is somewhat the case in Jamaica, the homeland of the culture's father, DJ Kool Herc.However, despite the fact that hip hop music produced on the island lacks widespread local and international recognition, artistes such asFive Steezhave defied the odds by impressing online hip hop tastemakers and even reggae critics.[48]Hartwig Vens argues that hip hop can also be viewed as a global learning experience.[49]AuthorJeff Changargues that "the essence of hip hop is the cipher, born in the Bronx, where competition and community feed each other."[50]He also adds: "Thousands of organizers from Cape Town to Paris use hip hop in their communities to address environmental justice, policing and prisons, media justice, and education.[51]While hip hop music has been criticized as a music which creates a divide between western music and music from the rest of the world, a musical "cross pollination" has taken place, which strengthens the power of hip hop to influence different communities.[52]Hip hop's messages allow the under-privileged and the mistreated to be heard.[51]While the music may be from a foreign country, the message is something that many people can relate to- something not "foreign" at all.[53]Even when hip hop is transplanted to other countries, it often retains its "vital progressive agenda that challenges the status quo."[51]In Gothenburg, Sweden, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) incorporate graffiti and dance to engage disaffected immigrant and working class youths.Hip hop has played a small but distinct role as the musical face of revolution in theArab Spring, one example being an anonymousLibyanmusician,Ibn Thabit, whose anti-government songs fuel the rebellion.[54][edit]CommercializationThis article or sectionmay containpreviously unpublished synthesisof published material that conveys ideas notattributableto the original sources.(March 2009)A documentary calledThe Commodification of Hip Hopdirected by Brooke Daniel interviews students at Satellite Academy in New York City.One girl talks about the epidemic of crime that she sees in urban minority communities, relating it directly to the hip hop industry saying “When they can’t afford these kind of things, these things that celebrities have like jewelry and clothes and all that, they’ll go and sell drugs, some people will steal it.”[55]In an article forVillage Voice,Greg Tateargues that the commercialization of hip hop is a negative and pervasive phenomenon, writing that "what we call hiphop is now inseparable from what we call the hip hop industry, in which thenouveau richeand the super-rich employers get richer".[37]Ironically, this commercialization coincides with a decline in rap sales and pressure from critics of the genre.[56]Even other musicians, like Nas and KRS-ONE have claimed "hip hop is dead" in that it has changed so much over the years to cater to the consumer that it has lost the essence for which it was originally created.However, in his bookIn Search Of Africa,Manthia Diawaraexplains that hip hop is really a voice of people who are down and out in modern society.He argues that the "worldwide spread of hip hop as a market revolution" is actually global "expression of poor people’s desire for the good life," and that this struggle aligns with "the nationalist struggle for citizenship and belonging, but also reveals the need to go beyond such struggles and celebrate the redemption of the black individual through tradition."This connection to "tradition" however, is something that may be lacking according to one Satellite Academy staff member who says that in all of the focus on materialism, the hip hop community is “not leaving anything for the next generation, we’re not building.As the hip hop genre turns 30, a deeper analysis of the music’s impact is taking place.It has been viewed as a cultural sensation which changed the music industry around the world, but some believe commercialization and mass production have given it a darker side.Tate has described its recent manifestations as a marriage of “New World African ingenuity and that trick of the devil known as global-hypercapitalism”,[57]arguing it has joined the “mainstream that had once excluded its originators.”[57]While hip hop's values may have changed over time, the music continues to offer its followers and originators a shared identity which is instantly recognizable and much imitated around the world.[edit]Culture[edit]DJingDJ Hypnotize and Baby Cee, twodisc jockeysTurntablismis the technique of manipulating sounds and creating music usingphonograph turntablesand aDJ mixer.[58]One of the few first hip hop DJ's wasKool DJ Herc, who created hip hop through the isolation of "breaks" (the parts of albums that focused solely on the beat).In addition to developing Herc's techniques, DJsGrandmaster Flowers,Grandmaster Flash,Grand Wizard Theodore, andGrandmaster Cazmade further innovations with the introduction ofscratching.These are connected to aDJ mixer, anamplifier,speakers, and various other pieces of electronic music equipment.The DJ will then perform various tricks between the two albums currently in rotation using the above listed methods.The result is a unique sound created by the seemingly combined sound of two separate songs into one song.Although there is considerable overlap between the two roles, a DJ is not the same as a producer of a music track.[59]In the early years of hip hop, the DJs were the stars, but that has been taken by MCs since 1978, thanks largely toMelle Melof Grandmaster Flash's crew, theFurious Five.However, a number of DJs have gained stardom nonetheless in recent years.Magic,DJ Jazzy Jeff,DJ ScratchfromEPMD,DJ PremierfromGang Starr, DJScott La RockfromBoogie Down Productions, DJPete RockofPete Rock CL Smooth,DJ MuggsfromCypress Hill,Jam Master JayfromRun-DMC,Eric B.,DJ Screwfrom theScrewed Up Clickand the inventor of theChopped Screwedstyle of mixing music,Funkmaster Flex,Tony Touch,DJ Clue, andDJ Q-Bert.The underground movement ofturntablismhas also emerged to focus on the skills of the DJ.[edit]MCingRapperBusta Rhymesperforms inLas Vegasfor aBETpartyRapping (also known as emceeing,[60]MCing,[60]spitting (bars),[61]or just rhyming[62]) refers to "spoken or chanted rhyming lyrics with a strong rhythmic accompaniment".[63]It can be broken down into different components, such as “content”, “flow” (rhythm andrhyme), and “delivery”.[64]Rapping is distinct fromspoken word poetryin that is it performed in time to the beat of the music.[65][66][67]The use of the word "rap" to describe quick and slangy speech or repartee long predates the musical form.[68]MCing is a form of expression that is embedded within ancient African culture and oral tradition as throughout history verbal acrobatics or jousting involving rhymes were common within the Afro-American community.[69][edit]GraffitiAnaerosol paintcan, a common tool used in moderngraffitiIn America around the late 1960s,graffitiwas used as a form of expression by political activists, and also by gangs such as the Savage Skulls, La Familia, and Savage Nomads to mark territory.Towards the end of the 1960s, the signatures—tags—ofPhiladelphiagraffiti writers Top Cat,[70]Cool Earl andCornbreadstarted to appear.[71]Around 1970–71, the center of graffiti innovation moved to New York City where writers following in the wake ofTAKI 183andTracy 168would add their street number to their nickname, "bomb" a train with their work, and let the subway take it—and their fame, if it was impressive, or simply pervasive, enough—"all city".Bubble lettering held sway initially among writers fromthe Bronx, though the elaborateBrooklynstyle Tracy 168 dubbed "wildstyle" would come to define the art.[70][72]The early trendsetters were joined in the 1970s by artists likeDondi,Futura 2000, Daze, Blade,Lee,Fab Five Freddy,Zephyr,Rammellzee,Crash, Kel, NOC 167 andLady Pink.[70]The relationship between graffiti and hip hop culture arises both from early graffiti artists engaging in other aspects of hip hop culture,[73]Graffiti is understood as a visual expression of rap music, just asbreakingis viewed as a physical expression.The 1983 film "Wild Style" is widely regarded as the first hip hop motion picture, which featured prominent figures within the New York graffiti scene during the said period.The bookSubway Artand documentaryStyle Warswere also among the first ways the mainstream public were introduced to hip hop graffiti.Graffiti remains part of hip hop, while crossing into the mainstream art world with renowned exhibits in galleries throughout the world.[edit]BreakingBreaking, an early form ofhip hop dance, often involvesbattles, showing off technical skills as well as displaying tongue-in-cheek bravadoIn 1924,Earl Tucker(aka Snake Hips), a performer at theCotton Club, created a dance style which would later inspire an element of hip hop culture known as b-boying.[74]Breaking, also called B-boying or breakdancing, is a dynamic style of dance which developed as part of the hip hop culture.Like many aspects of hip hop culture, breakdance borrows heavily from many cultures, including 1930s-era street dancing,[75][76]Afro-BrazilianandAsian Martial arts,Russian folk dance,[77]and the dance moves ofJames Brown,Michael Jackson, and CaliforniaFunk styles.Breaking took form in the South Bronx alongside the other elements of hip hop.According to the 2002 documentary filmThe Freshest Kids: A History of the B-Boy, DJ Kool Herc describes the "B" in B-boy as short for breaking which at the time was slang for "going off", also one of the original names for the dance.However, early on the dance was known as the "boing" (the sound a spring makes).Dancers at DJ Kool Herc's parties, who saved their best dance moves for thebreaksection of the song, getting in front of the audience to dance in a distinctive, frenetic style.The "B" in B-boy also stands simply for break, as in break-boy (or girl).Breaking was documented inStyle Wars, and was later given more focus in fictional films such asWild StyleandBeat Street.Early acts include theRock Steady CrewandNew York City Breakers.It is primarily concerned with the art of creating beats or rhythms using the human mouth.[79]The termbeatboxingis derived from the mimicry of the first generation ofdrum machines, then known as beatboxes.As it is a way of creating hip hop music, it can be categorized under the production element of hip hop, though it does sometimes include a type of rapping intersected with the human-created beat.It is generally considered to be part of the same "Pillar" of hip hop as DJ'ing - in other words, providing a musical backdrop or foundation for MC's to rhyme overatboxing was quite popular in the 1980s with prominent artists like the Darren "Buffy, the Human Beat Box" Robinson of theFat BoysandBiz Markiedisplaying their skills within the media.It declined in popularity along with b-boying in the late 1980s, but has undergone a resurgence since the late 1990s, marked by the release of "Make the Music 2000.[edit]Social impact[edit]EffectsAb-boyperforming inSan FranciscoHip hop has made a considerable, and largely positive, social impact since its inception in the 1970s.[80]Orlando Patterson, a sociology professor atHarvard Universityhelps describe the phenomenon of how hip hop spread rapidly around the world.Professor Patterson argues that mass communication is controlled by the wealthy, government, and businesses inThird Worldnations and countries around the world.[81]He also credits mass communication with creating a global cultural hip hop scene.As a result, the youth absorb and are influenced by the American hip hop scene and start their own form of hip hop.Patterson believes that revitalization of hip hop music will occur around the world as traditional values are mixed with American hip hop musical forms,[81]and ultimately a global exchange process will develop that brings youth around the world to listen to a common musical form known as hip hop.It has also been argued that rap music formed as a "cultural response to historic oppression and racism, a system for communication among black communities throughout the United States".[82]This is due to the fact that the culture reflected the social, economic and political realities of the disenfranchised youth.[83]In theArab Springhip hop played a significant role in providing a channel for the youth to express their ideas.[84][edit]LanguageThe development of hip hop linguistics is complex.Source material include the spirituals of slaves arriving in the new world, Jamaican dub music, the laments of jazz and blues singers, patterned cockney slang and radio deejays hyping their audience in rhyme.[86]It is also known by alternate names, such as "Black English", or "Ebonics".Academics suggest its development stems from a rejection of the racial hierarchy of language, which held "White English" as the superior form of educated speech.[87]Due to hip hop's commercial success in the late nineties and early 21st century, many of these words have been assimilated into the cultural discourse of several different dialects across America and the world and even to non-hip hop fans.There are also a number of words which predate hip hop, but are often associated with the culture, withhomiebeing a notable example.Sometimes, terms likewhat the dilly, yoare popularized by a single song (in this case, "Put Your Hands Where My Eyes Could See" byBusta Rhymes) and are only used briefly.One particular example is the rule-based slang ofSnoop DoggandE-40, who add-izzleor-izzto the end or middle of words.Hip hop lyricism has gained a measure of legitimacy in academic and literary circles.Studies of Hip hop linguistics are now offered at institutions such as theUniversity of Toronto, where poet and author George Eliot Clarke has (in the past) taught the potential power of hip hop music to promote social change.[85]Greg Thomas of theUniversity of Miamioffers courses at both the undergraduate and graduate level studying the feminist and assertive nature ofLil' Kim's lyrics.[89]Some academics, including Ernest Morrell and Jeffery Duncan Andrade compare hip hop to the satirical works of great “canon” poets of the modern era, who use imagery and mood to directly criticize society.As quoted in their seminal work, "Promoting Academic Literacy with Urban Youth Through Engaging Hip Hop Culture":“Hip hop cartier we9006z3 watch womens ballon texts are rich in imagery and metaphor and can be used to teach irony, tone, diction, and point of view.Hip hop texts can be analyzed for theme, motif, plot, and character development.Eliot gazed out into their rapidly deteriorating societies and saw a "wasteland." Both poets were essentially apocalyptic in nature as they witnessed death, disease, and decay.[90]”[edit]CensorshipAgraffitiartist uses his artwork to make a satirical social statement on censorship: "Don't blame yourself.blame hip hop"Hip hop has been met with significant problems in regards to censorship due to the explicit nature of certain genres, and some songs have been criticized for allegedlyanti-establishmentsentiment.For example,Public Enemy's "Gotta Give the Peeps What They Need" was censored on MTV, removing the words "freeMumia".[91]After the attack on theWorld Trade Centeron September 11, 2001,Oakland, California groupThe Coupwas under fire for the cover art on theirParty Music, which featured the group's two members holding a detonator as the Twin Towers exploded behind them.Ironically, this art was created months before the actual event.The group, having politically radical andMarxistlyrical content, said the cover meant to symbolize the destruction of capitalism.Their record label pulled the album until a new cover could be designed.The use ofprofanityas well as graphic depictions of violence and sex creates challenges in the broadcast of such material both on television stations such as MTV, in music video form, and on radio.As a result, many hip hop recordings are broadcast in censored form, with offending language "bleeped" or blanked out of the soundtrack, or replaced with "clean" lyrics.The result – which sometimes renders the remaining lyrics unintelligible or contradictory to the original recording – has become almost as widely identified with the genre as any other aspect of the music, and has been parodied in films such asAustin Powers in Goldmember, in whichMike Myers' character Dr.Evil – performing in a parody of a hip hop music video ("Hard Knock Life" byJay-Z– performs an entire verse that is blanked out.In 1995,Roger Ebertwrote:[92]“Rap has a bad reputation in white circles, where many people believe it consists of obscene and violent anti-white andanti-femaleguttural.Most white listeners don't care; they hear black voices in a litany of discontent, and tune out.Yet rap plays the same role today asBob Dylandid in 1960, giving voice to the hopes and angers of a generation, and a lot of rap is powerful writing.”In 1990,Luther Campbelland his group2 Live Crewfiled a lawsuit against Broward County Sheriff Nick Navarro, because Navarro wanted to prosecute stores that sold the group's albumAs Nasty As They Wanna Bebecause of its obscene and vulgar lyrics.district courtjudge labeled the album obscene and illegal to sell.However, in 1992, theUnited States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuitoverturned the obscenity ruling.Until its discontinuation on July 8, 2006,BETran a late-night segment titledBET: Uncutto air nearly-uncensored videos.The show was exemplified by music videos such as "Tip Drill" byNellywhich was criticized for what many viewed as an exploitative depiction of women, particularly images of a man swiping a credit card between a stripper's buttocks.[edit]Product placementPotato chippackages featuring hip hop-design imagesCritics such asBusinessweek's David Kiley argue that the discussion of products within hip hop culture may actually be the result of undisclosed product placement deals.[93]Such critics allege thatshillingorproduct placementtakes place in commercial rap music, and that lyrical references to products are actually paid endorsements.[93]In 2005, a proposed plan byMcDonaldsto pay rappers to advertise McDonalds products in their music, was leaked to the press.[93]AfterRussell Simmonsmade a deal withCourvoisierto promote the brand among hip hop fans,Busta Rhymesrecorded the song "Pass the Courvoisier".[93]The symbiotic relationship has also stretched to include car manufacturers, clothing designers and sneaker companies,[94]and many other companies have used the hip hop community to make their name or to give them credibility.One such beneficiary wasJacob the Jeweler, a diamond merchant from New York, Jacob Arabo's clientele includedSean Combs,Lil' KimandNas.He created jewellery pieces from precious metals that were heavily loaded with diamond and gemstones.As his name was mentioned in the song lyrics of his hip hop customers, his profile quickly rose.Arabo expanded his brand to include gem-encrusted watches that retail for hundreds of thousands of dollars, gaining so much attention thatCartierfiled a trademark-infringement lawsuit against him for putting diamonds on the faces of their watches and reselling them without permission.[95]Arabo's profile increased steadily until his June 2006 arrest by theFBIonmoney launderingcharges.[96]While some brands welcome the support of the hip hop community, one brand that did not wasCristalchampagne makerLouis Roederer.A 2006 article fromThe Economistmagazine featured remarks from managing director Frederic Rouzaud about whether the brand's identification with rap stars could affect their company negatively.His answer was dismissive in tone: "That's a good question, but what can we do?I'm sure Dom Pérignon or Krug would be delighted to have their business." In retaliation, many hip hop icons such asJay-ZandSean Combs, who previously included references to "Cris", ceased all mentions and purchases of the champagne.Pepper, andDrake's commercial withSpriteall act to effectively illustrate successful mergers.Although not popular at the time,MC Hammerwas an early predecessor of product placement.With merchandise such as dolls, commercials and numerous television show appearances, Hammer began the trend of rap artists being accepted asmainstream pitchmen.[97][edit]MediaThis sectionmay need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia'squality standards.(December 2011)Hip Hop culture has had extensive coverage in the media, especially in relation to television; there have been a number of television shows devoted to or about hip hop.For many years,BETwas the only television channel likely to play hip hop, but in recent years the mainstream channelsVH1and MTV have added a significant amount of hip hop to their play list.Run DMC became the first African-American group to appear on MTV.[98][99]With the emergence of the Internet a number of online sites began to offer hip hop related video content.There have also been a number of hip hop films, movies which focused on hip hop as a subject.Some of these films include:Boyz n the Hood,Juice,Menace II Society,Notorious, andGet Rich Or Die Tryin'.Hip Hop magazines have long detailed hip hop lifestyle and history, including the first known published hip hop publicationThe Hip Hop Hit List, which also contained the very first rap music record chart.Published in the early 1980s by two brothers from Newark, New Jersey, Vincent and Charles Carroll who was also a hip hop group known as The Nastee Boyz who knew the art form very well and noticed the void and the fact that DJ's then did not recognize that there was a standard and shouldn't just be playing anything just because it was rap.The periodical began as the first Rap record chart and tip sheet for DJ's and was distributed through national record pools and record stores throughout the New York City Tri-State area.One of the founding publishers Charles Carroll noted, "Back then, all DJ's came into New York City to buy their records but most of them did not know what was hot enough to spend money on, so we charted it." Jae Burnett became Vincent Carroll's partner and played a very instrumental role in its later development.Many New York tourist took the publication back home with them to other countries to share it creating worldwide interest in the culture and new art form.It had a printed distribution of 50,000 a circulation rate of 200,000 with well over 25,000 subscribers.The Hip Hop Hit List was also the first to define hip hop as a culture introducing the many aspects of the art form such as fashion, music, dance, the arts and most importantly the language.For cartier we9006z3 watch womens ballon instance on the cover the headliner included the tag "All Literature was Produced to Meet Street Comprehension!" which proved their loyalty not only to the culture but also to the streets.Most interviews were written verbatim which included their innovative broken English style of writing.Some of the early charts were written in the Graffiti format Tag style but was made legible enough for the masses.The Carroll Brothers were also consultants to the many record companies who had no idea how to market the music.They were later betrayed by the same industry that they helped built by being blacklisted right at the brink of their attempt to publish it as a full color magazine.Later other publications spawned up including:Hip Hop Connection,XXL,Scratch,The SourceandVibe.[100]Many individual cities have also produced their own local hip hop newsletters, while hip hop magazines with national distribution are found in a few other countries.The 21st century also ushered in the rise of online media, and hip hop fan sites now offer comprehensive hip hop coverage on a daily basis.[edit]DiversificationThis sectionmay need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia'squality standards.(March 2009)Main article:List of hip hop genresBreakinginLjubljana, SloveniaSouthSudanesemusicianEmmanuel Jaluses hip hop to heal war torn African youth.Jal pictured at theTribeca Film Festivalin New YorkHip hop music has spawned dozens of sub-genres which incorporate a domineering style of music production or rapping.The diversification process stems from the appropriation of hip hop culture by other ethinic groups.There are many varying social influences that affect hip hop's message in different nations.It is frequently used as a musical response to perceived political and/or social injustices.In South Africa the largest form of hip hop is calledKwaito, which has had a growth similar to American hip hop.Kwaito is a direct reflection of a post apartheid South Africa and is a voice for the voiceless; a term that U.Kwaito is even perceived as a lifestyle, encompassing many aspects of life, including language and fashion.[101]Kwaito is a political and party-driven genre, as performers use the music to express their political views, and also to express their desire to have a good time.Kwaito is a music that came from a once hated and oppressed people, but it is now sweeping the nation.The main consumers of Kwaito are adolescents and half of the South African population is under 21.Some of the large Kwaito artists have sold over 100,000 albums, and in an industry where 25,000 albums sold is considered a gold record, those are impressive numbers.[102]Kwaito allows the participation and creative engagement of otherwise socially excluded peoples in the generation of popular media.[103]South African hip hop is more diverse lately and there are hip hop acts in South Africa that have made an impact and continue making impact worldwide.[104]InJamaica, the sounds of hip hop are derived from American and Jamaican influences.Jamaican hip hop is defined both through dancehall and reggae music.JamaicanKool Hercbrought the sound systems, technology, and techniques ofreggaemusic to New York during the 1970s.Jamaican hip hop artists often rap in both Brooklyn and Jamaican accents.Jamaican hip hop subject matter is often influenced by outside and internal forces.Outside forces such as the bling-bling era of today's modern hip hop and internal influences coming from the use of anti-colonialism and marijuana or "ganja" references whichRastafariansbelieve bring them closer to God.[105][106][107]AuthorWayne Marshallargues that "Hip hop, as with any number of African-American cultural forms before it, offers a range of compelling and contradictory significations to Jamaican artist and audiences.From "modern blackness" to "foreign mind", transnational cosmopolitanism to militantpan-Africanism, radical remixology to outright mimicry, hip hop in Jamaica embodies the myriad ways that Jamaicans embrace, reject, and incorporate foreign yet familiar forms."[108]In the developing world hip hop has made a considerable impact in the social context.Despite the lack of resources, hip hop has made considerable inroads.[47]Due to limited funds, hip hop artists are forced to use very basic tools, and even graffiti, an important aspect of the hip hop culture, is constrained due to its unavailability to the average person.Many hip hop artists that make it out of the developing world come to places like the United States in hopes of improving their situations.She claims, "I'm just trying to build some sort of bridge, I'm trying to create a third place, somewhere in between the developed world and the developing world.[109]Another music artist using Hip hop to provide a positive message to young Africans isEmmanuel Jalwho is a former child soldier fromSouth Sudan.Jalis one of the few South Sudanese music artists to have broken through on an international level[110]with his unique form ofHip hopand a positive message in his lyrics.[111]Jal, has attracted the attention of mainstream media and academics with his story and use of Hip hop as a healing medium for war afflicted people in Africa and has also been sought out for the international lecture circuit with major talks at popular talkfests likeTED.[112][edit]EducationMany organizations and facilities are providing spaces and programs for communities to explore making and learning about hip hop.A noteworthy example is theIMP Labsin Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.Many dance studios and colleges now offer lessons in Hip Hop alongsideTapand Ballet.As well as KRS-ONE teaching hip hop lectures at Harvard University.Hip hop producer9th Wonderand former rapper/actorChristopher "Play" Martinfrom the hip hop groupKid-n-Playhave both taught hip hop history classes atNorth Carolina Central University[113]and 9th Wonder has also taught a "Hip Hop Sampling Soul" class atDuke University.[114][edit]LegacyHaving its roots inreggae,discoandfunk, hip hop has since exponentially expanded into a widely accepted form of representation world wide.It expansion includes events likeAfrika Bambaataareleasing "Planet Rock" in 1982, which tried to establish a more global harmony in hip hop.In the 1980s, the BritishSlick Rickbecame the first international hit hip hop artist not native to America.From the 1980s onward, television became the major source of widespread outsourcing of hip hop to the global world.MTV Rapsto Public Enemy's world tour, hip hop spread further to Latin America and became a mainstream culture within the given context.As follows, hip hop has been cut mixed and changed to the areas that adapt to it.]Early hip hop has often been credited with helping to reduce inner-city gang violence by replacing physical violence with hip hop battles of dance and artwork.However, with the emergence of commercial and crime-related rap during the early 1990s, an emphasis on violence was incorporated, with many rappers boasting about drugs, weapons,misogyny, and violence.While hip hop music now appeals to a broader demographic, media critics argue that socially and politically conscious hip hop has long been disregarded by mainstream America in favor of its media-baiting sibling,gangsta rap.[116]Many artists are now considered to bealternative/underground hip hopwhen they attempt to reflect what they believe to be the original elements of the culture.Artists/groups such asLupe Fiasco,Immortal Technique,Lowkey,Brother Ali,The Roots,Shing02,Jay Electronica,Nas,Common,Talib Kweli,Mos Def,Dilated Peoples,Dead Prez,Blackalicious,Jurassic 5,Ace VirusKendrick Lamar,Gangstarr,KRS-One,Living Legendsand hundreds more emphasize messages of verbal skill, internal/external conflicts, life lessons, unity, social issues, or activism.[edit]AuthenticityThis sectionmay need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia'squality standards.(October 2012)Authenticityis often a serious debate within hip hop culture.Dating back to its origins in the 1970s in the Bronx, hip hop revolved around a culture of protest and freedom of expression in the wake of oppression suffered by African-Americans.As hip hop has become less of an underground culture, it is subject to debate whether or not the spirit of hip hop is embodied in protest, or whether it can evolve to exist in a marketable integrated version.[117]In "Authenticity Within Hip Hop and Other Cultures Threatened with Assimilation", CommentatorKembrew McLeodargues that hip hop culture is actually threatened with assimilation by a larger, mainstream culture.[118]Believing that hip hop should be utilized as a voice for social justice, Tate points out that in the marketable version of hip hop, there isn't a role for this evolved genre in context of the original theme hip hop originated from (freedom from oppression).The problem with Black progressive political organizing isn't hip hop, but that the No.1 issue on the table needs to be poverty, and nobody knows how to make poverty sexy.[119]Tate discusses how the dynamic of progressive Black politics cannot apply to the genre of hip hop in the current state today due to the genre's heavy involvement in the market.In his article he discusses hip hop's 30th birthday and how its evolution has become more of a devolution due to its capitalistic endeavors.Both Tate and McLeod argue that hip hop has lost its authenticity due to its losing sight of the revolutionary theme and humble "folksy" beginnings the music originated from."This is the first time artists from around the world will be performing in an international context.The ones that are coming are considered to be the key members of the contemporary underground hip hop movement." This is how the music landscape has broadened around the world over the last ten years.The maturation of hip hop has gotten older with the genres age, but the initial reasoning of why hip hop has started will always be intact.[edit]CriticismsGiven its extensive roots in underground music, many hip hop and rap pioneers decry the modern messages portrayed in hop hop.[120]In particular, seminal figures in the early shift to the mainstream label modern hip hop artists as more concerned with image over substance.[121]This has led many critics to ridicule hip hop for the cultural stereotyping and faux gangster stylings portrayed by its current leading artists.Most famously Kanye West is parodied inseason 13, episode 5of South Park as an egotistical maniac and the only person in the world who is incapable of understanding the punchline of the world's funniest joke.[122][edit]See alsoHip hop portalList of hip hop genresList of hip hop albumsList of hip hop musicians[edit]ReferencesNotes^abChang, Jeff; DJ Kool Herc (2005)n't Stop Won't Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation.^Chang, Jeff(2005)n't Stop Won't Stop: A History of the Hip Hop Generation.[dead link]^THE HISTORY OF HIP HOPRetrieved on August 27, 2011^Rosen, Jody(2006-02-12).^JET (April 02, 2007) "Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five Inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame".^Article about MelleMel (Melle Mel) at AllHipHop[dead link]^Browne, P “The guide to United States popular culture” Popular Press, 2001.386^Kool Herc, in Israel (director), The Freshest Kids: A History of the B-Boy, QD3, 2002.^History of Hip Hop—Written by Davey D^ab"The Story of Rapper's Delight by Nile Rodgers".Fresh Soca Sensation Machel Montano To Host 26th Int’l Reggae World Music Awards (IRAWMA)"."The Message From Last Night: Hip-Hop is Rock 'n' Roll, and the Hall of Fame Likes It"."Why White Kids Love Hip Hop: Wankstas, Wiggers, Wannabes, and the New Reality of Race in America".Print^Media coverage of the Hip-Hop Culture– By Brendan Butler, Ethics In Journalism, Miami University Department of English[dead link]^"Hip-Hop Culture Crosses Social Barriers"[dead link]^"Hip Hop: National Geographic World Music".^"CNN– WorldBeat– Hip-hop music goes global– January 15, 2001".^Comments (0) By Robert Christgau Tuesday, May 7, 2002 (2002-05-07)."The World's Most Local Pop Music Goes International", The Village Voice, May 7, 2002.^"The Commodification of Hip Hop, Brooke Daniel and Kellon Innocent".^"Rap Criticism Grows Within Own Community, Debate Rages Over It's (sic) Effect On Society As It Struggles With Alarming Sales Decline– The ShowBuzz".^abEdwards, Paul, 2009,How to Rap: The Art Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p.^Edwards, Paul, 2009,How to Rap: The Art Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p.^Edwards, Paul, 2009,How to Rap: The Art Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p.The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.Text " definition " ignored (help)^Edwards, Paul, 2009,How to Rap: The Art Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p.^Attridge, Derek, 2002,Poetic Rhythm: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press, p.90^Edwards, Paul, 2009,How to Rap: The Art Science of the Hip-Hop MC, Chicago Review Press, p.Icons of hip hop: an encyclopedia of the movement, music, and culture, Volume 1,Greenwood Publishing Group^Perry, I.Prophets of the hood: politics and poetics in hip hop,Duke University Press^Asante, Molefi K.It's Bigger Than Hip Hop: the Rise of the Post-hip-hop Generation.Text " The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Paper Number 21994 01Feb2008 " ignored (help)^"Hip-Hop: The "Rapper’s Delight"".“Introduction: Hip Hop in History: Past, Present, and Future”, Journal of African American History 2005."The Northside research Project: Profiling Hip Hop artistry in Canada".It's Bigger Than Hip Hop: the Rise of the Post-hip-hop Generation."Promoting Academic Literacy with Urban Youth Through Engaging Hip Hop Culture".Hip Hop Two-Step Over Product PlacementBusinessWeek Online, April 6, 2005."MC Hammer To Perform At Reds Game, Will Hopefully Refrain From Hurting Them"."hip-hop (cultural movement) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia".^Bling-bling for Rastafari: How Jamaicans deal with hip hop by Wayne Marshall^Music 101 – Learn More About Reggae Music – History of Reggae".^Marshall, WayneBling-Bling ForRastafari: How Jamaicans Deal With Hip-HopSocial and Economic Studies 55:12 (2006):49–74^Sisario, Ben(2007-08-19).^Story on Emmanuel Jal in National GeographicJal uses music as therapy - story in the Toronto Herald, Published: Sun 8th August 2012,Emmanuel Jal: The music of a war child on Video Link on TED, July 2009,Carolina Central University.Yes Yes Y'All: The Experience Music Project Oral History of Hip Hop's First Decade.ISBN0-306-81184-7mpbell, Clive;Chang, Jeff(2005)n't Stop Won't Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation.Foreign Policy(163): 58–65rvino, Daniel; Livernoche, Shawn (2000).Review of Education, Pedagogy and Cultural Studies27(4): 367–389.Hip Hop: The Illustrated History of Breaking Dancing, Rap Music and Graffiti.The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African American Culture.Why White Kids Love Hip Hop: Wankstas, Wiggers, Wannabes and the New Reality of Race in America."Authenticity Within Hip-Hop and Other Cultures Threatened with Assimilation"(PDF 1448.Droppin' Science: Critical Essays on Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture.Bad Boy: The Influence of Sean "Puffy" Combs on the Music Industry.Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America."South African Music after Apartheid: Kwaito, the "Party Politic," and the Appropriation of Gold as a Sign of Success".[edit]External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to:Hip-hop musicWikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:Hip-hop musicHip hopat theOpen Directory ProjectvteHip hopBreakingDJingGraffitiMCingCultureDanceFashionMusicProductionTheaterHistoryGol ageOld schoolNew schoolSubgenresAlternative hip hopBounce musicChicano rapChopped and screwedChristian hip hopComedy hip hopConscious hip hopEast CoastFreestyle rapGangsta rapHardcore hip hopHorrorcoreIndie hip hopInstrumental hip hopMidwest hip hopNerdcore hip hopPolitical hip hopPop rapSnap musicSouthern hip hopTrapTurntablismUnderground hip hopWest CoastFusion genresBaltimore clubCountry rapCrunkCrunkBCrunkcoreCumbia rapG-funkGhetto houseGhettotechGlitch hopHip hop soulHip houseHiplifeHipster hopHyphyIndustrial hip hopJazz rapMerenrapNew jack swingNeo soulRap metalRap operaRap rockRapcoreDigital hardcoreWonkyBy nationalityAfricanAlgerianIvorianKenyanMoroccanNigerianSenegaleseTanzanianTogole AmericanCanadianNative AmericanAsianBangladeshiBurmeseChineseFilipinoHong KongIndianIndonesianJapaneseKoreanMalaysianNepalesePakistaniTaiwaneseThaiEuropea AmericanBrazilianCubanDominicanHaitianMexicanSalvadoranMiddle EasternArabicAzerbaijaniEgyptianPersianIsraeliLebanesePalestinianOceanianAustral ZealandFilmsWild StyleStyle WarsBeat StreetKrush GrooveLists CategoriesAlbumsBeatboxersCollectivesDJsGenresGroupsMusiciansProducersRappersSin
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